Home > Articles > Software Development & Management > Management: Lifecycle, Project, Team

  • Print
  • + Share This
Like this article? We recommend

10: Implement and Always Adhere to a Production Acceptance Process

Our last commandment centers around the use of the Web-Centric Production Acceptance (WCPA) process mentioned in earlier commandments. The WCPA process is really a superset of the Client/Server Production Acceptance (CSPA) process presented in Building the New Enterprise: People, Processes, and Technologies (Prentice Hall PTR, 1998, ISBN 0-13-079671-9). Most of the WCPA process is useful even if you're not yet designing web-centric applications. Production acceptance takes an application from the early stages of development and into a production status. However, planning for WCPA really begins at the first stages of the software development process. This is where we first start getting users involved and keeping them involved throughout the development process through the use of customer project teams. At the same time, the development team needs to start getting IT operations involved. It's never too early to start getting both users and operations involved.

One of the reasons we developed the WCPA process is to serve as a communications vehicle. All too often, development organizations are isolated from the business groups that will use their applications and the operations group that will run and maintain them. Proper use of the WCPA process helps promote and instill good communication practices. Just as iterative development is a key software development process, so is iterative and ongoing communications with operations and with users.

This commandment is important because, without a closely followed WCPA process, your business may lose valuable revenue—or even customers—because your web-centric application doesn't function as expected. Perhaps one of the earliest examples of a WCPA process can be traced to Netscape's web server when they first opened for business in mid-1994. When designing their web site, Netscape engineers studied the web server load of their competitor at the time, the Mosaic web site at the National Center for Supercomputer Applications (NCSA). At the time, the NCSA site was receiving approximately 1.5 million hits a day. Netscape engineers thus sized their web site to initially handle 5 million hits a day during its first week of operation. Luckily, Netscape had planned their web site architecture to be scalable, and were able to add additional hardware capacity to handle the load.

The success of the WCPA process is also related to the robustness of your software system's architecture. An even greater percentage growth than Netscape's occurred at AT&T Worldnet. AT&T had expected to sign up 40,000 customers for their Worldnet Internet service during its first month of operation and had designed the site accordingly. During its first month of operation, however, Worldnet registered 400,000 new subscribers, 10 times the expected amount. Luckily for AT&T, they had architected the system for growth and put in place the equivalent of a WCPA process. As a result, all new subscribers were able to start receiving service, with few complaints of busy signals on dial-in attempts (in contrast to some other well-known Internet services).

A great example of what happens when you don't follow a complete WCPA process occurred at a major U.S. bank. The bank was planning an upgrade to its Internet home-banking service. Prior to the upgrade, the bank used a load-balancing scheme to distribute users to a number of front-end web servers, all of which connected to the bank's mainframe back-end systems. As part of the upgrade process, the bank was planning to let all users change their login ID and password, thus allowing more individual flexibility than the previous bank-generated login ID scheme. The first time a customer logged in after the upgrade, he would be required to select a new login ID and password or confirm keeping the old login ID. This process was delegated to a separate new web server to avoid interfering with any of the software on the existing load-sharing servers. The bank had some production acceptance processes in place, of course, and tested the entire web-centric system. On the first day of production, users started to complain of extremely long access times. Unfortunately, the bank had not taken into account the potential bottleneck of funneling all users through the single server while they were queried for potential login ID changes.

While no process can guarantee that a new production system will function 100% correctly, web-centric applications require new kinds of planning like that covered in the WCPA. Not only are user loads on the Internet much more unpredictable, web-centric applications typically involve the interaction of a much larger number of software and hardware systems.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020