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This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Cluster Management

For the most part, you can manage your cluster using either the command-line interface (CLI) or the Solaris Cluster Manager GUI. Although the capabilities provided by the GUI are a subset of what is available through the CLI, its graphical nature makes it less prone to user errors when creating or modifying complex objects. This is particularly true if a resource has many mandatory parameters or if a resource group requires several affinities to be configured.

Command-Line Interface

The Solaris Cluster CLI commands are in the /usr/cluster/bin directory, and all begin with the cl prefix. Most of these commands have both a long form and a short form. The directory also contains the CLI commands used to manage systems installed with software releases prior to the Solaris Cluster 3.2 software, such as scrgadm, scconf, and scswitch.

All of the commands listed in Table 4.1, excluding clsetup, which is menu-driven, conform to this format: command action argument ... operand.

Table 4.1. Solaris Cluster Commands

CLI—Long Form

CLI—Short Form




Manages the Solaris Cluster access policies for nodes



Manages the Solaris Cluster devices



Manages the Solaris Cluster device groups



Manages the Solaris Cluster private interconnects



Manages access to NAS devices from the Solaris Cluster software



Manages the Solaris Cluster nodes



Manages the Solaris Cluster quorum devices and properties



Manages resources for the Solaris Cluster logical hostnames



Manages resources for the Solaris Cluster data services



Manages resource groups for the Solaris Cluster data services



Manages resource types for the Solaris Cluster data services



Manages the Solaris Cluster resources for shared addresses



Menu-driven command used to configure the Solaris Cluster software interactively



Administers the list of Solaris Cluster Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) hosts



Administers the Solaris Cluster SNMP management information bases (MIBs)



Administers the Solaris Cluster SNMP users



Configures system resource monitoring



Manages the global configuration and status of a cluster



Configures VxVM for the Solaris Cluster software



Creates and manages zone clusters

All the commands return an exit code of zero on success, allowing you to create scripts to automate procedures that you might perform regularly.

The Solaris Cluster Manager Graphical User Interface

You can run the Solaris Cluster Manager GUI using a browser such as Mozilla Firefox or Microsoft Internet Explorer. Solaris Cluster Manager requires that you have already installed

  • The common agent container (CAC) package (SUNWcacaort)
  • The Solaris Cluster Manager packages (SUNWscspmr, SUNWscspmu)
  • The Sun Java Web Console packages (SUNWmcon, SUNWmconr, SUNWmctag)

After the Sun Java Web Console is started, it listens for secure https connections on port 6789, if you have reversed the hardening performed by the standard Solaris installation process (see Example 4.2). In addition, at least version 2.2 of the CAC service must be running. CAC listens for Java Management Extensions (JMX) calls made by the Sun Java Web Console as a result of actions you perform through the Solaris Cluster Manager GUI.

Example 4.4. Checking That the Required Components Are in Place to Run Solaris Cluster Manager

Check that the required packages are present.

# pkginfo SUNWcacaort
application SUNWcacaort Common Agent Container – Runtime

# pkginfo | grep SUNWscspm
application SUNWscspmr                       Sun Cluster Manager (root)
application SUNWscspmu                       Sun Cluster Manager (Usr)

# pkginfo SUNWmcon SUNWmconr SUNWmctag
application SUNWmcon  Sun Java(TM) Web Console 3.0.2 (Core)
system      SUNWmconr Sun Java(TM) Web Console 3.0.2 (Root)
application SUNWmctag Sun Java(TM) Web Console 3.0.2 (Tags & Components)

Check the CAC service version.

# cacaoadm -V

Check that CAC is online.

# svcs /application/management/common-agent-container-1
STATE          STIME    FMRI
online          7:58:28 svc:/application/management/common-agent-container-1:default

Check that the Java Web Console is online.

# svcs svc:/system/webconsole:console
STATE           STIME   FMRI
online          Jan_19  svc:/system/webconsole:console

Check that the Java Web Console is listening on all networks to port 6789.

# netstat -a | grep 6789
      *.6789                 *.*                   0       0 49152       0 LISTEN

Check the applications deployed to the Java Web Console.

# wcadmin list

Deployed web applications (application name, context name, status):

    SunClusterManager  SunClusterManager  [running]
    console           ROOT              [running]
    console           com_sun_web_ui    [running]
    console           console           [running]
    console           manager           [running]
    legacy            SunPlexManagerGeo  [running]
    zfs               zfs               [running]

Registered jar files (application name, identifier, path):

    SunClusterManager cacao_jars    /usr/lib/cacao/lib/*.jar
    SunClusterManager jdmk_jars     /opt/SUNWjdmk/5.1/lib/*.jar
    console           audit_jar     /usr/lib/audit/Audit.jar
    console           console_jars  /usr/share/webconsole/lib/*.jar
    console           jato_jar      /usr/share/lib/jato/jato.jar
    console           javahelp_jar  /usr/jdk/packages/javax.help-2.0/lib/*.jar
    console           shared_jars   /usr/share/webconsole/private/container/shared/

Registered login modules (application name, service name, identifier):

    console ConsoleLogin userlogin
    console ConsoleLogin rolelogin

Persistent Jvm options:


Shared service properties (name, value):

    ENABLE            yes
    java.options      -server -XX:+BackgroundCompilation -Xmx256m

After you have logged in to the Java Web Console and chosen the Solaris Cluster Manager option, a screen similar to Figure 4.3 is displayed. Using Solaris Cluster Manager, you can perform a wide range of tasks, including

  • Creating, modifying, and deleting resource groups and resources
  • Enabling and disabling resources
  • Bringing resource groups online and offline
  • Switching resource groups between nodes
Figure 4.3

Figure 4.3 Solaris Cluster Manager browser-based GUI

Solaris Cluster Manager also highlights faults in the system with a red marker over the components that have errors.

Solaris Cluster Wizards

As with the clsetup menu-driven command, Solaris Cluster Manager has several wizards to help you set up some common highly available services, such as Network File System (NFS), Apache web server, and Oracle databases, as well as two more complex services: Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) and SAP web application server.

The wizards simplify your work by probing the system to discover the potential options that are available to you and then configuring the relevant resource groups and resources with the appropriate dependencies and affinities. A good example of this process is the Oracle RAC wizard. It can do the following:

  • Create the RAC framework resource group and resources for you, depending on your answer regarding your volume management method (hardware RAID, Solaris Volume Manager for Sun Cluster, or the VxVM cluster feature), shared QFS file system, or another supported combination.
  • Create the necessary scalable storage resource groups and resources.
  • Create the RAC server proxy resource group and resource based on the Oracle RAC version, the ORACLE_HOME variable, and the ORACLE_SID variables you select. Again, most of these choices are discovered for you by the wizard.
  • Create the Oracle Clusterware resources that integrate with the Solaris Cluster storage resources to give the Oracle RAC database instances visibility into the availability of their underlying storage.

The wizard completes the operations for you and displays the Solaris Cluster commands it used to achieve these steps. If anything goes wrong during the creation of these objects, then the wizard will undo the changes.

Role-Based Access Control

By default, only the Solaris root user can manage the cluster. Non-root users cannot create, modify, or delete resource groups or resources, nor can they switch resource groups between the nodes. Non-root users can view the resource group and resource configuration because they are assigned the solaris.cluster.read rights profile as part of their standard authorizations. To delegate some of the management functions to specific system administrators who are not assigned full root access, you can use the role-based access control (RBAC) capabilities to assign them the necessary solaris.cluster.admin or solaris.cluster.modify Solaris Cluster management rights profile.

The following example shows you how to assign to the Solaris user myadmin all the Solaris Cluster management rights profiles, which include both solaris .cluster.admin and solaris.cluster.modify. Initially, without being assigned the solaris.cluster.modify rights profile, the user could not create the resource group foo-rg. After the user is assigned this rights profile, the user can create and delete the resource group. However, in order to manage or bring the resource group online, the user also needs to have the solaris.cluster.admin rights profile assigned. There is no simple way to assign roles such that individual users can control individual resource groups or resources.

Example 4.5. Assigning a Solaris Cluster Management Rights Profile to a User

Use the id and auths commands to determine the current user ID and authorizations.

# id -a
uid=424242(myadmin) gid=424242(myadmin) groups=424242(myadmin)
# clresourcegroup list
# auths
# clresourcegroup create foo-rg
clrg:  (C368238) You are not authorized to run this command with these options.
clrg:  (C666174) An RBAC authorization of "solaris.cluster.modify" is required.
clrg:  (C546315) Refer to the rbac(5) man page for more information about RBAC

Modify the /etc/user_attr file to include the required rights.

# grep myadmin /etc/user_attr
# id -a
uid=424242(myadmin) gid=424242(myadmin) groups=424242(myadmin)
# auths
# clresourcegroup create foo-rg
# clresourcegroup list
# clresourcegroup delete foo-rg

Just as these rights profiles can be assigned to a particular user, they can also be assigned to roles, which a user can assume. In the following example, the role clusadm is created. Unless the user myadmin is assigned access to that role, the user is unable to assume it through the su command, even though he or she might have the right password. However, after being assigned the role, the user can perform the actions that the role is authorized to perform.

Example 4.6. Using an RBAC Role to Allow a User to Perform Cluster Management Tasks

Display the Cluster Management entry in the profile description database.

# grep "Cluster Management" /etc/security/prof_attr | head -1
Cluster Management:::Sun Cluster
# roleadd  -P "Cluster Management"  clusadm
# tail -3 /etc/user_attr
root::::auths=solaris.*,solaris.grant;profiles=Web Console Management,All;lock_after_
zfssnap::::type=role;auths=solaris.smf.manage.zfs-auto-snapshot;profiles=ZFS File
System Management
clusadm::::type=role;profiles=Cluster Management
# passwd clusadm
New Password:
Re-enter new Password:
passwd: password successfully changed for clusadm
# su – myadmin
Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.10      Generic January 2005
$ su clusadm
Roles can only be assumed by authorized users
su: Sorry
$ logout
# usermod -R clusadm myadmin
# tail -3 /etc/user_attr
zfssnap::::type=role;auths=solaris.smf.manage.zfs-auto-snapshot;profiles=ZFS File
System Management
clusadm::::type=role;profiles=Cluster Management
# su – myadmin
Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.10      Generic January 2005
$ su clusadm
$ clresourcegroup create bar-rg
$ clresourcegroup delete bar-rg
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