Home > Articles > Mobile Application Development & Programming

This chapter is from the book

Cost Overruns

This book spends quite a bit of time discussing risks. The cost of a project turning out to be way more than expected is probably the most likely failure mode in the contract app development space. This is sad because app development billing rates start higher than those of many (if not most) other forms of contract development right now. Costs are high under even the best of circumstances, and they become downright stratospheric if not kept under control.

Much of this book focuses on getting you your money’s worth, but the following sections discuss a few of the most common ways that costs get out of control.

Unnecessary Staffing

One way that projects run way over budget is by having too many developers. The more developers a project has, the more communication effort is required. Each additional developer is not only less productive than the previous one but actually slows down the existing developers. This effect was documented in 1975 in The Mythical Man-Month by Fred Brooks (which I mention several more times in this book).

Especially when your development company has a number of developers on salary who are idle, the company may pressure you to have more developers on your project than you need. Make sure that the company can articulate what every developer will be doing and why each is necessary before you approve additional headcount.

Unnecessary or Wasteful Work

Not all work gets you closer to the project’s goal. Some work turns out not to have been worth it. Under what circumstances should you have to pay for that?

First, understand that just because a particular piece of work doesn’t make it into the final product doesn’t mean it was wasteful. Sometimes there’s more than one way to implement something, and it makes sense to spend time experimenting with multiple possibilities to figure out which is the best fit for your app. It’s better to do that than to guess with no data and risk ending up with an unworkable solution. These experiments are often referred to as spikes, and we discuss them more in Chapter 2. Mockups and prototypes are also useful work that won’t ever ship, and we discuss them at length in Chapter 3.

However, some kinds of work are wasted. What happens when a developer makes a mistake? What happens when fixing the bugs in a feature turns out to take twice as long as building that feature initially? What happens when the developer you got was less experienced than the developer you needed and ended up making a mess? Under many contracts, that cost is passed directly to the app creator, so there’s not a lot of incentive for the developer to get it right the first time.

Unproductive Billable Time

We touched on this earlier: Developers should be developing. Try to keep meetings and administrative tasks to a minimum and make sure you aren’t being billed for time when the developer is not working on your project. (For example, time spent eating lunch should not normally be billed to you.) Note that explaining and documenting the code that is being written should be considered part of development, not administrative time.

Unexpected Bugs

Sometimes projects run into bugs that take a while to fix. Sometimes those bugs are in code that the developer wrote, and sometimes they’re in third-party libraries or the framework for the mobile platform itself. Bugs always happen, but most of the time they don’t take a project off the rails. Sometimes they do. However, project-endangering bugs should not happen in areas of the project that are similar to what your developer has done before. Talk to your developers about what risks they see in your project before you start. (See the “Gap Analysis” section of Chapter 8 for more details.)

Unforeseen Circumstances

Sometimes bad things happen. Sometimes developers become ill or quit or have to leave a project to care for a sick family member. Developers are human, and most humans have chaotic and unpredictable periods at some points in their lives. Discuss what might happen in such a case with your developer before work starts. (See the “Contingency Plans” section of Chapter 8 for more details.)

Poor or Changing Requirements

As discussed earlier in this chapter, requirements need to be clearly decided, communicated, and understood. If they’re not, they might as well be randomly generated.

Poor Initial Estimation

One of the things that can throw project costs far afield is unforeseen work being “discovered” or “found” during the development process. If this sort of thing occurs and wasn’t a result of bad requirements, then it was most likely missed during the estimation process. Ask your developer before work starts about who will pay for poor estimates and how much. (I suggest that you at least should never have to pay full price for work that wasn’t estimated.)

The other common result of poor estimation is everything just taking longer than expected. This could be a result of insufficient information during the estimation process (which happens a lot on projects that involve taking over a code base that someone else wrote and the code base turns out to be worse than you thought). It also happens when the developers who end up on your project are slower and less experienced than the developers that the person doing the estimation had in mind (in which case you probably shouldn’t be paying the same hourly rate as the estimator had in mind either).

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020