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Commonly Used Commands and Programs

The following programs and built-in shell commands are commonly used when working at the command line. These commands are organized by category to help you understand the command’s purpose. If you need to find full information for using the command, you can find that information under the command’s man page.

  • Managing users and groups—chage, chfn, chsh, edquota, gpasswd, groupadd, groupdel, groupmod, groups, mkpasswd, newgrp, newusers, passwd, umask, useradd, userdel, usermod
  • Managing files and file systems—cat, cd, chattr, chmod, chown, compress, cp, dd, fdisk, find, gzip, ln, mkdir, mksfs, mount, mv, rm, rmdir, rpm, sort, swapon, swapoff, tar, touch, umount, uncompress, uniq, unzip, zip
  • Managing running programs—bg, fg, kill, killall, nice, ps, pstree, renice, top, watch
  • Getting information—apropos, cal, cat, cmp, date, diff, df, dir, dmesg, du, env, file, free, grep, head, info, last, less, locate, ls, lsattr, man, more, pinfo, ps, pwd, stat, strings, tac, tail, top, uname, uptime, vdir, vmstat, w, wc, whatis, whereis, which, who, whoami
  • Console text editors—ed, jed, joe, mcedit, nano, red, sed, vim
  • Console Internet and network commands—bing, elm, ftp, host, hostname, ifconfig, links, lynx, mail, mutt, ncftp, netconfig, netstat, pine, ping, pump, rdate, route, scp, sftp, ssh, tcpdump, traceroute, whois, wire-test
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