Home > Articles > Networking > Network Administration & Management

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Spaces Computing

A Mirror World is some huge institution's moving, true-to-life mirror image trapped inside a computer—where you can see and grasp it whole. The thick, dense, busy sub-world that encompasses you is also, now, an object in your hands. A brand new equilibrium is born.

—David Gelernter

Biologists are much more interested in microbes than in microscopes. Computers are tools at best and annoyances otherwise; for too long, software developers have dwelt on the discipline-specific minutiae while ignoring the big-picture implications that NDC finally forces before our eyes, demanding resolution. If the computer industry itself is to be more than just a passing fad, outside-the-box visions must be heeded. Spaces computing is one of those visions.

David Gelernter of Yale University published Mirror Worlds in 1991, well before the general public had heard of the Internet, let alone acquired an email address.[9] In the Mirror World, a software framework could contain all elements of reality we would deign to measure, track, transport, or number; reality could be reflected in software in real time—as could all the relationships among myriad mirrored images. This vision was manifested in the implementation Gelernter pioneered, a system called "Linda," which tendered tuple-spaces, a simple persistent storage that transcended nodes and networks, the mirror in which levels of reality could begin to reflect.

With Mirror Worlds, Gelernter was hailed as one of the most brilliant computer scientists of the modern era—so celebrated, in fact, that he was victimized by one David Kaczynski, aka the Unabomber, in June of '93, toward the end of the neo-Luddite's anonymous reign of terror. Gelernter was consumed by a lengthy recovery the next several years, the period which saw URLs emerge from obscurity to emblems of the then nascent dotcom mania. Gelernter's vision, however, needed no therapy.

With Mirror Worlds, Gelernter was hailed as one of the most brilliant computer scientists of the modern era—so celebrated, in fact, that he was victimized by one David Kaczynski, aka the Unabomber, in June of '93, toward the end of the neo-Luddite's anonymous reign of terror. Gelernter was consumed by a lengthy recovery the next several years, the period which saw URLs emerge from obscurity to emblems of the then nascent dotcom mania. Gelernter's vision, however, needed no therapy.

A Sun Implementation

Let's look at JavaSpaces. Sun Microsystems demonstrated JavaSpaces in the spring of 1998 at the JavaOne conference, the annual worldwide gathering of Java devotees in San Francisco's Moscone Center. JavaSpaces was the first commercially viable instantiation of Gelernter's seminal vision, a Mirror World framework, which was enabled by the Write Once, Run Anywhere promise of the Java platform. Built upon Jini network technology protocols, JavaSpaces was demonstrated at the conference by the 14,000 Java Rings given away to conference attendees.

The rings, as shown in Figure 3.3, featured a small embedded processor[10] that ran the smallest of Java virtual machines, a Java SmartCard-specified device that defines a WORA engine for credit-card sized devices.

03fig03.gifFigure 3.3. The Java Ring, JavaOne 1998

Once the ring was registered in a central database, each ring bearer's name and coffee preference were stored in their own ring as persistent data that could be accessed upon subsequent connections to the serial readers that were interfaces for such devices. Demonstrations were then made available at coffee-dispensing stations around the event facilities. Espresso, cappuccino, or regular coffee? Decaffeinated? Tea, perhaps? The stored preference on each ring determined the beverage of choice.

But another demonstration of Java Ring technology proved to be even more interesting.

What if all those rings could be used to solve a large problem? What if 14,000 asynchronous, independent, intermittently connected CPUs could be harnessed to serve the needs of one problem? Would that, conceptually, hold value? What other kinds of applications might also be so served? Conference attendees were encouraged to periodically take a few moments, connect their rings briefly to the network, and allow the ring CPU to be used to compute a small part of a large problem.

The fractal mathematics necessary to compute the location and color of each pixel in the 64K image, as shown in Figure 3.4, that emerged over the course of the four days of the event was hosted on those rings. Over a conference period, the image slowly but certainly filled in.

03fig04.gifFigure 3.4. JavaRing/JavaSpaces problem, JavaOne 1998

Computing on rings was terribly cool. Equally cool and almost unheralded, however, was JavaSpaces—the "man behind the curtain," the Mirror World framework that allowed all those compute transactions to easily and seamlessly occur.

Since that event, spaces computing has slowly emerged in the Java platform. Jini network technology has found some application beyond the early (mistakenly) device-specific marketing spin it suffered.

Commercial Potential

Some purveyors of spaces computing frameworks beyond Gelernter's work and JavaSpaces have recently begun to emerge. GigaSpaces, an Israeli software venture, announced a commercially hardened JavaSpaces in 2001 that promises a vital framework for solving myriad NDC problems today.[11] Complementary to, if not competitive with, other approaches like Web Services, spaces computing may yet capture a critical mass thanks to its simplicity, an attribute which may become more dear in an increasingly complex NDC world.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020