Home > Articles > Open Source > Linux/UNIX/Open Source Operating Systems

This chapter is from the book


Now, we’ll finish this chapter with a collection of other common problems and quirks that don’t fit neatly into any of the other categories.

Running Another OS in Ubuntu

Some of you read the title of this recipe and wondered how on earth you can run another OS on an existing OS. Surely such a thing is not possible? Well, actually, it is.

In recent years virtualization technology has been developed to simulate a computer in software. You can use this technology to boot a virtual computer in a window and run an OS on it, entirely in software. Some commercial applications have been able to do this for a while, but recently the open source QEMU project has developed to a point that makes it viable to run a variety of different operating systems. It can run Windows, FreeBSD, Netware, and even other Ubuntu installations.

First, use Synaptic to install QEMU. When it has installed, use the file manager to create a folder in your home directory called qemu. Now load a terminal and run the following commands:

foo@bar:~$ cd qemu
foo@bar:~qemu$ qemu-img create hd.img 350M

The last parameter (350M) indicates the size of the virtual drive in megabytes. Feel free to adjust this to your liking.

The next step is to boot an install CD in the virtual machine:

foo@bar:~$ qemu -boot d -cdrom /dev/cdrom -hda hd.img

When your installation has finished, reboot the virtual machine:

foo@bar:~$ qemu -boot c -fda /dev/fda -cdrom /dev/cdrom -hda hd.img
-user-net -pci -m 256 -k en

With the setup complete, you can add a link to the new OS on your panel. Right-click on the panel where you want to create the launcher, and choose Add to Panel > Custom Application Launcher. Enter the following details:

  • Name: Win2000
  • Command: qemu -boot c -fda /dev/fda -cdrom /dev/cdrom -hda/path/to/your/hd.img -user-net -pci -m 256 -k en

Choose an icon for your new OS.

It Was Suggested I File a Bug Report, but I Don’t Know How

Ubuntu is a collaboratively developed system in which hundreds of developers from around the world work together to build a simple yet powerful distribution. With so much software involved in Ubuntu, bugs and problems can naturally creep into the system. If you believe that the problem you have is not a configuration or hardware error, it may well be a bug. Anyone can submit a bug, and it is encouraged that regular users of Ubuntu contribute bug reports where possible.

Bug reports are handled on a special Web site called Launchpad, which resides at http://launchpad.net/ (Figure 6-9).

Launchpad provides a complete environment in which bugs can be tracked and future features are merged into Ubuntu. Launchpad is designed not only to make bugs for Ubuntu easy to report but also to support bug reports for other systems, too. This means that developers can work together to resolve problems.

To report a bug, click on the Help menu in the application for which you want to report the bug. Select Get Online Help. Firefox will now load and take you to the Launchpad site. To use Launchpad, you need a user account, so click the Register link to register your account. Enter your e-mail address, and you will be e-mailed registration details. When you have completed the registration, log in to Launchpad. You can always access your application in Launchpad by using the Get Online Help menu item.

The first step is to check whether the bug has already been reported. In the right sidebar of Launchpad are a series of menu options. Each bug added to the system is automatically given a unique ID for the bug, and you can search for this number if needed. You can alternatively search for something related to the problem. As an example, search for “crash” or “hang.” If you find your bug has already been reported, you can stay updated with changes related to the bug by clicking the Subscribe link in the right sidebar.

If no bug exists, you should report it yourself. To do this, click the Report a Bug in <application name> in Ubuntu link. Simply fill in the Summary box with a single-line description of the bug, and then use the Description box to fill in the details. You should be as detailed as possible and include your computer’s specifications, any special steps you went through to trigger the bug, the effects of the bug, and how you expected the software to work. Try to be detailed, but keep everything you say relevant to the bug. If you would prefer to keep your bug report confidential, select the checkbox for that, but it is highly recommended that you keep your bug reports public if possible. This means that as many people as possible can see the report and possibly act on it.

With the bug submitted, you will receive e-mail updates about the progress the developers are making to fix the bug. In some cases the developers may ask you to run commands or try different things to help nail down the bug so they can fix it.

Bug reporting is an essential process in which everyday users of Ubuntu can really help keep the software as bug-free and stable as possible. It is a truly valid contribution to the open source community.

How Can I Monitor the Weather?

Besides looking out the window, you can add a weather applet to a panel that shows the current temperature along with an icon that indicates sunshine or rain. Right-click a panel, and select Add to Panel. Drag the weather applet (under Accessories) to an empty spot on the panel, and click Close. Now right-click the weather applet, select Preferences, and select the Location tab. From here you can select your city or a city in the vicinity. Click Close when you are done. If you want more detailed information, just click the applet.

How Do I Make Ubuntu Bread?

With so many recipes in this chapter to solve common problems or perform small tweaks and optimizations, it seems unfair not to include an actual recipe. This recipe was posted to the popular Ubuntu forums to create some special Ukrainian egg bread called kalach, which is much like challah or any other egg bread. The twist, of course, is that it is shaped like our favorite distribution’s logo (Figure 6-10).

To create this bread, you will need the following ingredients:

1 teaspoon of yeast

3/4 cup warm water (100°F/40°C)

3 eggs

3 to 5 cups flour

1/4 cup sugar

1/4 cup oil

pinch of salt

First, put the yeast in the warm water while you gather the other ingredients.

Beat the three eggs in a bowl and save a teaspoon of the egg mixture for later. Add three cups of flour to a big bowl along with the egg, sugar, oil, and salt. When the yeast is bubbly, add it in too. Knead. If the mixture is crumbly, add water. If it is too sticky, add more flour. The dough should be firmer than your average bread dough to keep its shape.

Cover the bowl with a damp towel, and let the dough rise in a warm place. When it has doubled in size, punch it down, and roll it out into three ropes.

Make the ropes less than one inch (2.5 cm) thick so that the loaf will bake evenly. Do this on a large surface. You need a lot of room. Use a bit of oil if things are sticky. Your dough should be somewhat stiff, so this should not be a problem.

You should end up with three ropes that are a little less than three feet (75 cm) long. Pinch them together on one end, and set them horizontally on your work surface.

Now braid the ropes. Take the lowermost rope and place it between the other two. The middle rope is now the lowest rope. Move it into position by bringing it down to where the other rope (lowermost) used to be. Take the topmost rope and place it between the other two. Take the rope that is now highest and pull it up to its position as topmost rope. Place the lowermost rope between the two others. You get the picture. . . .

When you have a long braid, snip off the ends, and join the ends to form a circle. Join the individual ropes together as well as you can. Place the loaf on an oiled cookie sheet. Take the snipped-off bits and form two long strands. Intertwine them by putting them side by side and holding one end while rolling the other end with the palm of your hand. Stretch this out around the bottom of the big braid and join the ends together.

Cover the kalach with a damp towel and let it double in size (about an hour, maybe less on a hot day). Brush it with the egg mixture. You should have enough to cover the loaf completely. Bake at 350°F/180°C until it becomes dark brown. Let it cool.

Be very careful. One of our dogs jumps up on the table to eat this bread. It is embarrassing when guests find the dog with the half of the bread that she could not finish under the table.

How Can I Prevent the Pain I Get in My Fingers When I Type?

If you feel pain or numbness in your fingers, you are likely suffering from repetitive strain injury (RSI). This common complaint typically afflicts those who work with computers for long periods every day. The constant movement of the fingers in such a repetitive fashion can cause swelling and pain in the fingers and wrists. RSI can also affect your neck, back, legs, and other areas.

If you suspect you have RSI, you should first consult your doctor. RSI is a condition that requires treatment. This treatment can come in the form of physiotherapy, regular breaks, workspace adjustments, and in some extreme cases, medication or surgery.

One of the most common methods of reducing RSI is to take regular rest breaks. It is a good idea to break about once an hour. Your desktop can help with this. Click on System > Preferences > Keyboard, and select the Typing Break tab. You can use the settings in the tab to enforce a break once an hour.

Another type of break is a micropause. These breaks usually occur every couple of minutes, and the break lasts for only a few seconds. These breaks are intended to be less intrusive and give your hands a chance to regularly rest for a short period to allow the blood to flow. A useful little tool called Workrave has been developed to enforce regular micropauses. Use the Synaptic package manager to install Workrave.

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020