Home > Articles

This chapter is from the book

Deploying Adapters

Adapter deployment can be a tedious task, depending on the complexity of the integration scenarios and the integration platform. Specific challenges are involved in deploying internationalized adapters and deploying adapters on multiple platforms. Adapters are normally developed on a platform more suitable to development activities. Most adapter development is done in a Windows NT environment. If Java is the programming language, deploying the adapters on different platforms requires extensive testing. Not all platforms may support the same JDK or support all the features of J2EE specifications. This section identifies the critical tasks before and during adapter deployment.

One of the features frequently requested by adapter developers is the support for deploying adapters in different stages. A very real challenge of any integration solution deployment project is the simultaneous deployment of many interrelated components. Consider an integration scenario that involves 10 different applications hosted on different platforms in two different countries. Deploying adapters for all 10 applications at the same time is not an easy task. Quite often, a sequential deployment strategy is used to install the adapters. However, it is not a good idea to have individual adapters working in a production environment until all other adapters necessary are also installed and potentially tested.

It is also important that the integration platform on which adapters are installed is capable of recognizing and managing the adapters in different states. Adapters can exist in different states—including installed, tested, configured, deployed, and so on. Alternately, adapters that are already in the deployed state may need to be stopped for upgrades. Many times, deployment management tools are not sufficiently sophisticated. Hence, project managers need to fully understand the implication of installing adapters in stages, and define a schedule to complete the deployment successfully.

Multiplatform Deployment Guidelines

One of the benefits of programming in Java is the multiplatform support it generates without specific porting of the code base. With adapters (especially JCA resource adapters), the definition of multiplatform support includes J2EE-compliant application servers. Although the J2EE specifications are comprehensive, application vendors have some flexibility in how the implement the specifications. Some vendors also add additional functionality and support for their other products. For example, BEA WebLogic's application server also includes the Tuxedo transaction engine as an option. IBM's WebSphere application server includes MQSeries and gateways to IBM mainframe platform and environments such as CICS.

In the case of JCA support in application servers, vendors have the necessary flexibility to implement connection pooling and other JCA services using proprietary designs. Hence, although the connection-pooling service interfaces are guaranteed across application servers, the actual implementation will be different. Some will have more additional features than others. These differences result in different deployment management and configurations.

Needless to say, the application server will have bugs just like any other software. Thus, it is critical to test JCA-compliant adapters on all application servers it is expected to support. Although it is the same JCA adapter, it may work in the J2EE reference implementation, but may not work with other application servers. J2EE compliance, as defined by SUN, does not require application server vendors to support all specifications of J2EE. This is another reason for adapter developers to check if the J2EE-compliant application server also supports JCA specifications.

The more committed adapter vendors try to get the products tested and certified on different operating systems and hardware configurations. JCA adapter vendors should do the same, and get the resource adapters certified on different application servers whenever possible. To summarize, the testing and deployment guidelines for JCA resource adapters are as follows:

  • Test the JCA resource adapter with the reference implementation for J2EE 1.3.

  • Test the JCA resource adapter with all other application servers used in the production environment.

  • Test the resource adapter with the different operating systems supported by the J2EE application servers in the production environment.

  • Deploy the resource adapter on one type of application server at a time. This helps to eliminate application server-specific problems more quickly. Application servers may have different configurations, which could result in varying results.

  • Group the resource adapter deployment by operating system. If you are expected to deploy three resource adapters on a Windows NT environment and two resource adapters on Linux, it is better to complete all the Windows NT or Linux deployment first. Chances are, if one resource adapter encounters a problem with the operating system or a problem with the application server running in the operating system, other adapters will face the same issues.

Deploying Internationalized Adapters

Not all adapters are internationalized or ready to support different languages and locales. But there are two parts to ensure that adapters are ready for international deployment. The first part is internationalization, which involves additional work and discipline from adapter developers. Developers need to ensure the use of appropriate mechanisms such as resource bundles to store literal strings, and so on. The second part is localization, which involves the creation of resource bundles in different languages.

Apart from the visual support for languages other than English, there is the issue of supporting double byte data and different input methods for languages. Several products enhance the native Java capabilities for internationalization by providing data input mechanisms for many different languages. UNICODE is the widely accepted standard for Double Byte Character Support (DBCS), but other specific standards (especially for Japanese and Chinese language support) may be more prevalent in different parts of the world.

Regardless of the level of DBCS support and the different input methods supported by the adapters, it is important to understand that testing and deploying adapters in different languages involves different versions of operating systems and perhaps different versions of business applications as well. Hence, QA of international versions of adapters is not simply restricted to testing the adapter using standard test cases. It involves a completely different test environment, including international versions operating systems (such as Chinese Windows), hardware that is more popular in different parts of the world, different versions of applications, and test data in the language matching the locale.

Project managers who plan to deploy adapters in a global environment using internationalized adapters should take into account the additional efforts required to test and support the adapters on hardware and operating systems that are more popular and relevant to the local environments. Support for Java is not equal on all platforms. Hardware and operating system vendors may be supporting various different versions of JDK, and it is important to understand those differences before the adapter development project starts.

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020