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8.7. Instruction Sets

NVIDIA has developed three major architectures: Tesla (SM 1.x), Fermi (SM 2.x), and Kepler (SM 3.x). Within those families, new instructions have been added as NVIDIA updated their products. For example, global atomic operations were not present in the very first Tesla-class processor (the G80, which shipped in 2006 as the GeForce GTX 8800), but all subsequent Tesla-class GPUs included them. So when querying the SM version via cuDeviceComputeCapability(), the major and minor versions will be 1.0 for G80 and 1.1 (or greater) for all other Tesla-class GPUs. Conversely, if the SM version is 1.1 or greater, the application can use global atomics.

Table 8.16 gives the SASS instructions that may be printed by cuobjdump when disassembling microcode for Tesla-class (SM 1.x) hardware. The Fermi and Kepler instruction sets closely resemble each other, with the exception of the instructions that support surface load/store, so their instruction sets are given together in Table 8.17. In both tables, the middle column specifies the first SM version to support a given instruction.

Table 8.16 SM 1.x Instruction Set

OPCODE

SM

DESCRIPTION

FLOATING POINT

COS

1.0

Cosine

DADD

1.3

Double-precision floating-point add

DFMA

1.3

Double-precision floating-point fused multiply-add

DMAX

1.3

Double-precision floating-point maximum

DMIN

1.3

Double-precision floating-point minimum

DMUL

1.3

Double-precision floating-point multiply

DSET

1.3

Double-precision floating-point condition set

EX2

1.0

Exponential (base 2)

FADD/FADD32/FADD32I

1.0

Single-precision floating-point add

FCMP

1.0

Single-precision floating-point compare

FMAD/FMAD32/FMAD32I

1.0

Single-precision floating-point multiply-add

FMAX

1.0

Single-precision floating-point maximum

FMIN

1.0

Single-precision floating-point minimum

FMUL/FMUL32/FMUL32I

1.0

Single-precision floating-point multiply

FSET

1.0

Single-precision floating-point conditional set

LG2

1.0

Single-precision floating-point logarithm (base 2)

RCP

1.0

Single-precision floating-point reciprocal

RRO

1.0

Range reduction operator (used before SIN/COS)

RSQ

1.0

Reciprocal square root

SIN

1.0

Sine

FLOW CONTROL

BAR

1.0

Barrier synchronization/ __syncthreads()

BRA

1.0

Conditional branch

BRK

1.0

Conditional break from loop

BRX

1.0

Fetch an address from constant memory and branch to it

C2R

1.0

Condition code to data register

CAL

1.0

Unconditional subroutine call

RET

1.0

Conditional return from subroutine

SSY

1.0

Set synchronization point; used before potentially divergent instructions

DATA CONVERSION

F2F

1.0

Copy floating-point value with conversion to floating point

F2I

1.0

Copy floating-point value with conversion to integer

I2F

1.0

Copy integer value to floating-point with conversion

I2I

1.0

Copy integer value to integer with conversion

INTEGER

IADD/ IADD32/ IADD32I

1.0

Integer addition

IMAD/ IMAD32/ IMAD32I

1.0

Integer multiply-add

IMAX

1.0

Integer maximum

IMIN

1.0

Integer minimum

IMUL/ IMUL32/ IMUL32I

1.0

Integer multiply

ISAD/ ISAD32

1.0

Integer sum of absolute difference

ISET

1.0

Integer conditional set

SHL

1.0

Shift left

SHR

1.0

Shift right

MEMORY OPERATIONS

A2R

1.0

Move address register to data register

ADA

1.0

Add immediate to address register

G2R

1.0

Move from shared memory to register. The .LCK suffix, used to implement shared memory atomics, causes the bank to be locked until an R2G.UNL has been performed.

GATOM.IADD/ EXCH/ CAS/IMIN/ IMAX/ INC/ DEC/IAND/ IOR/ IXOR

1.2

Global memory atomic operations; performs an atomic operation and returns the original value.

GLD

1.0

Load from global memory

GRED.IADD/ IMIN/ IMAX/INC/ DEC/ IAND/ IOR/ IXOR

1.2

Global memory reduction operations; performs an atomic operation with no return value.

GST

1.0

Store to global memory

LLD

1.0

Load from local memory

LST

1.0

Store to local memory

LOP

1.0

Logical operation (AND/OR/XOR)

MOV/MOV32

1.0

Move source to destination

MVC

1.0

Move from constant memory

MVI

1.0

Move immediate

R2A

1.0

Move register to address register

R2C

1.0

Move data register to condition code

R2G

1.0

Store to shared memory. When used with the .UNL suffix,releases a previously held lock on that shared memory bank.

MISCELLANEOUS

NOP

1.0

No operation

TEX/ TEX32

1.0

Texture fetch

VOTE

1.2

Warp-vote primitive.

S2R

1.0

Move special register (e.g., thread ID) to register

Table 8.17 SM 2.x and SM 3.x Instruction Sets

OPCODE

SM

DESCRIPTION

FLOATING POINT

DADD

2.0

Double-precision add

DMUL

2.0

Double-precision multiply

DMNMX

2.0

Double-precision minimum/maximum

DSET

2.0

Double-precision set

DSETP

2.0

Double-precision predicate

DFMA

2.0

Double-precision fused multiply-add

FFMA

2.0

Single-precision fused multiply-add

FADD

2.0

Single-precision floating-point add

FCMP

2.0

Single-precision floating-point compare

FMUL

2.0

Single-precision floating-point multiply

FMNMX

2.0

Single-precision floating-point minimum/maximum

FSWZ

2.0

Single-precision floating-point swizzle

FSET

2.0

Single-precision floating-point set

FSETP

2.0

Single-precision floating-point set predicate

MUFU

2.0

MultiFunk (SFU) operator

RRO

2.0

Range reduction operator (used before MUFU sin/cos)

INTEGER

BFE

2.0

Bit field extract

BFI

2.0

Bit field insert

FLO

2.0

Find leading one

IADD

2.0

Integer add

ICMP

2.0

Integer compare and select

IMAD

2.0

Integer multiply-add

IMNMX

2.0

Integer minimum/maximum

IMUL

2.0

Integer multiply

ISAD

2.0

Integer sum of absolute differences

ISCADD

2.0

Integer add with scale

ISET

2.0

Integer set

ISETP

2.0

Integer set predicate

LOP

2.0

Logical operation (AND/OR/XOR)

SHF

3.5

Funnel shift

SHL

2.0

Shift left

SHR

2.0

Shift right

POPC

2.0

Population count

DATA CONVERSION

F2F

2.0

Floating point to floating point

F2I

2.0

Floating point to integer

I2F

2.0

Integer to floating point

I2I

2.0

Integer to integer

SCALARVIDEO

VABSDIFF

2.0

Scalar video absolute difference

VADD

2.0

Scalar video add

VMAD

2.0

Scalar video multiply-add

VMAX

2.0

Scalar video maximum

VMIN

2.0

Scalar video minimum

VSET

2.0

Scalar video set

VSHL

2.0

Scalar video shift left

VSHR

2.0

Scalar video shift right

VSUB

2.0

Scalar video subtract

VECTOR(SIMD) VIDEO

VABSDIFF2(4)

3.0

Vector video 2x16-bit (4x8-bit) absolute difference

VADD2(4)

3.0

Vector video 2x16-bit (4x8-bit) addition

VAVRG2(4)

3.0

Vector video 2x16-bit (4x8-bit) average

VMAX2(4)

3.0

Vector video 2x16-bit (4x8-bit) maximum

VMIN2(4)

3.0

Vector video 2x16-bit (4x8-bit) minimum

VSET2(4)

3.0

Vector video 2x16-bit (4x8-bit) set

VSUB2(4)

3.0

Vector video 2x16-bit (4x8-bit) subtraction

DATA MOVEMENT

MOV

2.0

Move

PRMT

2.0

Permute

SEL

2.0

Select (conditional move)

SHFL

3.0

Warp shuffle

PREDICATE/CONDITION CODES

CSET

2.0

Condition code set

CSETP

2.0

Condition code set predicate

P2R

2.0

Predicate to register

R2P

2.0

Register to predicate

PSET

2.0

Predicate set

PSETP

2.0

Predicate set predicate

TEXTURE

TEX

2.0

Texture fetch

TLD

2.0

Texture load

TLD4

2.0

Texture load 4 texels

TXQ

2.0

Texture query

MEMORY OPERATIONS

ATOM

2.0

Atomic memory operation

CCTL

2.0

Cache control

CCTLL

2.0

Cache control (local)

LD

2.0

Load from memory

LDC

2.0

Load constant

LDG

3.5

Noncoherence global load (reads via texture cache)

LDL

2.0

Load from local memory

LDLK

2.0

Load and lock

LDS

2.0

Load from shared memory

LDSLK

2.0

Load from shared memory and lock

LDU

2.0

Load uniform

LD_LDU

2.0

Combines generic load LD with a load uniform LDU

LDS_LDU

2.0

Combines shared memory load LDS with a load uniform LDU

MEMBAR

2.0

Memory barrier

RED

2.0

Atomic memory reduction operation

ST

2.0

Store to memory

STL

2.0

Store to local memory

STUL

2.0

Store and unlock

STS

2.0

Store to shared memory

STSUL

2.0

Store to shared memory and unlock

SURFACE MEMORY (FERMI)

SULD

2.0

Surface load

SULEA

2.0

Surface load effective address

SUQ

2.0

Surface query

SURED

2.0

Surface reduction

SUST

2.0

Surface store

SURFACE MEMORY (KEPLER)

SUBFM

3.0

Surface bit field merge

SUCLAMP

3.0

Surface clamp

SUEAU

3.0

Surface effective address

SULDGA

3.0

Surface load generic address

SUSTGA

3.0

Surface store generic address

FLOW CONTROL

BRA

2.0

Branch to relative address

BPT

2.0

Breakpoint/trap

BRK

2.0

Break from loop

BRX

2.0

Branch to relative indexed address

CAL

2.0

Call to relative address

CONT

2.0

Continue in loop

EXIT

2.0

Exit program

JCAL

2.0

Call to absolute address

JMP

2.0

Jump to absolute address

JMX

2.0

Jump to absolute indexed address

LONGJMP

2.0

Long jump

PBK

2.0

Pre?break relative address

PCNT

2.0

Pre?continue relative address

PLONGJMP

2.0

Pre?long jump relative address

PRET

2.0

Pre?return relative address

RET

2.0

Return from call

SSY

2.0

Set synchronization point; used before potentially divergent instructions

MISCELLANEOUS

B2R

2.0

Barrier to register

BAR

2.0

Barrier synchronization

LEPC

2.0

Load effective program counter

NOP

2.0

No operation

S2R

2.0

Special register to register (used to read, for example, the thread or block ID)

VOTE

2.0

Query condition across warp

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