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Python Libraries

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Python's standard distribution is shipped with a rich set of libraries (also known as modules). This chapter introduces you to the practical side of several modules' utilization.

The following items are groups that organize all the modules that are mentioned in this chapter.

Python Services

The modules from this group provide access to services related to the interpreter and to Python's environment.

The String Group

This group is responsible for many kinds of string services available. Its modules provide access to several types of string manipulation operations.


This group handles many functions that are available for all Python versions, such as mathematical operations and randomizing functions.

Generic Operational System

This group of services provides interfaces to operating system features that you can use in almost every platform.

Optional Operational System

This set of modules implements interfaces to optional operational system features.


The pdb module defines an interactive source code debugger for Python programs.


The profiler module is a code execution profiler.

Internet Protocol and Support

These are the modules that implement internet protocols and support for related technology.

Internet Data Handling

This group covers modules that support encoding and decoding of data handling formats and that are largely used in Internet applications.

Restricted Execution

These modules prevent access to critical operations.


This group of modules implements algorithms and interfaces that are mainly useful for multimedia applications.


These modules implement various algorithms of cryptographic nature.

OS Specific (UNIX, SGI IRIX, SUN OS, MS Windows, and Macintosh)

These groups of modules expose interfaces to features that are specific to the OS environment of each one of them.

Undocumented Modules

This group contains the modules that currently don't have any official documentation.

New Modules in Python 2.0

These are the new modules that will be part of the next release of Python.

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