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Getting Started with .NET Development Using C#

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Bart De Smet shows you how to to install the .NET Framework and the necessary tools, namely Visual Studio 2010. Bart then explains how to write a simple C# application, highlights some of the important language elements, goes through the process of building it using various tools, and looks at how you can debug code.
This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Time to set yourself up for a successful journey through the world of .NET development using C#. An obvious first thing to tackle is to install the .NET Framework and the necessary tools so that we can start running and writing code. One tool we'll pay a fair amount of attention to is Visual Studio 2010, but we cover other useful tools, too.

To get our hands dirty, we'll write a simple C# application and highlight some of the important language elements, go through the process of building it using various tools, and look at how we can debug code.

Installing the .NET Framework

The first logical step to get started with writing code targeting the .NET Framework is to install it on your development machine. At this point, we'll skip the in-depth discussion on how to deploy the .NET Framework to the machines where your application code is to run ultimately, be it a client computer, a web server, or even the cloud.

The .NET Framework Version Landscape

Over the years, various versions of the .NET Framework have been released. In this book, we cover the latest (at the time of this writing) release of the .NET Framework, version 4, which goes hand-in-hand with the Visual Studio 2010 release.

Does that mean you can't use the knowledge you gain from .NET 4 programming to target older releases of the framework? Certainly not! Although the .NET Framework has grown release after release, the core principles have remained the same, and a good part of the evolution is to be found at the level of additional application programming interfaces (APIs) that are made available through the class libraries. A similar observation of evolution obviously holds on the level of the managed languages: Features are added every time around that often require additional framework support (for example, LINQ in C# 3.0, dynamic in version 4). As you can imagine, keeping track of all those versions and their key differentiating features isn't always easy. To make things more clear, take a look at Table 3.1.

Table 3.1. .NET Platform Version History

Version

Codename

Visual Studio

C#

VB

Flagship Features

1.0

Lightning

2002 (7.0)

1.0

7.0

Managed code

1.1

Everett

2003 (7.1)

1.0

7.0

2.0

Whidbey

2005 (8.0)

2.0

8.0

Generics

3.0

WinFX

2005 (8.0)

2.0

8.0

WPF, WCF, WF

3.5

Orcas

2008 (9.0)

3.0

9.0

LINQ

4.0

Dev10

2010 (10.0)

4.0

10.0

Dynamic

Notice that new releases of the .NET Framework typically go hand in hand with updates to the Visual Studio tooling support. A notable exception to this rule was the .NET 3.0 release, where Visual Studio 2005 additions were made to support the newly added features (for example, by providing designer support for Windows Presentation Foundation [WPF]). On the other hand, notice how the managed languages evolve at a slightly slower pace. It's perfectly imaginable that a future release of the .NET Framework will still be using C# 4.0 and VB.NET 10.0. History will tell.

What Table 3.1 doesn't show is the versioning of the CLR. There's a very important point to be made about this: The CLR evolves at a much slower pace than the libraries and languages built on top of it. Slow most often has a pejorative feel to it, but for the CLR this is a good thing: The less churn made to the core of runtime, the more guarantees can be made about compatibility of existing code across different versions of the .NET Framework. This is illustrated nicely in Figure 3.1 based on the .NET Framework 3.x history.

Figure 3.1

Figure 3.1 .NET Framework 3.x is built on CLR 2.0.

From this figure, you can see how both .NET Framework 3.0 and .NET Framework 3.5 are built to run on top of the existing CLR 2.0 runtime bits. This means that for all the goodness that ships with those versions of the .NET Framework, no changes were required to the core execution engine, a good sign of having a solid runtime that's ready to take on a big job.

Another advantage that comes from keeping the runtime the same across a set of framework releases is the capability to reuse existing tooling infrastructure (for example, for debugging). With the release of Visual Studio 2008, this capability became visible to .NET developers under the form of multitargeting support. What this feature enables is to use Visual Studio 2008 to target .NET Framework 2.0, 3.0, and 3.5 using the same comfortable tooling environment. And with .NET 4.0—as you'll see later in this chapter when we explore Visual Studio 2010—multitargeting has been extended to support all releases from .NET 2.0 to 4.0.

What about .NET Framework 1.x? Development targeting those platforms will always be tied to the use of the releases of Visual Studio that shipped with it (that is, Visual Studio .NET versions 2002 and 2003). Too many fundamental changes to runtime infrastructure were made between versions 1.x and 2.0 of the CLR, making multitargeting support for .NET 1.x unfeasible. Luckily nowadays, the use of .NET 1.x has largely been phased out. If you still have .NET 1.x applications around, now is the time to port them to a more recent version of the platform (preferably .NET 4.0, of course).

But why should someone care to target an older release of the .NET Framework? Most commonly, the answer is to be found in deployment constraints within companies, web hosting providers, and so on. Having tooling support to facilitate this multitargeting is pure goodness and also means you can benefit from core enhancements to the Visual Studio tools while targeting older releases of the .NET Framework.

.NET Framework 4

The particular version of the .NET Framework we target in this book is .NET 4, using Visual Studio 2010 and C# 4.0. Other than the .NET 3.x releases, .NET 4.0 has a new version of the CLR underneath it, and obviously—in the grand tradition—it comes with a bunch of new class libraries that will make life easier for developers.

Two keywords about .NET 4.0 are important to point out here:

  • Side by side means .NET 4.0 can be installed next to existing versions of the .NET Framework. What's so special about this compared to .NET 3.x? The key difference is updates to existing class library assemblies are no longer carried out in-place, but new versions are put next to the existing ones.
  • Backward compatible is a core success factor to the managed code developer. In practice, it means that existing code that was compiled against .NET 2.0 or 3.x in the past can now be targeted at .NET 4.0 without requiring source-level code changes.

Figure 3.2 illustrates a machine with all the versions of the .NET Framework installed next to one another.

Figure 3.2

Figure 3.2 Side-by-side installation of .NET Framework versions.

Besides having various versions of the .NET Framework, .NET 4.0 pioneers the availability of different "flavors." Around the .NET 3.5 timeframe it became apparent that the size of the .NET Framework had grown too large to enable fast friction-free installs, which are especially important for client application deployments. Significant factors for such deployments are download times and installation times.

To streamline typical deployments of the framework, a split has been made of the .NET Framework class libraries, factoring out so-called Client Profile assemblies. Inside the Client Profile bubble, one finds the Base Class Library (BCL) assemblies, things such as WPF and WCF, and C# 4.0 language support, among other assemblies relevant for client application development. The remaining part (referred to as Extended Profile) contains features like ASP.NET that client applications typically don't need.

In practice, developers target either the full framework or the client profile subset of it. Both packages have their own redistributable installers, where (obviously) the Client Profile package is the smaller of the two and installs faster. Internally, the Extended Profile package is just an increment on top of the Client Profile package, the result being a layered cake as shown in Figure 3.3. The nice thing about this organization is that it's possible to upgrade a Client Profile machine to the full framework installation.

Figure 3.3

Figure 3.3 Client Profile subset of the .NET Framework.

With this split, without a doubt you'll wonder whether you need to memorize what's available in what subset of the .NET Framework. The fortunate answer is no because Visual Studio 2010 extends its notion of multitargeting to the various "profiles" of the .NET Framework. When the Client Profile subset is selected, Visual Studio 2010 prevents assemblies from the Full framework from being referenced.

Running the Installer

Playtime! To write code on the .NET Framework 4, let's start by installing the Full .NET Framework package. That's really all you need to get started with managed code development.

Where to get it? Just browse to http://msdn.microsoft.com/netframework and click the link to the .NET Framework 4 download. The installer itself should be straightforward to run: Accept the license agreement (shown in Figure 3.4), get a cup of coffee, and you're ready to go.

Figure 3.4

Figure 3.4 .NET Framework 4 installation.

What Got Installed?

When the installation is complete, it's good to take a quick look at what was installed to familiarize yourself with where to find stuff.

The Runtime Shim

The runtime shim is really something you shouldn't care much about, but it's a convenient way to find out the latest version of the installed CLR on the machine. The purpose of the shim is to load the correct version of the CLR to execute a given application, a particularly important task if multiple versions of the runtime are installed.

You can find the shim under %windir%\system32, with the name mscoree.dll. By looking at the file properties (shown in Figure 3.5), you'll find out about the latest common language runtime version on the machine.

Figure 3.5

Figure 3.5 The version of the CLR runtime shim.

Although the file description states "Microsoft .NET Runtime Execution Engine," this is not the CLR itself, so where does the runtime itself live?

The .NET 4.0 CLR

Having a runtime shim is one thing; having the runtime itself is invaluable. All runtime installations live side by side in the %windir%\Microsoft.NET\Framework folder. On 64-bit systems, there's a parallel Framework64 folder structure. Having two "bitnesses" of the CLR and accompanying libraries is required to allow applications to run either as 32-bit (Windows On Windows, or WOW) or 64-bit.

Starting with .NET 4.0, the CLR itself is called clr.dll (previously, mscorwks.dll), as shown in Figure 3.6.

Figure 3.6

Figure 3.6 The common language runtime itself.

The Global Assembly Cache

The Global Assembly Cache (GAC) is where class library assemblies are loaded for use in .NET applications. You can view the GAC under %windir%\assembly, but a command-line directory listing reveals the structure of the GAC in more detail. We discuss the role of the GAC and the impact on your own applications exhaustively in Chapter 25, "Assemblies and Application Domains."

Figure 3.7 shows the structure of the .NET 4.0 GAC containing the 4.0 version of the System.dll assembly, one of the most commonly used assemblies in the world of managed code development.

Figure 3.7

Figure 3.7 Inside the GAC.

Tools

Besides the runtime and class library, a bunch of tools get installed to the framework-specific folder under %windir%\Microsoft.NET\Framework. Although you'll only use a fraction of those on a regular basis—also because most of those are indirectly used through the Visual Studio 2010 graphical user interface (GUI)—it's always good to know which tools you have within reach. My favorite tool is, without doubt, the C# compiler, csc.exe. Figure 3.8 shows some of the tools that ship with the .NET Framework installation.

Figure 3.8

Figure 3.8 One of the .NET Framework tools: the C# compiler.

Other tools that can be found here include other compilers, the IL assembler, MSBuild, the NGEN native image generator tool, and so on.

We explore quite a few of the tools that come with the .NET Framework throughout this book, so make sure to add this folder to your favorites.

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