Home > Articles

0672321971

📄 Contents

  1. Introductory Concepts
  2. Following Flow and Execution
  • Print
  • + Share This
Like this article? We recommend

Following Flow and Execution

Sometimes you want to know the execution path that your application is taking, or certain things that are going on as it's executing, but you don't want to step through the application line-by-line. What you would really like to do is have a log of when the application reaches or passes certain points of code, and what the state of certain variables are. This is easy to do, adding your own code for writing logging messages to a file, but it's a pain to strip that code when you need to pass the application to someone else.

There is an easy way to accomplish this logging, without the pain of removing all of your logging messages. The way you should accomplish this is by using the TRACE macro. The TRACE macro sends any string message you pass to it to any debug output window you run on the computer the same time your application is running (see Figure 2.3). The syntax for this macro is as follows:

TRACE("This is my trace message.\n");

Figure 2.3 Trace messages from a debugging session.

The TRACE macro works just like the printf function in C, so you can pass it variables to be dynamically added to the message string just as you would with the printf function.

The output string from the TRACE macro is limited to 512 characters. If the formatted string you pass to the TRACE macro is longer than 512 characters (including the string terminating NULL character), it will trigger an ASSERT.

Just as with the ASSERT macro, all uses of the TRACE macro are automatically removed from Release builds.

C++ Sidebar: Formatting Strings

The C programming language was the predecessor to the C++ programming language. C++ was created for the purpose of making an object-oriented version of C. You can still write standard C applications using any C++ compiler since part of the C++ standard is full support for the C programming language.

In the C programming language, there is a family of string formatting/printing functions. The primary function, printf, is used to format and print strings to the primary output device (this is for character-mode applications that would be running in a DOS window on a Windows system). There are two other variations to this function. The first, fprintf, allows you to send your string message to a file or output device. In fact, the printf version calls the fprintf function, specifying the standard output device as where to send the string. Finally, there is also the sprintf function, which formats the string and places it into a character array. You occasionally still see these functions used in C++ code from time to time.

The printf function takes a string as its primary parameter, which can be followed by any number of variables to be included in the string. Each variable must have a placeholder in the string. These placeholders are specified by the percent symbol (%) followed by a character indicating the data type of the value to place in that location. Table 2.2 lists the characters and their corresponding data types.

Table 2.2 printf Data Type Specifiers

Placeholders

Data Type

%c

A single-byte character.

%C

A wide or UNICODE character.

%d or %i

Decimal integer data type. This includes integers and longs.

%u

Unsigned integer data type.

%f

Floating-point data types, including doubles and floats.

%s

Null-terminated string.

%S

Wide or UNICODE string.

%x

Hexadecimal value (lower-case).

%X

Hexadecimal value (upper-case).

%o

Octal value.

%%

Percent sign. Because the percent sign is used to indicate that the next character in the string is a placeholder for a variable value, you have to include two percent signs in order to include a percent sign in your string.


If you need to format a number variable to be a specific number of digits, you can insert the number of digits between the percent and the placeholder character, as follows:

printf("This number: %5d is five digits wide.", iNbr);

For floating-point numbers, you can also specify the precision by adding a decimal point and the precision following the number specifying the width, as follows:

printf("I have %3.2f dollars in my wallet.", fMoney);

If the fMoney variable's value was 123.456, the output from the above function call would be:

I have 123.46 dollars in my wallet.

Normally, when you format numbers, they are printed aligned on the right side. This means that if the fMoney value was 1.234, the output would look like the following:

I have  1.23 dollars in my wallet.

If you need the number to be aligned on the left side, add a minus sign ([ms]) to the formatting expression:

printf("I have %-3.2f dollars in my wallet.", fMoney);

The resulting output would look like the following:

I have 1.23 dollars in my wallet.

If you want the output to include the minus sign if the value is negative, place the plus sign (+) just after the percent sign:

printf("I have %+3.2f dollars in my wallet.", fMoney);

This will cause a minus sign to be printed if the value of the fMoney variable is negative.

You also can include non-printable characters in the strings by including a back-slash followed by the character that represents the non-printable character. This can be used to include tabs, new-lines, carriage-returns, and so on. Table 2.3 lists the primary non-printable characters that you're likely to include.

Table 2.3 printf Non-Printable Character Specifiers

Placeholders

Description

\n

New-line character. Use this to break a string into multiple lines of text.

\t

Tab character.

\r

Carriage-return character, causes the text to scroll back to the first of the string (but does not scroll to the next line).

\\

Back-slash character. Because the back-slash character is used to indicate that the next character in the string is a placeholder for a non-printable character, you have to include two back-slash characters in order to include a single back-slash character in your string.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020