Home > Articles > Networking

Understanding Solaris 8 Mail Services

As system administrator, you may need to expand an existing mail service or set up a new one. To help you with these tasks, Janice Winsor introduces what's new with Solaris 8 mail services, defines mail services terminology, and describes the components of the mail service.
This sample chapter is excerpted from Solaris 8 Advanced System Administrator's Guide, by Janice Winsor.
This chapter is from the book


The information in this chapter has been extensively revised and updated.

This chapter defines the following terms and describes how they are used in the mail services.

  • Systems in a mail configuration.
    • Gateway.
    • Mail hub.
    • Mail client.
  • Mail user agent (MUA).
  • Mail transport agent (MTA)
  • Mail delivery agents (sometimes called mailers).
  • Domains.
  • Mail addressing.
  • Mailbox.
  • Aliases.

New Mail Service Features

The Solaris_ 8 mail services use the Version 8.9.3 sendmail mail-transport agent. The following list describes some of the important changes that are included in this new version.

  • You no longer edit the sendmail.cf file directly. You should treat it as a binary that is not editable. Instead, you start with a file with an .mc (mail configuration) suffix and use the m4 macro processor together with the m4 macro files included with sendmail to "compile" the file with a .cf suffix. See "Generating the sendmail Configuration File" on page 53 for more information.

  • The new MaxHeadersLength configuration file option limits the length of the sum of all header lines in a message. The default value is 32786 bytes. Incoming messages with headers that exceed the MaxHeadersLength value are rejected. See "Processing Options" on page 61 for more information. Note that even processing options such as these are controlled from the .mc file. Never change any of these options in the .cf file as long as the m4 macro files enable you to set them in the .mc file. See Chapter 2, "Customizing sendmail Configuration Files" for more information.

  • You can use the new /etc/default/sendmail file to store options used to start sendmail. In previous releases, the options were stored in an init script. When you use the /etc/default/sendmail file, upgrading systems is easier because you do not need to change the init scripts.

    The new /etc/default/sendmail file is handy for client sendmail systems. For example, you use this file to leave out the -bd option when running sendmail on a client system. Without the -bd option, sendmail delivers e-mail sent only from inside the system—sent by users currently logged in locally. sendmail does not listen to TCP port 25 in this case, so this system cannot have e-mail transported through or into it, only from inside it. This feature improves security because only a very few sendmail servers have the -bd option turned on in this file and only those hosts have sendmail listening on TCP port 25 for incoming e-mail transmissions.

  • The mail.local program is extended to use the Local Mail Transfer Protocol (LMTP). This protocol returns error codes for each recipient so that the message is re-sent only to the recipients that did not receive the message. In previous releases, the message was requeued to all of the recipients so that everyone who had previously received the message would receive duplicates. This protocol was added to sendmail in the Solaris 7 release.

  • You can use the new /usr/bin/praliases command to turn the data in the alias database into plain text. If you specify an argument on the command line, the command displays any matching key:value pair.

  • You can use the new smrsh shell to limit the number of commands that can be run with the "|program" syntax of sendmail. When this feature is enabled—by adding FEATURE(´smrsh') in the *.mc file—only programs included in /var/adm/sm.bin can be run. See "Using the sendmail Restricted Shell" on page 55 and the smrsh(1M) manual page for more information.

  • The vacation program has new options. You can use the -f option to select an alternate database instead of ~/.vacation.ext. You can use the -m option to specify an alternate message file instead of ~/.vacation.msg. You can use the -s option to specify the reply address instead of the UNIX From line in the incoming message.

  • With the mailx program you can use the From: header as the basis of the sender instead of the envelope sender. This change to mailx makes it consistent with mailtool and dtmail.

  • The /usr/lib/sendmail.mx program—previously used to access DNS mail exchange records—has been removed. This functionality is now included in sendmail by default. /etc/nsswitch.conf file simply turns on the system's ability to use DNS. It does not affect sendmail directly. If DNS is available, sendmail uses it. Make sure DNS is available on all systems that run sendmail by modifying the hosts: entry in the /etc/nsswitch.conf file. See "Configuring Hosts to Use DNS Mail Exchange Records" on page 112 for more information.

You can find additional information on the Solaris version of sendmail at http://www.sendmail.org/sun-specific/migration+sun.html.

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020