Home > Articles > Business & Management > Global Business

This chapter is from the book

Dividing the World

In March 1991, Richard Nixon went to Georgia, a trip that, because of his status as a former president, indicated US support for the former satellite's independence from the Soviet Union.

According to Dmitri K. Simes, an aide to Nixon who attended the meeting, the 37th president was alarmed when Zviad Gamsakhurdia, then president of Georgia, told him that not only was the Soviet Union dissolving, but also Russia itself was weak. The time might be right, he advised, to deliver a final blow. "Mr. President," Nixon replied, "there are two kinds of people in Washington you are going to encounter—those who will tell you what you want to hear and those who will tell you what you need to hear. And what you need to hear is that no matter what your friends and admirers in the United States may tell you, America is not going to go to war with Russia because of Georgia."20

Nixon's words were prophetic. During the Russia-Georgia conflict 17 years later, Russia stopped short of taking over Tbilisi of its own accord, not because of the presence of the US army, which was not there. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev said in an interview a month later, "The last time I talked with President Bush on the phone it was during the active phase of military operations, and I told him that 'in this situation you would have done the same thing, only perhaps more severely.' He did not argue with me."21

The biggest contributions powerful states have made to global social progress have come during periods of cooperation that followed profound disruptions to established order. The need to restore stability has driven successful settlements such as those that followed the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 and World War II in 1945. Other arrangements, however, were doomed from the outset. The settlement of World War I, for example, led directly to a sequel only 20 years later. Although no shots were fired during the most recent disruption to established order, recent events have shaken public confidence in the prevailing global economic and financial architecture. What transpired during 2007 to 2009 will have long-term consequences similar to those that sprang from wars in the 19th and 20th centuries. Among them, the world will once again be informally divided into spheres of influence, determined primarily by geography.

The US, weakened in absolute terms by the financial and economic crises, is also in economic decline relative to China, Russia, and India. This is not to suggest the US won't be an important actor in the world's stage; this is not a zero-sum game. But an overstretched America is silently trimming its financial and military commitments abroad. As economic conditions in China, Russia, and India improve, their people will grow more eager to see their countries taken more seriously on the global stage. The first step toward making these aspirations reality is to enhance military strength; all three will beef up their armed forces to keep neighbors at bay and minimize potential interference in economic development and the well-being of their respective populations. This page is taken directly from the script followed by the US and other powers before it. This plot line has endured the test of time, and its logic is easily understood.

China will become the undisputed power in Asia. The US will maintain a presence, but only as a symbolic suggestion of balance. The Middle East will remain under the influence of the US, though Iran won't be materially destabilized because China has significant investments there, and it's also of interest to Russia and India. Central Asia will be the domain of Russia and China. South America will remain under US domination. Africa will stay open to all—the logic of economic cooperation will eventually supersede short-term political differences among the biggest players. Jihadism, a potential security threat in North Africa, is something all parties will have to deal with. The US will continue to try and influence Eastern European states, but the EU seems strong enough to remain the main relevant economic and political force in the Continent.

Finding this new equilibrium requires all interested parties to make concessions. The US, for example, must cease NATO expansion, and China, Russia, and India have to support US policy in the Middle East. But these are relatively minor points in the big picture. The exercise of restraint is already emerging as the defining characteristic of responsible global actors in the 21st century.

Emotional responses to this nascent order threaten what would be a mutually beneficial division of global influence. Suspicion aroused for domestic political purposes, direct confrontation, and unilateralism will undermine—perhaps undo—the profound economic progress the world has experienced over the last three decades.

"For the future, like the past," historian William H. McNeill observed in the early 1980s, "depends upon humanity's demonstrated ability to make and remake natural and social environments within limits set mainly by our capacity to agree on goals of collective action."22

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020