Home > Articles > Graphics & Web Design > Photoshop & Adobe

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Lab 1.3 Exercise Answers

This section gives you some suggested answers to the questions in Lab 1.3, with discussion related to those answers. Your answers may vary, but the most important thing is whether your answer works. Use this discussion to analyze differences between your answers and those presented here.

If you have alternative answers to the questions in this Lab, you are encouraged to post your answers and discuss them at the companion Web site for this book, located at http://www.phptr.com/phptrinteractive.

1.3.1 Answers

  1. Open Photoshop and choose New from the File Menu. A dialog box appears, and from it—about halfway down—choose Mode. What is the first choice that appears?

    Answer: Bitmap is the first choice that appears.

    Bitmap is a somewhat confusing term here, since all Photoshop images—as well as images on the Web—are bitmapped. Bitmap mode in Photoshop has usually meant one-bit black and white image, where each pixel is either black or white, with no smoothing, no antialiasing (you'll learn what that means). In this mode you can't use filters or Photoshop's Smudge, Blur, Dodge, or Burn tools.

    Windows has the BMP bitmap format native to the fairly primitive Windows Paint program, which can be opened and converted in Photoshop. The Macintosh version of Photoshop can open or save to this format as well.

  2. In the same dialog box the second choice is Grayscale. What is that?

    Answer: Grayscale is an 8-bit image, like a subtly toned black and white photograph. Eight bits means 256 colors, so each pixel has a grayscale value from 0 for black to 255 for white. This means there are 254 possible grays in between them. There exist 16-bit grayscale images, which in Photoshop can be saved as TIFFs for printing, but you won't be using them on the Web.

  3. The next choice is RGB. What is that and what do the initials stand for?

    Answer: RGB is the default mode of the full-color Photoshop file you create. The initials stand for the colors Red, Green, and Blue, because colors are created with an additive mixture of those three colors. Photoshop's present default is also 24-bit color, which means a number in the millions. To the designer this power at first appears much like Carl Sagan waxing poetic about "billions and billions of stars" on his 1970s television specials.

  4. The fourth Mode choice is CMYK. What is that and what do the initials stand for?

    Answer: CMYK is the world's four-color printing standard. Its initials stand for cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. You need to know if your Web design process includes collaboration with someone who's working in imagery for print. Images from print production can be repurposed for Web use much more easily than Web images can be repurposed for print, as the print images are much larger and can readily be downscaled to screen resolution. Enlarging an image from the Web is usually much less successful.

  5. From the menu bar at the top of the screen choose Image and then Mode. Here the choice following Grayscale is Duotone. What's that?

    Answer: Duotone is a grayscale image in black and gray, or a grayscale with spot color of increased tonal range. Duotones are often attractive imagery and one more way of coloring black and white images for the Web.

  6. From the menu bar at the top of the screen choose Image and then Mode. Here the choice following Duotone is Indexed Color. What's that? (Hint: It has to do with the Web.)

    Answer: Indexed Color is a method of scaling down an image's colors to 8 bits, or 256 colors. This allows for a file to be saved as a GIF. This file format's capabilities and limitations will be discussed in Chapter 10.

1.3.2 Answers

  1. After opening Photoshop, the first three choices on the File menu that are available to you (not grayed out) show you what you can do to begin working. What are they?

    Answer: New, Open, and Import.

    You can create a New file. A dialog box will come up and ask you the image Size, and this can be measured in units you choose. Next it will ask you about the screen Resolution and the Image Mode. Finally, it will ask you the contents of the File: This can be white, another background color you've selected, or transparency.

    You can Open an existing graphics file that can be read by Photoshop.

    You can also Import a file from other compatible programs.

  2. What are your choices if you choose to Import a file?

    Answer: You can import an antialiased PICT or you can import a PICT resource. You can choose a Twain Acquire or Twain Select from certain types of scanners. If your computer is connected to a scanner, check your scanner documentation to see if this is applicable.

  3. From the File menu you have the ability to set preferences for your version of Photoshop. What Preferences can be set here?

    Answer. The Preferences the user can set include General Preferences, for a variety of global characteristics that include whether to show Tooltips.

    Preferences for Saving Files include the nature of previews, thumbnails, and whether file extensions are added as necessary (such as .jpg, necessary for JPEGs to be displayed on the Web).

    Display and Cursors Preferences group those affecting the screen with choices of Standard, Precise, or Brush-sized cursors when using painting tools, or Standard and Precise pointing cursors.

    Transparency and Gamut Preferences determine the gray and white checkerboard representing transparency. The dark gray represents unprintable out-of-Gamut colors, but this is not relevant to Web design.

    Preferences for Lines and Rulers determine the units. Picas are used in the printing industry.

    Guides and Grid Preferences allow the user to choose colors and size of grids for onscreen alignment.

    Plug Ins and Scratch Disks Preferences let you block off areas of memory for the processing of your image in Photoshop.

    Image Cache preferences affect how a color histogram will be sampled from an image.

    Color Settings will be discussed in Chapter 9.

    In every tool and palette in Photoshop there will always be the default preferences, where the tool is set when you first open the application. You may be content with all of Photoshop's default setttings for this work session or particular project, or you may just find yourself changing several.

  4. Open "car.psd." You decide it's too large and want to change it to 80% of its present size. How do you do that?

    Answer: You can resize your image, but remember that information is lost with each shrinking, so it's prudent to save a copy of the original image by choosing Save As for the new version.

    From the Image menu choose Size to bring up the Image Size dialog box. It allows you to adjust pixel dimensions, pixels-per-inch resolution and note the change in file size. When you enter new values into pixel dimensions and resize the image by enlarging it, you will see everything stretched. To enlarge or shrink in only one dimension—vertical or horizontal—uncheck Constrain Proportions, and you will see the little chain icon links disappear.

    Print Size defines the size of your image for printing, if slated for paper output.

    Resolution is shown in points-per-inch, into which you can enter a new value.

    You can choose to Resample Image, for Upsampling or Downsampling. Upsampling is rarely used, because this commands the computer to add color pixels and make the file bigger. The result is often rather inaccurate or unfocused.

    Three kinds of resampling are Bicubic, Bilinear, Nearest Neighbor. Bicubic is usually most accurate, because it uses complex equations, whereas the other sets the color in relation to—or in Nearest Neighbor, simply copies—pixels around it.

It is important to remember that on the Web, a dynamic communications medium that is sending files over great distances to load on the viewer's computer, the smaller the graphics file the better. Small as possible, simple as possible. Size translates into time (and time is money), and viewers today are no longer so awed by the novelty of the Web that they'll sit still while a graphic takes 30 seconds or more to download and become visible. One guideline is that if a page takes longer than eight seconds to fully load, your viewer has likely gone someplace else.

Photoshop creates a second copy when you're working on a file, which is why it requires a surprisingly large amount of hard disk space while you are working.

Similarly, as you work in PhotoShop you balance occasionally flattening layers with the need to keep them for future modification. Further information about layers can be found in Chapter 3.

  1. You now like the size of the car in the image, but would like to have a 1" empty margin around it. How would you do this?

    Answer: To add a margin, choose from the Image menu Canvas size. This brings up a dialog box.

    Canvas size is the size of your work area. If you enlarge the canvas size by entering one or more higher numbers, your image stays the same but has more empty space around it.

    By default the Anchor is the center, and margins are added around your centered original image. Click on one of the other squares to move the anchor to the upper or lower left, center or right edges. The additional margin is then added asymmetrically.

  2. You would now like to check the exact size of the car in your image. How can you do that?

    Answer: From the toolbar choose the Measure tool by clicking on that little ruler icon. The Measure tool measures distance (D) between any two points on the image, plus X and Y coordinates of the point of origin. It also shows the horizontal (H) and vertical (Y) distances traveled from the x and y axes, plus the angle relative to the axis. Adding a second measuring line will create a protractor that measures the angle between them.

    For more information on the tools on the toolbar, see Chapters 2 and 4.

  3. You are now ready to save your file under the name "biggercar.psd." Where will you save it to?

    Answer: You may save your file to your computer's hard disk or to a portable medium like a Zip disk. Wherever you save it, it is imperative that you know where it is.

Remember to Save!

Needless to say, saving your files is important ... and since your files are important, be sure to save multiple copies.

One veteran digital media professor at a California university described her guideline. She figures that in each semester, out of a class of 20 upper-level students (seniors and grads), there will be 1 student who loses the only copy of his or her final project because of media failure—bad floppy disks, videotape breaking, etc.—and 2 more students who will lose their work because of simple bad habits (forgetting to save, leaving work on the class hard disk and returning to find it erased by lab monitors, etc.). Don't let any of these unnecessary disasters happen to you and your work. Observe excellent housekeeping habits with your work at all times. Be finicky and save multiple copies of your work after each session.

Work out a system of labeling each file and stick to it. Do your spring cleaning and erase all the old versions after the product ships (though you might want to save some alternative efforts in a personal or departmental "junkyard" for future reference).

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020