Home > Articles > Security > Network Security

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Working with Law Enforcement

Another issue that should be addressed up front is how the team will interact with the law enforcement community. Will the team work with law enforcement either directly or indirectly? In addressing this question, consider the following: The computer is like any other invention that has had a major impact on our daily lives in that it has both benefits and negative consequences. A good analogy is the automobile. When the car first came along, it enabled people to do things more quickly and effectively than they could prior to its invention. People were able to travel farther, travel together more efficiently, and travel in much more comfort, thereby doing more things in a day by covering more places. Cars also had negative effects—namely, automobile accidents and automobile theft. It took people some time to learn how to deal with these negative effects, design and implement safety and security features, and establish laws to address the problems and challenges of the new invention.

Similarly, the computer is an invention that has enabled people to do many more tasks in an increasingly efficient manner and has literally changed the way we live. In fact, even an auto mechanic cannot work on a car now without a computer to run diagnostic tests. Although the positive results have rapidly expanded the use of computers, some negative uses still need to be addressed—namely, computer crime. It will take us some time to catch up to the invention by developing and widely implementing security safeguards to help protect systems better and to establish case law. With this fact in mind, enabling an incident response team to work with law enforcement can have a very positive effect on the overall safeguards that are ultimately established. In fact, the best approach when investigating any incident that potentially involves a crime uses three experts: an attorney who is familiar with high-tech crime laws, the law enforcement agent, and the technical expert. Each has valuable knowledge and insight that can be vital when taking a case to trial.

One major advantage to working with a law enforcement agency is the benefit of extended networking. Specifically, many larger law enforcement agencies have developed relationships with other law enforcement groups that may provide an added advantage in tracking an external perpetrator who has broken into a system or successfully launched a denial-of-service attack. A team trying to track an attacker on its own without any law enforcement involvement will typically find this task much more difficult, especially when the incident crosses international boundaries. It is far better (and many times easier) to provide the information to law enforcement officials and let them work with their contacts and resources to help track an intruder.

Working with law enforcement may also have some disadvantages. Often, when an organization is asked why it did not bring in law enforcement, the organization states that it didn't want the company name in the newspaper. It didn't want the publicity of a “hacking case.” Although in most cases the media isn't interested in such things, this bad publicity is a real concern. There are ways to keep the company out of the news, such as using an attorney to keep the case as private as the laws will allow. Also, the organization may want to turn the case over to a prosecutor to pursue in conjunction with local, state, or federal law enforcement agents to pursue as a crime against the state or federal government, instead of naming the company in the proceedings.

An additional disadvantage of working with law enforcement may be the threat of losing control of the case. Inviting law enforcement to investigate a case may require that the case be fully investigated, even if your organization decides to stop its pursuit of the attacker. Although situations where a case cannot be stopped are very rare (all of the authors' dealings with law enforcement have been very cooperative), this outcome may be a possibility.

Even if your organization chooses to not include law enforcement as a regular part of its investigative team, it is a good idea to contact city, county, state, and federal (FBI especially) law enforcement agencies to introduce yourself and to get an idea of their services, contact information, capabilities, evidence requirements, and reporting procedures. It's always good to be prepared, even if you don't plan on using them.

Of course, legal considerations must also be addressed as they relate to privacy laws, company policies, and other issues that determine what information is shared with law enforcement. If the organization is considering the inclusion of law enforcement officials directly on the team, the first step would be to discuss the possibilities, concerns, and limitations with the appropriate legal organization as well as the management team.

If computer crime laws are to evolve so that they will better protect our information, they must be tried and tested in the criminal justice system. Organizations reporting to and working with law enforcement will facilitate this evolution. Even if an organization decides not to work directly with law enforcement, inevitably the team will encounter an incident where a law has been broken. Having contacts established up front with local, regional, state, and federal law enforcement agencies will help expedite the reporting process when this need arises. Groups such as InfraGard can help to establish these contacts.

InfraGard

Several groups have been formed in recent years to provide an avenue for networking and resource sharing between law enforcement officials and the technical community. One of these groups is InfraGard. “The National InfraGard Program began as a pilot project in 1996, when the Cleveland FBI Field Office asked local computer professionals to assist the FBI in determining how to better protect critical information systems in the public and private sectors. From this new partnership, the first InfraGard Chapter was formed to address both cyber and physical threats.”1 InfraGard's government component is staffed by the FBI and the Department of Homeland Security's National Information Protection Center (NIPC) and includes numerous chapters throughout the United States. In fact, all 56 FBI field offices have now opened local chapters with hundreds of members across the nation. InfraGard is seen as a cooperative effort between law enforcement and the private sector, with the participants being dedicated to increasing the security of critical infrastructures within the United States. From the beginning, the FBI has stated that it is not an FBI-run program, but rather a community program in which the FBI and many other government agencies participate. The InfraGard program is often likened to a “neighborhood watch” program, in which businesses and agencies with similar interests share information and experiences to help reduce the risks of a networked community.

InfraGard was formed as a national organization, with individually governed and managed chapters. Working together within and between chapters, the group members strive to better protect critical information assets by enabling the flow of information between the technical community, corporate policy makers, the owners of the critical infrastructure, law enforcement, and lawmakers. Becoming involved with a local chapter provides an excellent avenue for meeting law enforcement officials, legal experts, and other technical resources in the area that may be contacted when the need arises. More information may be obtained by contacting the closest FBI office or from the national InfraGard Web page (http://www.infragard.net).

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020