Home > Articles > Security > Network Security

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Network Resources

AAA clients and external RADIUS servers are defined within this drawer. When ACS receives an AAA request from a network device, it searches the network device repository to find an entry with a matching IP address. If a match is not found, the request will be rejected.

This drawer has four menu items:

  • Network Device Groups
  • Network Devices and AAA Clients
  • Default Network Device
  • External RADIUS Servers

Network Device Groups

AAA clients in the ACS repository can be assigned to Network Device Groups (NDGs). NDGs are logical grouping of devices—for example, by Location or Type—which can be used in policy conditions. For example, all routers in the San Jose location can be assigned a single policy. NDGs simplify creating policies and managing device repository.

NDGs are defined under a hierarchical structure called a Device Group Hierarchy. Each device group hierarchy has a root node under which NDGs are defined. For example, Location and Device Type groups are predefined. The root node of the Location group is All Locations. New NDGs can be created under All Locations. These NDGs can further have other NDGs as child nodes. Figure 4-3 shows a sample hierarchy created under the Locations group. Notice how the NDGs are created countrywise, statewise, or citywise.

Figure 4-3

Figure 4-3 Hierarchical Structure of NDGs

A maximum of 12 hierarchical groups can be created and each group can have a maximum of six nodes including the root node.

Clicking on the Network Device Groups menu item will display the existing groups in the Content Area as shown in Figure 4-4. The groups also appear as individual submenu items in the Navigation Pane under Network Device Groups. Click on a group name in the Content Area to edit it. New groups can be created by clicking on the Create button or the Duplicate button.

Figure 4-4

Figure 4-4 Network Device Groups

To create a group, follow these steps:

  • Step 1. Select Network Resources > Network Device Groups.
  • The Network Device Groups page appears as shown in Figure 4-4.
  • Step 2. Click Create.
  • The Hierarchy - General Page appears in the Content Area. Figure 4-5 shows this page.
    Figure 4-5

    Figure 4-5 Creating a Network Device Group

  • Step 3. Enter a name; for this example, use Routers.
  • Step 4. (Optional) Enter a description.
  • Step 5. Enter a root node name. For this example, use All Routers.

    Remember that this is any name that refers to all the NDGs and devices in this group.

  • Step 6. Click Submit to create the group. The group Routers now appears in the Navigation Pane as a submenu item under the Network Device Group menu item.

Clicking on the group name, Routers, in the Navigation Page will open the Network Device Groups page in the Content Area. Because the group is new, only the root node All Routers will be displayed. This page is similar to the one shown in Figure 4-3. You can add NDGs to the Routers group from this page. To do so, follow these steps:

  • Step 1. Click Create.
  • Step 2. Enter a name for the group; for our example, use Core Routers.
  • Step 3. (Optional) Enter a description.
  • Step 4. The root node, All Routers, is already selected in the Parent field. If other NDGs existed in the Routers group, you could have clicked on Select to see them and select a different parent node.
  • Step 5. Click Submit to create the NDG. Core Routers is now visible under the root node in the Network Device Groups page.

Network Devices and AAA Clients

It is important to remember that a device should be in the ACS repository before AAA requests from that device will be accepted. The Network Devices and AAA Clients menu item shows the repository and enables you to manage the devices. Along with the name and address, the page displays the NDG that the device belongs to. You can use the filter option to search for devices. This page is shown is Figure 4-6. To add an AAA client to the ACS database and enable communications using the TACACS+ or RADIUS protocols, you use the following steps:

  • Step 1. Select Network Resources > Network Devices and AAA Clients.
  • Step 2. Click Create. Figure 4-6 shows the Create Network Device page.
  • Step 3. Enter the hostname of the AAA client, or if this is going to be a group of devices, enter a name that makes it easily recognizable. For this example, use Router1.
  • Step 4. (Optional) Enter a description.
  • Step 5. All device groups configured in ACS are shown and their root nodes are selected. Click Select next to the group you want to change to display the Network Device Groups selection box. Click the radio button next to the desired Network Device Group and click OK. For this example, select the San Jose and Core Routers from the Location and Routers groups.
  • Step 6. A device definition can represent a single or multiple devices. Select Single IP Address or IP Range as required. Selecting IP Range will display options for configuring a mask with the IP address. You can add multiple entries for the range. For this example, use a 192.168.1.0 address with a mask of 24.
  • Step 7. Select TACACS+ and/or RADIUS and enter the shared secret. You have the option of selecting both protocols for a device. For this example, select TACACS+ and enter Cisco as the shared secret.
  • Step 8. Click Submit

    The device is now listed in the Network Devices and AAA Clients page as shown in Figure 4-7.

Figure 4-6

Figure 4-6 Adding a New AAA Device

Figure 4-7

Figure 4-7 Network Devices and AAA Clients

Default Network Device

As mentioned previously, a device needs to be in the ACS repository before AAA requests will be accepted from it. There is an exception to this rule. You can configure a default network device. If a request comes from a device that does not specifically exist in the repository, ACS will use the default device profile. In the default network device definition, you provide a shared secret key, network device group, and the protocol(s) to be used. To configure the default network device, follow these steps:

  • Step 1. Select Network Resources > Default Network Device.
  • The Default Network Device page appears. Figure 4-8 shows this page.
    Figure 4-8

    Figure 4-8 Default Network Device

  • Step 2. Select Enabled from the drop-down list next to Default Network Device Status.
  • Step 3. Click Select next to the device groups that you want to modify. For our example, select San Jose NDG from the Locations Group.
  • Step 4. Select TACACS+ or RADIUS and enter the shared secret for the protocols. You can select one or both the protocols. For this example, select both the protocols and use Cisco as the shared secret.
  • Step 5. Click Submit.

External RADIUS Servers

ACS 5.1 can function both as a RADIUS server and a RADIUS proxy server. When it acts as a proxy server, ACS receives authentication and accounting requests from the AAA client and forwards them to the external RADIUS server. ACS accepts the results of the requests and returns them to the client. You must configure the external RADIUS servers in ACS to enable ACS to forward requests to them. You can configure multiple external RADIUS servers. To add a server, follow these steps:

  • Step 1. Select Network Resources > External RADIUS Servers. The External RADIUS Servers page appears with a list of configured servers.
  • Step 2. Click Create.

    The Create Server page appears as shown in Figure 4-9.

    Figure 4-9

    Figure 4-9 Adding an External RADIUS Server

  • Step 3. Enter a name for the server. For this example, use External1.
  • Step 4. (Optional) Enter a description.
  • Step 5. Enter the server IP address. For this example, use 192.168.1.40.
  • Step 6. Enter the shared secret. This secret is used to encrypt the RADIUS request between ACS and the external server. For this example, use Cisco.
  • Step 7. Click Advanced Options.
  • Step 8. Verify the authentication and accounting ports.

    By default, ports 1812 and 1813 are used. If the external server uses other ports, enter them in the respective fields. This example leaves the ports set to the default values.

  • Step 9. Verify the server timeout value.

    By default, five seconds timeout period is used. If the server fails to respond in that period, the server will resend the request as many times as specified in the Connection Attempts field. You can specify a timeout value of 1 to 120 seconds. For this example, specify 10 seconds.

  • Step 10. Verify the connection attempts value.

    By default, ACS will attempt to connect to the external server three times. You can configure ACS to attempt up to 10 times to connect to the external server. For this example, specify five attempts.

  • Step 11. Click Submit.
  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020