Home > Articles > Operating Systems, Server > Microsoft Servers

  • Print
  • + Share This

Putting the Pieces Together

The remaining stuff needed to make an application out of the above code snippets is more or less boilerplate code. Once you have retrieved the SYSTEM_PROCESS_INFORMATION data, you can choose any output format that fits your needs. To keep things simple, I have written a simple Win32 console-mode application called w2k_pnt.exe that displays processes and threads in a console window. By the way, the suffix "pnt" stands for "Processes'n'Threads". Because the output lists can be rather lengthy, I have added a filter mechanism to match the process names against an optional pattern string that may contain an arbitrary number of the wildcard characters '*' and '?'. Note that the first process started by the system—the so-called Idle process—has no name. The usName member of its process structure contains a NULL pointer. The Windows 2000 Task Manager displays it as System Idle Process, whereas my demo application simply says Idle.

In Example 1, I have issued the command w2k_pnt/p/treal*, which lists all processes whose names start with "real", as well as the threads these processes are hosting. Obviously, the output list comprises the RealPlayer and the RealJukebox applications by RealNetworks, Inc. As you can see, I just love to listen to MP3s during work!

Example 1: Sample Output of w2k_pnt.exe

D:\Program Files\DevStudio\MyProjects\w2k_pnt\Release>w2k_pnt /p/t real*

// w2k_pnt.exe
// Windows NT/2000 Processes'n'Threads V1.00
// 06-18-2001 Sven B. Schreiber
// sbs@orgon.com

Windows 2000 mode

PROCESS INFO (Filter: 'real*')
==============================

 PID PPID KBytes PFaults Handles Threads Date & Time Name
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 980  868  3724  2793   94    8 06-18 18:07 realplay.exe
 308  868  13344  6724   166   15 06-18 19:25 realjbox.exe
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  2 processes, 23 threads

THREAD INFO (Filter: 'real*')
=============================

PROCESS #980 (realplay.exe)

 TID Prio Base  Switches Address State Date & Time Kernel(sec) User(sec)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 968  9  8   926597 77E878C1 5/13 06-18 18:07    8.191   3.595
 1288  10  8     2 77E92C50 5/13 06-18 18:07    0.000   0.000
 1300  15  15    100 77E92C50 5/06 06-18 18:07    0.000   0.000
 1304  12  10     2 77E92C50 5/06 06-18 18:07    0.000   0.000
 1308  10  8    239 77E92C50 5/13 06-18 18:07    0.000   0.000
 1312  9  8   917053 77E92C50 5/13 06-18 18:07    0.320   0.270
 1060  10  8     2 77E92C50 5/06 06-18 18:07    0.000   0.000
 1320  9  8   917065 77E92C50 5/13 06-18 18:07    0.390   0.320
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  8 threads                         8.901   4.185

PROCESS #308 (realjbox.exe)

 TID Prio Base  Switches Address State Date & Time Kernel(sec) User(sec)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 280  9  8  1586897 77E878C1 5/13 06-18 19:25    61.598   47.117
 716  8  8     1 77E92C50 5/06 06-18 19:25    0.000   0.000
 1336  8  8     1 77E92C50 5/06 06-18 19:25    0.000   0.000
 1296  15  15    123 77E92C50 5/06 06-18 19:25    0.000   0.000
 524  12  10    132 77E92C50 5/13 06-18 19:25    0.030   0.010
 404  8  8     1 77E92C50 5/13 06-18 19:25    0.000   0.000
 768  10  10     1 77E92C50 5/06 06-18 19:25    0.000   0.000
 1264  10  8    193 77E92C50 5/13 06-18 19:25    0.000   0.000
 356  9  8   866495 77E92C50 5/13 06-18 19:25    19.938  180.709
 1056  6  6    6872 77E92C50 5/06 06-18 19:25    0.040   0.000
 860  8  8     2 77E92C50 5/06 06-18 19:25    0.010   0.000
 848  10  8   143867 77E92C50 5/06 06-18 19:25    0.690   0.260
 1020  8  8     1 77E92C50 5/13 06-18 19:25    0.000   0.000
 780  10  8   114796 77E92C50 5/13 06-18 19:25    0.480   0.360
 1332  8  8     2 77E92C50 5/06 06-18 19:25    0.000   0.000
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  15 threads                         82.786  228.456
TOTAL: 2 processes, 23 threads

Listing 6 shows how w2k_pnt.exe walks down the list of processes, displaying some of the most useful members in a table. Please compare this data to the process view of the Windows 2000 Task Manager—it should match very closely. Note how the psp pointer is moved forward by adding the value of the dNext member of the SYSTEM_PROCESS structure. The end of the list is reached if dNext is zero.

Listing 6 Enumerating Processes

VOID DisplayProcesses (PSYSTEM_PROCESS pspFirst,
            PWORD      pwFilter)
  {
  DWORD      dProcesses = 0;
  DWORD      dThreads  = 0;
  PSYSTEM_PROCESS psp    = pspFirst;
  WORD      awTime [] = L"mm-dd HH:MM";
  PFILETIME    pft;
  FILETIME    ft;
  SYSTEMTIME   st;
  PWORD      pwName;
  printf (L"\r\n"
      L" PID PPID KBytes PFaults Handles Threads "
      L"Date & Time Name\r\n"
      L"----------------------------------------"
      L"---------------------------------------\r\n");
  while (psp != NULL)
    {
    pwName = (psp->dUniqueProcessId
         ? psp->usName.Buffer
         : L"Idle");
    if (PatternMatcher (pwFilter, pwName, TRUE))
      {
      lstrcpy (awTime, L" ?   ? ");
      pft = &psp->ftCreateTime;
      if ((pft->dwLowDateTime || pft->dwHighDateTime) &&
        FileTimeToLocalFileTime (pft, &ft)     &&
        FileTimeToSystemTime  (&ft, &st))
        {
        sprintf (awTime, L"%02hu-%02hu %02hu:%02hu",
             st.wMonth, st.wDay,
             st.wHour, st.wMinute);
        }
      printf (L"%5lu %5lu %7lu %7lu %7lu %7lu "
          L"%-11s %s\r\n",
          psp->dUniqueProcessId,
          psp->dInheritedFromUniqueProcessId,
          psp->VmCounters.WorkingSetSize / 1024,
          psp->VmCounters.PageFaultCount,
          psp->dHandleCount,
          psp->dThreadCount,
          awTime,
          pwName);
      dProcesses += 1;
      dThreads  += psp->dThreadCount;
      }
    psp = (psp->dNext
        ? (PVOID) ((PBYTE) psp + psp->dNext)
        : NULL);
    }
  printf (L"%s----------------------------------------"
      L"---------------------------------------\r\n"
      L"%5lu process%s, %lu thread%s\r\n",
      (dProcesses ? L"" : L"+++ No matching names
+++\r\n"),
      dProcesses, (dProcesses == 1 ? L"" : L"es"),
      dThreads,  (dThreads  == 1 ? L"" : L"s" ));
  return;
  }

Once you have a pointer to the thread array of a process, walking down the list of threads is quite easy because the thread structures are of fixed size. Listing 7 shows the implementation used by w2k_pnt.exe. The only problem with the thread array is that it is located at a different offset within the process structures of Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000. Therefore, DisplayThreads() cannot be called safely unless you know which operating system your application is running on.

Listing 7 Enumerating Threads

VOID DisplayThreads (PSYSTEM_THREAD pstFirst,
           DWORD     dThreads)
  {
  PSYSTEM_THREAD pst      = pstFirst;
  WORD      awTime []   = L"mm-dd HH:MM";
  DWORDLONG   dlTotalKernel = 0;
  DWORDLONG   dlTotalUser  = 0;
  DWORDLONG   dlKernel, dlUser;
  PFILETIME   pft;
  FILETIME    ft;
  SYSTEMTIME   st;
  DWORD     i;
  printf (L"\r\n"
      L" TID Prio Base  Switches Address State "
      L"Date & Time Kernel(sec) User(sec)\r\n"
      L"----------------------------------------"
      L"---------------------------------------\r\n");
  for (i = 0; i < dThreads; i++)
    {
    lstrcpy (awTime, L" ?   ? ");
    pft = &pst->ftCreateTime;
    if ((pft->dwLowDateTime || pft->dwHighDateTime) &&
      FileTimeToLocalFileTime (pft, &ft)     &&
      FileTimeToSystemTime  (&ft, &st))
      {
      sprintf (awTime, L"%02hu-%02hu %02hu:%02hu",
           st.wMonth, st.wDay,
           st.wHour, st.wMinute);
      }
    dlKernel  = pst->ftKernelTime.dwHighDateTime;
    dlKernel <<= 32;
    dlKernel += pst->ftKernelTime.dwLowDateTime;
    dlKernel /= 10000;
    dlUser   = pst->ftUserTime.dwHighDateTime;
    dlUser  <<= 32;
    dlUser  += pst->ftUserTime.dwLowDateTime;
    dlUser  /= 10000;
    dlTotalKernel += dlKernel;
    dlTotalUser  += dlUser;
    printf (L"%5lu %4lu %4lu %10lu %08lX %2lu/%02lu "
        L"%-11s %8lu.%03lu %6lu.%03lu\r\n",
        pst->Cid.UniqueThread,
        pst->dPriority,
        pst->dBasePriority,
        pst->dContextSwitches,
        pst->pStartAddress,
        pst->dThreadState,
        pst->WaitReason,
        awTime,
        (DWORD) dlKernel / 1000,
        (DWORD) dlKernel % 1000,
        (DWORD) dlUser  / 1000,
        (DWORD) dlUser  % 1000);
    pst++;
    }
  printf (L"----------------------------------------"
      L"---------------------------------------\r\n"
      L"%5lu thread%s"
      L"                      "
      L"%8lu.%03lu %6lu.%03lu\r\n",
      dThreads, (dThreads == 1 ? L" " : L"s"),
      (DWORD) dlTotalKernel / 1000,
      (DWORD) dlTotalKernel % 1000,
      (DWORD) dlTotalUser  / 1000,
      (DWORD) dlTotalUser  % 1000);
  return;
  }

If you choose your application to be compatible to both Windows 2000 and NT 4.0, an operating system check is inevitable. The SystemVersion() function defined in Listing 8 does this job by calling GetVersionEx() and testing for platform VER_PLATFORM_WIN32_NT. SystemVersion() returns the major version number only; that is, 4 for Windows NT 4.0 or 5 for Windows 2000. The minor version number is irrelevant here.

Listing 8 Identifying the Operating System Version

DWORD SystemVersion (VOID)
  {
  OSVERSIONINFO ovi;
  DWORD     dVersion = 0;
  ovi.dwOSVersionInfoSize = sizeof (OSVERSIONINFO);
  if (GetVersionEx (&ovi) &&
    (ovi.dwPlatformId == VER_PLATFORM_WIN32_NT))
    {
    dVersion = ovi.dwMajorVersion;
    }
  return dVersion;
  }
  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020