Home > Articles > Data > SQL Server

SQL Server and OPENXML

This article gives a brief overview of the powerful addition to the T-SQL programmer’s arsenal in SQL Server 2000: the OPENXML function. Using OPENXML, you can make your applications more efficient by passing around XML among application tiers.
Like this article? We recommend

The OPENXML Function in Transact-SQL

A couple of my other articles discussed XML support in Transact-SQL (T-SQL). I showed you how to use the FOR XML extensions of the SELECT statement. This article discusses the OPENXML function, which lets you parse an XML string with T-SQL.

Overview of OPENXML

XML is one of the easiest ways to exchange data between applications. When XML first became available, many developers attempted to write their own XML parsers in the language of their choice. Indeed, because XML consists of tags, writing such a parser in T-SQL isn't very difficult. However, going though thousands of lines of XML can quickly degrade performance. That's why it is nice to have the OPENXML function, which does the parsing work for you fairly efficiently. We'll look at some of the performance limitations of OPENXML a bit later; for now, let's examine how this function is used.

The syntax of OPENXML can look somewhat convoluted at first:

OPENXML(idoc int [in],rowpattern nvarchar[in],[flags byte[in]]) [WITH (SchemaDeclaration | TableName)]

However, after you have a look at a couple of examples, it should become fairly easy to grasp. The OPENXML function must be used with two system stored procedures: sp_xml_preparedocument and sp_xml_removedocument. As the names of these procedures suggest, the former prepares an internal representation of the XML document in memory, and the latter removes such representation to free up resources. In fact, you can get away without using sp_xml_removedocument (whether this is a feature or bug, I'm not sure) because SQL Server will automatically destroy the internal structure once the session that created it disconnects.

sp_xml_preparedocument has two parameters: the XML document, which is accepted as an input parameter, and an output parameter with the integer type. Once the document is prepared with sp_xml_preparedocument, OPENXML can translate it into a row set. Consider the following example:

DECLARE @xml_text VARCHAR(4000), @i INT

SELECT @xml_text = '
<authors    au_id="172-32-1176" 
        phone="408 496-7223" 
        address="10932 Bigge Rd." 
        city="Menlo Park" 
<authors    au_id="213-46-8915" 	
        phone="415 986-7020" 
        address="309 63rd St. #411" 
<authors    au_id="238-95-7766" 
        phone="415 548-7723" 
        address="589 Darwin Ln." 

EXEC sp_xml_preparedocument @i OUTPUT, @xml_text

    OPENXML(@i, '/root/authors') WITH authors

EXEC sp_xml_removedocument @i














408 496-7223

10932 Bigge Rd.

Menlo Park







415 986-7020

309 63rd St. #411








415 548-7723

589 Darwin Ln.





In this case, I "cheated." I knew that the structure of the XML document passed to the OPENXML function was identical to the authors structure. That's why I could specify the WITH authors clause at the end of OPENXML. Alternatively, I could specify the structure of the parsed document for OPENXML as follows:

    OPENXML(@i, '/root/authors') 
        WITH (
           au_id     VARCHAR(11), 
           au_lname    VARCHAR(20), 
           au_fname    VARCHAR(30), 
           phone     VARCHAR(12), 
           address    VARCHAR(50), 
           city      VARCHAR(20), 
           state     CHAR(2), 
           zip      CHAR(5), 
           contract    BIT)

The output would be the exactly the same as in the first example. The advantage of specifying the structure in this case is that it makes code more readable. However, if the parsed XML doesn't match any of the user table's structure, then you have no choice but to provide the document structure for OPENXML.

The flags option in OPENXML syntax simply lets you change from attribute-centric to element-centric mapping. In plain English, this means that the structure you supply for OPENXML will be applied to elements rather than the attributes of the parsed XML document. The default value of this parameter is 1, which stands for attribute-centric. If my XML document was element-centric, I could use almost an identical version of the same query with the flags parameter equal to 2, as in the following:

USE pubs
DECLARE @xml_text VARCHAR(4000), @i INT

SELECT @xml_text = '

    <phone>408 496-7223</phone>
    <address>10932 Bigge Rd.</address>
    <city>Menlo Park</city>
    <phone>415 986-7020</phone>
    <address>309 63rd St. #411</address>
    <phone>415 548-7723</phone>
    <address>589 Darwin Ln.</address>

EXEC sp_xml_preparedocument @i OUTPUT, @xml_text

    OPENXML(@i, '/root/authors', 2) 
        WITH authors

EXEC sp_xml_removedocument @i

The results are again the same as in the first example.

Notice also that I specified the row pattern of '/root/authors' in the above example. This was fairly simple because the parsed XML only contained a single level inside the root tag. By the way, although many developers like to use '/root' with OPENXML, there is no magic in using root. You can use the outer tag of your preference.

The row pattern parameter of OPENXML lets you traverse the XML hierarchy. The following example has an additional hierarchy in the XML document:

DECLARE @xml_text VARCHAR(4000), @i INT

SELECT @xml_text = '
<authors au_id="172-32-1176" 
au_lname="White" au_fname="Johnson" 
phone="408 496-7223" address="10932 Bigge Rd." 
city="Menlo Park" state="CA" 
zip="94025" contract="1">

    <titles au_id="172-32-1176" 

<authors au_id="213-46-8915" 
au_lname="Green" au_fname="Marjorie" 
phone="415 986-7020" address="309 63rd St. #411" 
city="Oakland" state="CA" 
zip="94618" contract="1">

    <titles au_id="213-46-8915" 

    <titles au_id="213-46-8915" 

EXEC sp_xml_preparedocument @i OUTPUT, @xml_text

SELECT au_id     AS author_id, 
    au_lname    AS last_name, 
    au_fname    AS first_name, 
    royaltyper   AS royalty

    OPENXML(@i, '/root/authors/titles', 1) 
       WITH (
           au_id    VARCHAR(11), 
           au_lname  VARCHAR(20) '../@au_lname', 
           au_fname  VARCHAR(30) '../@au_fname', 
           title_id  VARCHAR(15), 
           royaltyper INT)

EXEC sp_xml_removedocument @i






















InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020