Home > Articles > Networking > Wireless/High Speed/Optical

  • Print
  • + Share This

Input

Now let's examine WAP data entry. WML provides options for text entry and for selecting items from lists. WML text input is limited to regular text and password entry via the <input> tag. The <select> tag for lists supports either single or multiple <option> items to be chosen.

Text Entry

Text entry is provided by the <input> tag, which associates data with a name. The following example illustrates simple text input of a user ID. Note that the name attribute specifies the name of a variable to store the user's input. Variables may be preset to a specified value that appears in an input field when first displayed.

<input name="userid"/>

WML provides options for constraining user input. The maxlength attribute limits the number of characters that may be entered in a field. The format attribute provides a simple way to implement a format mask, limiting user entry to a specific set of characters and/or numbers. This provides field-level validation without running CPU-intensive client-side scripts. Note that the emptyok boolean attribute can be used where an optional input field has set a format mask. The formatting rules are specified in Table 1.

Table 1

Formatting Rules

N

Numeric Character

A, a

Alphabetic character (A=uppercase, a=lowercase)

X, x

Numeric or alphabetic character (X=uppercase, x=lowercase)

M, m

Any character (M means that uppercase is assumed and m that lowercase is assumed; in either case, however, any characters may be entered.)

\

Leading backslash specifies character literals that will be displayed and included when the field is submitted for server processing. In other words, a 7-digit phone number with a - separator can be specified as:

format="NNN\-NNNN"

*

Leading asterisk (*) specifies 0 or more characters. The * must be followed by a formatting character, such as M or x.

In other words, a password with a minimum of four characters can be specified as:

format="mmmm*m"

0, 1, 2,...,N

Leading number specifies 0..N characters. The leading number must be followed by a formatting character. In other words, a 7-digit phone number could be specified as:

format="3N\-4N"

Other input attributes include value, which is used to specify a default value for input, and type, which may be either text (the default) or password when the input should be hidden. (Note that although the password is hidden during entry, it may be transmitted to a server as plain text, depending on the security provided by the wireless device, gateway, and server.) The size attribute specifies the width of the entry area (in characters). Input uses the tabindex attribute to specify display order within the selectable elements on the current card. As with anchors, inputs may specify an accesskey attribute to provide a keyboard shortcut to the field.

Select Lists

Select lists enable a user to choose one or more items from a list. Each item in the list is specified by an option element. A simple select list follows:

<select name="fuel" value="gas" multiple="true">
        <option value="gas">Natural Gas</option>
        <option value="electric">Electric</option>
        <option value="propane">Propane</option>
        <option value="wood">Wood</option>
        </select>

This list provides four options, setting the default value to the first option (gas) via the value attribute of <select>. The multiple attribute is set to true so that users can choose more than one item; if the multiple attribute is not specified, the default is false. Each option has a value that will be added to the variable fuel. Because this is a multiple select list, when more than one option is chosen, the value of this option is added to a semicolon-separated list string in the fuel variable—for example, gas;propane.

Other attributes that are part of the select element include iname, which specifies a variable name for the index, and ivalue, which provides a default index or indices for this variable. As with inputs and anchors, the title attribute provides a brief label that can be used for a tool tip or similar description. Like <input>, <select> uses the tabindex attribute to specify its order within the selectable elements of the current card.

The option element is used to specify the items in a select list. A select element contains one or more options, with each option typically defining a value used to set the select value attribute. Options may also specify a title attribute and an onpick attribute. The onpick attribute defines the URL to be accessed (i.e., a task).

The following example combines the <input> and <select> elements. Figure 9 displays a WML card for a hypothetical kitchen inspection form. Each input and select element is displayed separately. Note the use of a format mask to ensure that at least one digit is entered for the light level field. The fans input is optional, as indicated by the emptyok attribute. Cooking fuels are selected via a multiple-choice list. In our example, the user has selected cooking fuels of both natural gas and wood.

  <!--Kitchen Inspection--> 
  <card id="Kitchen">
    <do type="accept" label="Submit">
      <go href="http::/gov.ns.ca/health/kitchen.cgi"/>
    </do>
    <p>
      <strong>Kitchen</strong><br/>
      Light (lux): <input name="light" format="N*N"/>
      Number of Fans: <input name="fans" emptyok="true" format="*N"/>
      Cooking Fuel
      <select name="fuel" value="gas" multiple="true">
        <option value="gas">Natural Gas</option>
        <option value="electric">Electric</option>
        <option value="propane">Propane</option>
        <option value="wood">Wood</option>
      </select>
   </p>
  </card>

Figure 9

Submit and Input Elements

This concludes our tour of WML fundamentals. In the next article, we'll examine more of the features of WML.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020