Home > Articles > Programming

  • Print
  • + Share This
Like this article? We recommend

At The Same Time?

Smalltalk implements message passing as an indirect function call. From a certain perspective, it can be seen that any function call is in fact a special case of a message-sending operation—specifically a synchronous message-passing operation. The caller sends a message to the callee and then waits for it return.

A simple extension to this to support parallelism. The concept of futures allows parallelism to be simply added to a lot of existing algorithms. (This was touched on briefly in the functional programming discussion.)

The concept behind a future is that you should not block execution of the caller when the function is called, but instead when the return value is needed.

Consider the Quicksort algorithm, which partitions a set of data and then runs recursively on both parts. A simple functional implementation of this would perform the pivot, run recursively on one subarray, run again on the other, and then return.

The two recursive calls, however, do not interfere with each other (this is trivial to prove in a functional language, and fairly easy in other languages). A clever compiler could run both recursive calls in separate threads and wait for the return.

Sufficiently clever compilers are quite hard to come by, but some languages make it easy to implement this model in the library.

In Objective-C, for example, it is possible to write a generic piece of code that spawns an object in a new thread, and executes messages sent to it asynchronously, returning a proxy object that blocks whenever a message is sent to it.

Languages such as Erlang go a step further and expose asynchronous message passing directly to the developer. This is not conceptually harder than synchronous messaging, but can be difficult to grasp for people who have a lot of experience with synchronous programming.

In Erlang, the processes and messages are integral parts of the language. Creating a new process is a very cheap operation, as is sending and receiving a message.

While Erlang code tends to be slower on a single processor than other languages, the fact that it is very easy to write code that scales to tens or hundreds of processors makes up for it in a number of areas.

Languages such as Erlang are still in their infancy, but asynchronous programming is likely to grow in the next few years as the number of processors in the average computer increases.

Synchronous programming tends to cause performance problems on parallel systems due to the overhead of locking, while an asynchronous system can be implemented using lockless data structures for communication.

The one requirement for a good parallel programming language, which is missing from most of the languages discussed here, is that it must distinguish between aliased and mutable data.

If data is allowed to be both aliased (that is, multiple threads or processes have references to it) and mutable, there are a large number of optimizations that are impossible, and locking is required for safe access.

If the language (or, at least, the library) can enforce this restriction, parallel programming becomes a lot easier. Erlang does this in a very simple way; all data is immutable with the exception of a dictionary associated with a process (which is mutable, but rarely used).

This is the sort of solution a compiler writer would think of; it makes implementation easy at the cost of some ease of use.

Erlang inherited this single-assignment form from a family of languages known as dataflow programming languages. They view programs as a directed graph through which data flows.

This model fits well with parallel programming in a lot of cases because each filter in the graph can execute concurrently. This model is common in visualization, and simple versions are found in most media programming frameworks.

Web programming has introduced a lot of people to programming models that were previously consigned to niches, and server-side scripting languages have brought in more.

While the ’90s were dominated by C-with-syntactic-sugar languages, this is slowly changing as more people discover more flexible programming styles. Hopefully this trend will continue, making the next 10 years an even more fun time to be a programmer.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020