Home > Articles > Programming > Python

Python Libraries

  • Print
  • + Share This

Undocumented Modules

Currently, the modules listed in this section don't have any official documentation. However, you might find some information about them in this book, by browsing an updated version of the online library reference, or by checking some other Web site.

Frameworks

The next modules represent some Python frameworks that don't have any official documentation yet.

Tkinter—This module allows you to create GUIs (graphical user interfaces) because it implements an interface to the Tcl/Tk windowing libraries (see Chapter 15, "Tkinter," for details).

Tkdnd—This module provides drag-and-drop support for Tkinter.

test—This package is responsible for the regression-testing framework.

Miscellaneous Useful Utilities

At this time this book went to press, the following modules didn't have any official documentation.

dircmp

This module defines a class on which to build directory comparison tools.

tzparse

This module is an unfinished work to parse a time zone specification.

ihooks

The ihooks module is a framework that manages the co-existence of different import routines.

Platform Specific Modules

These are implementation details of the os module.

dospath, macpath, posixpath, ntpath

These modules are for their platforms what the os.path module is for the UNIX platform. They can all be used by any platform in order to handle pathnames of different platforms.

Multimedia

At the time this book went to press, the following modules didn't have any official documentation.

audiodev, sunaudio, toaiff

Obsolete

The following modules became obsolete as of release 1.6:

stdwin, soundex, cml, cmpcache, dircache, dump, find, grep, packmail, poly, zmod, strop, util, and whatsound.

Note that release 2.0 hasn't made any module obsolete. All modules that were replaced were moved to the lib-old subdirectory of the distribution. That list, includes: cmp, cmpcache, dircmp, dump, find, grep, packmail, poly, util, whatsound, zmod.

ni

Before version 1.5a4, the ni module was used to support import package statements.

dump

The dump module prints the definition of a variable. Note that this module can be substituted for the pickle module.

>>> import dump
>>> var = (10, 20, 30, 40)
>>> dump.dumpvar("newvar", var)
newvar = (10, 20, 30, 40)

Extension Modules

The following modules are obsolete tools to support GUI implementations.

stdwin—This module provides an interface to the obsolete STDWIN. STDWIN is an unsupported platform-independent GUI interface that was replaced by Tkinter.

,p>stdwinevents—Interacts with the stdwin module by providing piping services.

New Modules on Python 2.0

Next, you a have a list of new modules that were introduced to Python recently. As always, I suggest you take a look at the 2.0 documentation for details about any given module.

atexit—Registers functions to be called when Python exits. If you already use the function sys.exitfunc(), you should change your code to import atexit, and call the function atexit.register(), passing as an argument the function that you want to call on exit.

codecs—Provides support (base classes) for Unicode encoders and decoders, and provides access to Python's codec registry. You can use the functions provided by this module to search for existing encodings, or to register new ones. Most frequently, you will adhere to the function codecs.lookup(encoding), which returns a 4-function tuple: (encoder, decoder, stream_reader, stream_writer). This module along with the unicodedata module was added as part of the new Unicode support to Python 2.0. The condec class defines the interface for stateless encoders and decoders. The following functions and classes are also available in this module.

codec.encode()—Takes a Unicode string, and returns a 2-tuple (8-bit-string, length). The length part of the tuple shows how much of the Unicode string was converted.

codec.decode()—Takes an 8-bit string, and returns a 2-tuple (ustring, length). The length part of the tuple shows how much of the 8-bit string was consumed.

codecs.stream_reader(file_object)—This is a class that supports decoding input from a stream. Objects created with this class carry the read(), readline(), and readlines() methods, which allow you to take the given encoding of the object, and read as a Unicode string.

codecs.stream_writer(file_object)—This is a class that supports encoding output to a stream. Objects created with this class carry the write() and writelines() methods, which allow you to pass Unicode string to the object, and let the object translate them to the given encoding on output.

unicodedata—This module provides access to the Unicode 3.0 database of character properties. The following functions are available:

unicodedata.category(u'P') returns the 2-character string 'Lu', the 'L' denoting it's a letter, and 'u' meaning that it's uppercase.

unicodedata.bidirectional(u'\x0660') returns 'AN', meaning that U+0660 is an Arabic number.

encodings—This is a package that supplies a wide collection of standard codecs. Currently, only the new Unicode support is provided.

distutils—Package of tools for distributing Python modules.

filecmp—This module comes into place of both the cmp.py, the cmpcache.py and dircmp.py modules.

gettext—Provides an interface to the GNU gettext message catalog library in order to supply internationalization (I18N) and localization (L10N) support for Python programs.

imputil—This module is an alternative API for writing customized import hooks in a simpler way. It is similar to the existing ihooks module.

linuxaudiodev—Provides audio for any platform that supports the Open Sound System (OSS). Most often, it is used to support the /dev/audio device on Linux boxes. This module is identical to the already existing sunaudiodev module.

mmap—This module works on both Windows and Unix to treat a file as a memory buffer, making it possible to map a file directly into memory, and make it behave like a mutable string.

pyexpat—This module is an interface to the Expat XML parser.

robotparser—Initially at Tools/webchecker/, this module parses a robots.txt file, which is used for writing web spiders.

sre—This module is a new implementation for handling regular expressions. Although it is still very raw, its features include: faster mechanism, and support to unicode. The idea of the development team is to reimplement the re module using sre (without making changes to the re API).

tabnanny—Originally at Tools/scripts/, this module checks Python sources for tab-width dependance (ambiguous indentation).

urllib2—This module is an experimental version of urllib, which will bring new and enhanced features, but will be incompatible with the current version.
UserString—This module exposes a base class for deriving objects from the string type.

xml—This package covers the whole-new XML support and it is organized in three subpackages: xml.dom, xml.sax, and xml.parsers.

webbrowser—A module that provides a platform independent API to launch a web browser on a specific URL.

_winreg—This module works as an interface to the Windows registry. It contains an enhanced set of functions that has been part of PythonWin since 1995.

zipfile—This module reads and writes zip-format archives (the format produced by PKZIP and zip applications. Not the one produced by the gzip program!).

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020