Home > Articles > Networking > Wireless/High Speed/Optical

  • Print
  • + Share This

The Bluetooth Version 1.0 Profiles

The Bluetooth version 1.0 profile specification (Part 2 of the specification) is more than 400 pages long and includes 13 different profiles. Bluetooth Revealed, the book that I co-authored with Chatschik Bisdikian, discusses the version 1.0 profiles in detail, devoting five chapters to this topic. Here we briefly review the profiles, looking specifically at a couple of examples.

The profiles are of two types: those that provide fundamental "building block" definitions, often used in turn by other profiles; and those that specifically address concrete usage cases. There are four profiles of the former type: generic access, service discovery application, serial port, and generic object exchange. The remaining nine profiles (cordless telephony, intercom, headset, fax, dial-up networking, LAN access, object push, synchronization, and file transfer) are based on one or more of the fundamental four profiles. The specification includes some information on how the profiles relate to each other; in our book, Bisdikian and I discuss the relationship among the various profiles and suggest ways that the profiles might be classified, defining four functionally related groups.

Although this article does not discuss each of the profiles in detail, two are reviewed as examples of ways that the profiles specify information that can help to achieve interoperable implementations of the specification.

The Headset Profile

This profile covers the usage case (called the "Ultimate Headset," in the specification) associated with a Bluetooth wireless audio headset used in conjunction with a Bluetooth mobile telephone or with a Bluetooth portable computer. Basic operation for such a wireless headset is like that of its wired equivalents used commonly today: The headset, with a microphone and a speaker, serves as the audio source and sink for voice traffic that is carried over the cellular link of the mobile phone or for audio traffic associated with the computer.

The headset profile is a relatively simple one. It defines four procedures for four operations:

  • Incoming call (audio connection)

  • Outgoing call (audio connection)

  • Call (audio) transfer

  • Volume control

Of these, volume control is optional. The remaining three define how audio is routed between the headset and the other device, as well as how the audio traffic is generated, transferred, and received.

Like all profiles, the headset profile includes information about the protocol stack used to accomplish the associated usage case, how particular layers of the protocol stack are to be configured and used, and which of the other profiles are relevant to this one.

As for the protocol stack, the headset profile uses (directly or indirectly) the baseband, link manager, logical link control and adaptation (L2CAP), RFCOMM, and service discovery (SDP) layers of the protocol stack. The headset profile also relies upon AT commands transferred over the RFCOMM layer (the specification illustrates this as a "headset control" layer, although it is not an explicitly defined Bluetooth protocol).

The headset profile defines specific requirements for link control and service discovery in terms of functions and operations defined in the core specification (Part 1, the protocol stack specification) for these layers' associated protocols. Although it may not be directly evident, the headset profile also defines requirements for the L2CAP and RFCOMM layers because it requires support for the serial port profile; the serial port profile, in turn, defines specific requirements for L2CAP and RFCOMM.

In addition to its reliance on the serial port profile, the headset profile builds upon the generic access profile (GAP) and at least indirectly uses concepts from the service discovery application profile (SDAP). The GAP is the fundamental profile with which all Bluetooth devices must comply, so all other profiles inherit from it. All the "concrete" usage case profiles also include an element of service discovery, and the SDAP provides guidance for application developers using the service discovery information contained in these profiles.

The File Transfer Profile

Transferring files wirelessly is not unique to Bluetooth technology. The Infrared Data Association (IrDAâ) technology, for example, is another method of wireless file transfer. In fact, the SIG has adopted protocols defined by the IrDA for the Bluetooth protocol stack. The file transfer profile describes how to use these and other Bluetooth protocols for interoperable folder and file transfer. This usage model can apply to several types of Bluetooth devices with object or file storage systems, including portable computers and mobile telephones. The usage scenario is rather straightforward: After a connection is made, the two devices can push and pull folders and files between them. Optionally, creating and deleting files and folders may be supported.

The protocol stack used for the file transfer profile includes an additional layer, as compared to that used for the headset profile. In addition to the baseband, link manager, L2CAP, SDP, and RFCOMM layers of the headset profile, the file transfer profile also uses the IrOBEX (or just OBEX, for object exchange) protocol adopted from the IrDA. Within OBEX, several different types of objects can be exchanged; the object formats of most interest for this profile are folder and file objects.

The file transfer profile focuses on object transfer using the OBEX layers, defining client and server roles and mapping OBEX operations to the Bluetooth protocol stack. Much of this profile describes how to push, pull, create, and delete objects using OBEX. Like other profiles, the file transfer profile also describes the use of SDP, including a service record to be used by devices that offer the file transfer profile services. Usage of the other relevant layers of the stack (baseband, link manager, L2CAP, and RFCOMM) is described in other profiles from which the file transfer profile inherits.

The file transfer profile depends upon the generic object exchange profile, which in turn relies upon the serial port profile. The generic object exchange profile defines many fundamental OBEX operations that are used not only in the file transfer profile, but also in the related synchronization and object push profiles. The file transfer profile, then, needs only to describe the specific OBEX operations needed to exchange files and folders. In all of the object exchange profiles, OBEX operates over the RFCOMM layer. Generic RFCOMM usage is described in the serial port profile. Because the file transfer profile inherits from the serial port profile, the usage of the remaining layers of the protocol stack used for file and object transfer (baseband, link manager, L2CAP, and RFCOMM itself) are defined in the serial port profile and thus are not detailed in the file transfer profile.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020