Home > Articles

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

AIDS in a changing world

As a disease that is fundamentally linked to the way humans live and how they relate to one another, AIDS is inextricably entwined with the future of our world—and our world is rapidly changing.

Globalization

Regions that once seemed remote from each other have drawn considerably closer as a result of increased international travel, breakthroughs in communications technology, and the internationalization of commerce, social trends, and political groupings. These trends have already had important effects on the pandemic and will continue to do so.

Globalization may bring benefits as well as challenges. Whereas humans have historically concerned themselves primarily with problems in their own countries or communities, the increasing inter-connectedness of our world makes it possible to mobilize global endeavors to address global problems. Thus, an Irish rock star can galvanize global attention on the pandemic's intense burdens in sub-Saharan Africa, and an African-born player for a major European football club can focus attention on problems in his home country.

A key driver of globalization, the revolution in information and communication technology, is changing the ways people communicate about behaviors and issues.45 Although speaking about the "digital divide" between rich and poor countries is common, this gap is narrowing quickly, as use of the Internet and mobile communications technology is growing fastest in developing countries. Technological advances also may upend historic patterns; in developing countries, for example, women are more likely than men to use SMS text messaging to communicate. As with other aspects of globalization, communications advances may provide new avenues for intervention while at the same time raising new challenges. Social networking technologies offer new ways to mobilize communities and societies to take action, but they may also facilitate increased risk behavior; in some countries, sex work solicitation is rapidly transitioning from brothels, streets, and other traditional venues to the Web and mobile phones.

Globalization also teaches us something else. We sometimes speak as if we are living in a unique moment in human history, but this is not the first era of globalization. Between 1890 and 1913, levels of international trade and financial transactions were comparable to today's.46 But unforeseen political and economic shocks, including World War I and the Great Depression, brought this earlier era of globalization to an abrupt end. This history reminds us that although we can—and should—do our best to anticipate future trends, unexpected surprises may well be in store, testing our ability to adapt to a radically different set of circumstances.

Climate change

Extreme weather events and other disasters associated with climate change, as well as the increased frequency and severity of droughts in developing countries, are likely to generate up to 150 million climate-change refugees in coming decades47 and further accelerate the exodus from rural villages to urban settings. Although mobility itself is not a risk factor for HIV, large-scale population dislocations frequently place people in situations of increased risk and vulnerability. By exacerbating the degradation of agricultural sectors, climate change may worsen the well-documented effects of AIDS on household food security and agricultural economies in sub-Saharan Africa.

Climate change could have other real, although indirect, effects on the future of AIDS by reducing funding for health programs in low- and middle-income countries. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change projects that developing countries will incur annual costs of adapting to climate change of US$27 billion to 66 billion by 203048; other researchers predict that associated costs will be considerably higher.49 With such extraordinary costs looming, developing countries and external donors may struggle to accommodate other competing needs, such as AIDS, other infectious diseases, or health-systems strengthening.

Population growth

By 2031, the global population is projected to exceed 8 billion people. Countries are already finding that stability in the percentage of the national population infected with HIV translates over time into increasing numbers of people living with the disease. Population growth also has the potential to increase social conflict regarding natural resources such as water or food, which could give rise to greater population mobility and further increase risks of and vulnerabilities to HIV.

A changing global power structure

Existing global structures and mechanisms for AIDS decision-making arose out of political and economic power structures put in place after World War II. The victors in that conflict forged global institutions that have played central roles in the AIDS response, including the United Nations system and the World Bank. The major AIDS donors also have largely reflected the Atlantic orientation of global power in the second half of the 20th century.

These power dynamics are rapidly changing. China, India, and other Asian economies are growing far more rapidly than those represented by the Group of Seven major industrialized countries. Brazil, Russia, South Africa, and other countries are also rapidly coming into their own as global and regional powers, illustrated most vividly by the G20's replacement of the G7 as a key forum for global decision-making. Meanwhile, the traditional global powers, most recently buffeted by the global financial and economic crisis, confront worrisome structural challenges associated with economic stagnation, long-term budget deficits, and rapidly aging populations.

How these trends will affect the future of AIDS is uncertain. The relative political and economic decline of the donors that have helped underwrite the massive build-up of financial resources for AIDS is a cause for concern, at least. And the transition to a more multipolar world could conceivably make it even more difficult to marshal coordinated global action on major problems. But these trends also offer potential opportunities, as the corresponding development of new global powers offers the prospect of new AIDS donors coming on the scene in future years.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020