Home > Articles > Web Services > XML

Like this article? We recommend

Higher Volumes, Larger Scale, Bigger Numbers

Not only is business getting more complicated, but the scale is increasing, due in large part to the worldwide markets made possible by modern technologies in the aftermath of the Cold War. This large scale of business results from the sheer scale of intra-business goods and services, one that continues to grow significantly.

The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) estimates that in the U.S., electronic procurements between businesses will grow from $1.2 trillion in the year 2000 to $4.8 trillion in 2004. By 2004, electronic procurements should account for fully 40% of total purchasing; but only 11% of all purchases will involve online price negotiations. These findings, based on survey responses from more than 260 buyers, sellers, and e-marketplaces, as well as in-depth interviews, show that despite a high level of online penetration, the vast majority of transactions will be ordering and replenishment, and not price negotiations.

BCG's research shows that the size of the B2B e-commerce market is far greater than is commonly reported, in part because it recognizes the established base of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) over private networks and its extensions to the Internet.25

Compaq Computers alone is running an average of $50 million worth of business weekly through its combined EDI and Internet systems, or about $2.5 billion annually in 2000.26

Last year, Forrester Research predicted that B2B e-commerce in the United States alone would total $2.7 trillion in 2004.27 Forrester wasn't alone in its bullish outlook; the Gartner Group forecasted that U.S. B2B e-commerce will total $3.7 trillion in 2004,28 while the Boston Consulting Group predicted an even greater upside, with B2B transactions totaling up to $4.8 trillion by 2004.29

But more recently, continued weakness in the U.S. economy as well as the collapse of thousands of dot-com businesses appear to have dampened such enthusiasm.30

By contrast, the Boston Consulting Group expects the more visible business-to-consumer purchasing in North America to total $65 billion in the year 2001. While that number represents a 44% increase over 2000 ($45 billion that year),31 it pales in comparison to the $1.2 trillion for electronic trade among businesses in the year 2000.

The market research company Jupiter Communications anticipates the volume of online business-to-business trade to grow to $6.3 trillion by 2005, representing 42% of non-service spending by that time. For the year 2000, Jupiter found online business exchanges accounted for only 3% of non-service spending. Jupiter predicted the computer and telecommunications market alone will account for over $1 trillion in volume by 2005.

But as important as the pure volume is the mix of trading venues. For 2000, Jupiter estimated the traditional direct sales model with products going from one supplier to many customers would account for 92% of the business-to-business volume. By 2005, according to Jupiter's research, the proportion will drop to 65% as what Jupiter calls "net and coalition markets," such as digital exchanges that have multiple suppliers and customers, grow to about 35% of the total online volume.32

The importance of electronic business-to-business transactions is also growing overseas. IDC estimates the volume of Internet commerce between businesses in Europe to grow by 87% to over 400 billion Euros by 2003.33

A good reflection of the increased financial volume is found in the sheer overall quantity of customers and transactions facing businesses today. Here are several examples of this larger scale that businesses need to support:34

A power company needs to rely on 20 other providers in the power grid to maintain service during peak loads, where before the company generated all of its own power.

  • A manufacturer of PCs distributes product through 27,000 resellers over the web, and the number is growing.

  • A market aggregator runs a web portal with no physical inventory of its own, but uses its branding to sell other distributors' products and attract customers to that overall branding.

  • A car manufacturer has some 5,000 second-tier suppliers of parts, yet still needs to track the flow of product, keep inventory levels to a minimum, and maintain quality.

  • A web-based travel service aggregates offerings from 500 vacation package providers.

  • An insurance company works through 20,000 field agents who need to operate one-on-one with clients.

  • An office supply company has a customer list of 50,000 small businesses, ordering product over the web, from printed catalogs, and over the telephone, and still demanding next-day delivery.

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020