Home > Articles > Web Services > XML

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Grid Applications

Based on our earlier discussion, we can align Grid Computing applications to have common needs, such as what is described in (but not limited to) the following items:

  • Application partitioning that involves breaking the problem into discrete pieces

  • Discovery and scheduling of tasks and workflow

  • Data communications distributing the problem data where and when it is required

  • Provisioning and distributing application codes to specific system nodes

  • Results management assisting in the decision processes of the environment

  • Autonomic features such as self-configuration, self-optimization, self-recovery, and self-management

Let us now explore some of these Grid applications and their usage patterns. We start with schedulers, which form the core component in most of the computational grids.


Schedulers are types of applications responsible for the management of jobs, such as allocating resources needed for any specific job, partitioning of jobs to schedule parallel execution of tasks, data management, event correlation, and service-level management capabilities. These schedulers then form a hierarchical structure, with meta-schedulers that form the root and other lower level schedulers, while providing specific scheduling capabilities that form the leaves. These schedulers may be constructed with a local scheduler implementation approach for specific job execution, or another meta-scheduler or a cluster scheduler for parallel executions. Figure 1.2 shows this concept.

01fig02.gifFigure 1.2. The scheduler hierarchy embodies local, meta-level, and cluster schedulers.

The jobs submitted to Grid Computing schedulers are evaluated based on their service-level requirements, and then allocated to the respective resources for execution. This will involve complex workflow management and data movement activities to occur on a regular basis. There are schedulers that must provide capabilities for areas such as (but not limited to):

  • Advanced resource reservation

  • Service-level agreement validation and enforcement

  • Job and resource policy management and enforcement for best turnaround times within the allowable budget constraints

  • Monitoring job executions and status

  • Rescheduling and corrective actions of partial failover situations

Later in this book, full treatment is provided for many of the most notable scheduler and meta-scheduler implementations.

Resource Broker

The resource broker provides pairing services between the service requester and the service provider. This pairing enables the selection of best available resources from the service provider for the execution of a specific task. These resource brokers collect information (e.g., resource availability, usage models, capabilities, and pricing information) from the respective resources, and use this information source in the pairing process.

Figure 1.3 illustrates the use of a resource broker for purposes of this discussion. This particular resource broker provides feedback to the users on the available resources. In general cases, the resource broker may select the suitable scheduler for the resource execution task, and collaborate with the scheduler to execute the task(s).

01fig03.gifFigure 1.3. The resource broker collects information from the respective resources, and utilizes this information source in the pairing process.

The pairing process in a resource broker involves allocation and support functions such as:

  • Allocating the appropriate resource or a combination of resources for the task execution

  • Supporting users' deadline and budget constraints for scheduling optimizations

Load Balancing

The Grid Computing infrastructure load-balancing issues are concerned with the traditional load-balancing distribution of workload among the resources in a Grid Computing environment. This load-balancing feature must always be integrated into any system in order to avoid processing delays and overcommitment of resources. These kinds of applications can be built in connection with schedulers and resource managers.

The workload can be pushed outbound to the resources, based on the availability state and/or resources, and can then pull the jobs from the schedulers depending on their availability. This level of load balancing involves partitioning of jobs, identifying the resources, and queueing of the jobs. There are cases when resource reservations might be required, as well as running multiple jobs in parallel.

Another feature that might be of interest for load balancing is support for failure detection and management. These load distributors can redistribute the jobs to other resources if needed.

Grid Portals

Grid portals are similar to Web portals, in the sense they provide uniform access to the grid resources. For example, grid portals provide capabilities for Grid Computing resource authentication, remote resource access, scheduling capabilities, and monitoring status information. These kinds of portals help to alleviate the complexity of task management through customizable and personalized graphical interfaces for the users. This, in turn, alleviates the need for end users to have more domain knowledge than on the specific details of grid resource management.

Some examples of these grid portal capabilities are noted in the following list:

  • Querying databases or LDAP servers for resource-specific information

  • File transfer facilities such as file upload, download, integration with custom software, and so on

  • Manage job through job status feedbacks

  • Allocate the resources for the execution of specific tasks

  • Security management

  • Provide personalized solutions

In short, these grid portals help free end users from the complexity of job management and resource allocation so they can concentrate more on their domain of expertise. There are a number of standards and software development toolkits available to develop custom portals. The emerging Web services and Web service portal standards will play a more significant role in portal development.

Integrated Solutions

Many of the global industry sectors have witnessed the emergence of a number of integrated grid application solutions in the last few years. This book focuses on this success factor.

These integrated solutions are a combination of the existing advanced middleware and application functionalities, combined to provide more coherent and high performance results across the Grid Computing environment.

Integrated Grid Computing solutions will have more enhanced features to support more complex utilization of grids such as coordinated and optimized resource sharing, enhanced security management, cost optimizations, and areas yet to be explored. It is straightforward to see that these integrated solutions in both the commercial and noncommercial worlds sustain high values and significant cost reductions. Grid applications can achieve levels of flexibility utilizing infrastructures provided by application and middleware frameworks.

In the next section we introduce and explain the grid infrastructure. Today, the most notable integrated solutions in the commercial and industry sectors are utility computing, on-demand solutions, and resource virtualizations infrastructures. Let us briefly explore aspects of some of these infrastructure solutions. We will provide an additional, more focused treatment in subsequent chapters of this book.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020