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.NET Resource Management

Working in a managed environment doesn’t mean the environment absolves you of all your responsibilities. You still must work with the environment to create correct programs that satisfy the stated performance requirements. It’s not just about performance testing and performance tuning. “.NET Resource Management,” teaches you the design idioms that enable you to work with the environment to achieve those goals before detailed optimization begins.

This chapter is from the book

The simple fact that .NET programs run in a managed environment has a big impact on the kinds of designs that create effective C#. Taking advantage of that environment requires changing your thinking from other environments to the .NET Common Language Runtime (CLR). It means understanding the .NET garbage collector (GC). It means understanding object lifetimes. It means understanding how to control unmanaged resources. This chapter covers the practices that help you create software that makes the best use of the environment and its features.

Item 11: Understand .NET Resource Management

You can’t be an effective developer without understanding how the environment handles memory and other important resources. In .NET, that means understanding memory management and the garbage collector.

The GC controls managed memory for you. Unlike in native environments, you are not responsible for most memory leaks, dangling pointers, uninitialized pointers, or a host of other memory-management issues. But the garbage collector works better when you need to clean up after yourself. You are responsible for unmanaged resources such as database connections, GDI+ objects, COM objects, and other system objects. In addition, you can cause objects to stay in memory longer than you’d like because you’ve created links between them using event handlers or delegates. Queries, which execute when results are requested, can also cause objects to remain referenced longer than you would expect (see Item 41).

Here’s the good news: Because the GC controls memory, certain design idioms are much easier to implement than when you must manage all memory yourself. Circular references, both simple relationships and complex webs of objects, are much easier to implement correctly than in environments where you must manage memory. The GC’s Mark and Compact algorithm efficiently detects these relationships and removes unreachable webs of objects in their entirety. The GC determines whether an object is reachable by walking the object tree from the application’s root object instead of forcing each object to keep track of references to it, as in COM. The EntitySet class provides an example of how this algorithm simplifies object ownership decisions. An entity is a collection of objects loaded from a database. Each entity may contain references to other entity objects. Any of these entities may also contain links to other entities. Just like the relational database entity sets model, these links and references may be circular.

There are references all through the web of objects represented by different entity sets. Releasing memory is the GC’s responsibility. Because the .NET Framework designers did not need to free these objects, the complicated web of object references did not pose a problem. No decision needed to be made regarding the proper sequence of freeing this web of objects; it’s the GC’s job. The GC’s design simplifies the problem of identifying this kind of web of objects as garbage. The application can stop referencing any entity when it’s done. The garbage collector will know if the entity is still reachable from live objects in the application. Any objects that cannot be reached from the application are garbage.

The garbage collector compacts the managed heap each time it runs. Compacting the heap moves each live object in the managed heap so that the free space is located in one contiguous block of memory. Figure 2.1 shows two snapshots of the heap before and after a garbage collection. All free memory is placed in one contiguous block after each GC operation.

Figure 2.1

Figure 2.1 The garbage collector not only removes unused memory, but it also moves other objects in memory to compact used memory and maximize free space.

As you’ve just learned, memory management (for the managed heap) is completely the responsibility of the garbage collector. Other system resources must be managed by developers: you and the users of your classes. Two mechanisms help developers control the lifetimes of unmanaged resources: finalizers and the IDisposable interface. A finalizer is a defensive mechanism that ensures that your objects always have a way to release unmanaged resources. Finalizers have many drawbacks, so you also have the IDisposable interface that provides a less intrusive way to return resources to the system in a timely manner.

Finalizers are called by the garbage collector at some time after an object becomes garbage. You don’t know when that happens. All you know is that in most environments it happens sometime after your object cannot be reached. That is a big change from C++, and it has important ramifications for your designs. Experienced C++ programmers wrote classes that allocated a critical resource in its constructor and released it in its destructor:

// Good C++, bad C#:
class CriticalSection
    // Constructor acquires the system resource.
    public CriticalSection()

    // Destructor releases system resource.

    private void ExitCriticalSection()
    private void EnterCriticalSection()

// usage:
void Func()

    // The lifetime of s controls access to
    // the system resource.
    CriticalSection s = new CriticalSection();
    // Do work.


    // compiler generates call to destructor.
    // code exits critical section.

This common C++ idiom ensures that resource deallocation is exception proof. This doesn’t work in C#, however—at least not in the same way. Deterministic finalization is not part of the .NET environment or the C# language. Trying to force the C++ idiom of deterministic finalization into the C# language won’t work well. In C#, the finalizer eventually executes in most environments, but it doesn’t execute in a timely fashion. In the previous example, the code eventually exits the critical section, but in C# it doesn’t exit the critical section when the function exits. That happens at some unknown time later. You don’t know when. You can’t know when. Finalizers are the only way to guarantee that unmanaged resources allocated by an object of a given type are eventually released. But finalizers execute at nondeterministic times, so your design and coding practices should minimize the need for creating finalizers, and also minimize the need for executing the finalizers that do exist. Throughout this chapter you’ll learn techniques to avoid creating your own finalizer, and how to minimize the negative impact of having one when it must be present.

Relying on finalizers also introduces performance penalties. Objects that require finalization put a performance drag on the garbage collector. When the GC finds that an object is garbage but also requires finalization, it cannot remove that item from memory just yet. First, it calls the finalizer. Finalizers are not executed by the same thread that collects garbage. Instead, the GC places each object that is ready for finalization in a queue and executes all the finalizers for those objects. It continues with its business, removing other garbage from memory. On the next GC cycle, those objects that have been finalized are removed from memory. Figure 2.2 shows three different GC operations and the difference in memory usage. Notice that the objects that require finalizers stay in memory for extra cycles.

Figure 2.2

Figure 2.2 This sequence shows the effect of finalizers on the garbage collector. Objects stay in memory longer, and an extra thread needs to be spawned to run the garbage collector.

This might lead you to believe that an object that requires finalization lives in memory for one GC cycle more than necessary. But I simplified things. It’s more complicated than that because of another GC design decision. The .NET garbage collector defines generations to optimize its work. Generations help the GC identify the likeliest garbage candidates more quickly. Any object created since the last garbage collection operation is a generation 0 object. Any object that has survived one GC operation is a generation 1 object. Any object that has survived two or more GC operations is a generation 2 object. The purpose of generations is to separate short-lived objects from objects that stay around for the life of the application. Generation 0 objects are mostly those short-lived object variables. Member variables and global variables quickly enter generation 1 and eventually enter generation 2.

The GC optimizes its work by limiting how often it examines first- and second-generation objects. Every GC cycle examines generation 0 objects. Roughly one GC out of ten examines the generation 0 and 1 objects. Roughly one GC cycle out of 100 examines all objects. Think about finalization and its cost again: An object that requires finalization might stay in memory for nine GC cycles more than it would if it did not require finalization. If it still has not been finalized, it moves to generation 2. In generation 2, an object lives for an extra 100 GC cycles until the next generation 2 collection.

I’ve spent some time explaining why finalizers are not a good solution. Yet you still need to free resources. You address these issues using the IDisposable interface and the standard dispose pattern (see Item 17 later in this chapter).

To close, remember that a managed environment, where the garbage collector takes the responsibility for memory management, is a big plus: Memory leaks and a host of other pointer-related problems are no longer your problem. Nonmemory resources force you to create finalizers to ensure proper cleanup of those nonmemory resources. Finalizers can have a serious impact on the performance of your program, but you must write them to avoid resource leaks. Implementing and using the IDisposable interface avoids the performance drain on the garbage collector that finalizers introduce. The next item describes the specific techniques that will help you create programs that use this environment more effectively.

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