Home > Articles > Hardware

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

3.9 Three-Phase Power Measurement and Data Logging

Three-phase power calculation techniques are well established. However, a number of factors have precipitated the need for flexible and reliable measurement and data logging systems for use in power system applications.

Power monitoring may be needed to analyze the power demand. Furthermore, observing the quality of the power helps us to analyze the source of disturbance that may cause important stability problems in power systems, or may seriously affect the operation of a device, or may cause catastrophic failure of a device.

In this section, a simple and cost-effective measurement tool that is based on LabVIEW is presented. This tool measures three-phase voltages and currents in real time using voltage and current transducers, and calculates all aspects of power (such as active, reactive, apparent power and power factor, and harmonic distortion). In addition, it records various parameters to view the trend over a period of time (from minutes to months).

Measurement Equations

In this study, three-phase measurement is done assuming that the load is star-connected and the star point is accessible. The three-phase system setup is illustrated in Fig. 3-27, which also illustrates the correct channel assignment for the VI.

03fig27.gifFigure 3-27. Three-phase measurement block diagram and channel assignments for four-wire system (with neutral).

It should be emphasized here that the voltage and current interfaces should be selected (or designed) to operate the system safely and accurately. In addition, note that in high voltage measurements, insulating via differential amplifiers or via differential input channels of the data acquisition card should not be considered since such methods do not provide real isolation, and thus are not safe.

To achieve complete isolation, I suggest that Hall-effect or clamp-based current transducers for current measurement and high-performance isolation amplifiers (or voltage transformers at low frequency) for voltage measurement should be employed (as provided in the Appendix).

The phase angle (or power factor) calculation is achieved using a single line-to-neutral voltage and a line current of the same phase (Ch1 and Ch4 in Fig. 3-27).

The following power calculations per phase were employed in the VI. Instantaneous, average, and rms powers per phase are estimated by

Equation 3.60


Equation 3.61


Equation 3.62


Hence, the total apparent, active, and reactive powers in this four-wire three-phase system are calculated as

Equation 3.63


Equation 3.64


Equation 3.65


In the VI, the phase angle θ is calculated measuring the time instances of the first peaks of the phase voltage and the phase current. Then the time difference is calculated as a reference to the period of the waveform and converted to degrees.

The interval between the two consecutive peaks of the same waveform is used to calculate the period T of a selected waveform, and then the frequency of the waveform is calculated, f = 1/T.

If the voltage and current waveforms of an ac system are measured in real time, it is much easier to calculate the power factor simply by using the definitions of average and rms values, which were given earlier in equation 3.3 for nonsinusoidal systems (distorted waveforms).

Note that since the majority of three-phase power systems are not balanced, the VI developed here does not consider a balanced system. Hence, all of the three-phase line-to-neutral voltages and three line currents are measured for correct estimation of the power.

3.9.1 Virtual Instrument Panel

Open the VI named Data Logging.vi. Fig. 3-28 and Fig. 3-29 illustrate the front panel and the brief user guide for this VI. The descriptions of the front panel items are all available in the VI's help menu. The features of the VI are summarized below.

03fig28a.jpgFigure 3-28. The front panel of Data Logging.vi (LabVIEW 4.0).

03fig29.jpgFigure 3-29. The brief user guide for Fig. , Power and Data Logging.vi.

The following information can be displayed on the graphs:

  • Voltages (rms and instantaneous) and their harmonics

  • Line currents (rms and instantaneous) and their harmonics

  • Period, frequency, phase angle, and power factor (leading/lagging)

  • Instantaneous power and calculated values of active (W), reactive (VAR), and apparent (VA) powers

  • Harmonics, total harmonic distortion (THD), THD + noise, peak power, peak frequency, and the amplitude and frequency of the selected number of harmonics

The following settings can be made:

  • Per-unit values and dc off-set for voltages and currents

  • Gains of the measured signals

  • Triggering based on the reference parameters (rms or instantaneous), triggering channel selection, and triggering bandwidth selection for data logging

  • Logging period (from one minute to a day/a month/a year)

  • Number of samples to be saved (from seconds to hours)

3.9.2 Some Features of the VI and Operating Scenarios

The details of the measurement program and some of the principal calculations are explained in the following paragraphs.

Channel number in the VI starts from zero, “0”. Hence, for six analogue inputs use the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 to set the channels to Ch1, Ch2, Ch3, Ch4, Ch5, or Ch6, respectively.

The power factor calculation is based on the phase specified on the front panel, Phase No.

The data is saved into a spreadsheet file with an extension of .dat and can be read by Microsoft Excel. Only the rms values of the voltages, currents, power factor, and frequency are saved in a column format. However, a path named c:\labview\datafile\ has to be created first.

To distinguish the data files in future use, a unique name is given to each data file that is created automatically by the VI. All data files created the same day are saved into a single folder.

For example, the name of a file on 17 December 1997 will be located in a folder named 97D17M12 (year+D+day+M+month). If this file is created at 12:33:12 AM, then the data file will have the following name:

12AM3312.dat (hour+AM(or PM)+minute+second)

The data format used to set DATE/TIME TRIGGERING SAVING mode is shown below.

DATE FORMAT: 17/09/96 or 7/09/96
TIME FORMAT: 3:56:12 AM or 11:5:12 AM

It should be noted here that sampling should be synchronous with the system frequency. Therefore, the settings for Scan Rate and No. of Scan are important in the harmonic analysis.

When Pretrigger scans are not zero, data is acquired continuously while waiting for the start trigger. When the trigger occurs, the specified pretrigger scans are kept, and the rest of the scans are acquired after the trigger.

The LED of Trigger Timeout, which is in the harmonic analysis section, turns yellow if a trigger timeout condition occurs, with an error message of “Trigger did not occur.” Therefore acquisition timed out. Under this condition, if the Save button is pressed, the software keeps trying.

Choose either a Software Analog Trigger or a hardware Analog Trigger for the acquisition. With a Software Analog Trigger, for example, the acquisition starts immediately but the data is not retrieved by the program until the level and slope conditions are met. With a hardware Analog Trigger, the acquisition does not start until the level and slope conditions are met. Furthermore, remember that the hardware Analog Trigger is not available on all data acquisition devices.

Two autosaving modes are possible in the VI:

  • by using a pre-set rms value

  • by using a specified Date and Time

To start autosaving, enable the autosaving function by selecting the mode AUTOSAVING ENABLED. Remember that all the settings in this part of the front panel have to be done before running the software.

Select either RMS VOLTAGE TRIGGERING SAVING SELECTED or DATE/TIME TRIGGERING SAVING SELECTED mode. In both modes of operation, the number of samples can be selected using the settings that are located just below the triggering selection.

In the RMS mode of operation, Reference Voltage and Hysteresis % should also be specified.

Let us assume that Reference Voltage is 240 V and Hysteresis % is 10. The operation of the RMS triggering is illustrated in Fig. 3-30. As illustrated, the saving starts if the measured rms value of any one of the phase voltages is outside the specified hysteresis bandwidth.

03fig30.gifFigure 3-30. An illustration of RMS VOLTAGE TRIGGERING.

The selection of DATE/TIME TRIGGERING SAVING is similar to the one just described for RMS VALUE TRIGGERING.

When DATE/TIME TRIGGERING SAVING is selected, Start Time, Start Date, Stop Time, and Stop Date should also be specified. In this mode of operation, autosaving starts when the specified date and time match with the actual date and time of the computer, and saving stops when Stop Date and Stop Time are reached.

Example Setting 1

To save the rms values into a spreadsheet file, make the following settings on the front panel and run the VI:

  • Autosaving Enabled

  • RMS Voltage Triggering Saving Selected

  • Trigger Channel, Triggering Channel Reference Value, and Hysteresis %

Saving will start when the measured rms voltage is outside the hysteresis bandwidth that was determined earlier. Then the data will be saved into a spreadsheet file that is named and placed in a folder created automatically.

A new directory is created if the data logging continues next day. This automatic file generation eases the retrieving of data for further processing.

It should be noted here that percentage of the reference value is used to determine the hysteresis bandwidth, which also determines the triggering condition in the auto-saving mode.

Example Setting 2

Alternatively, if DATE/TIME TRIGGERING SAVING is selected, triggering will start when the current date and the current time match the starting date and start time. The saving will stop when the current time and the date match the settings STOP DATE and STOP TIME.

The settings for this example are

  • Autosaving Enabled

  • Date/Time Triggering Saving Selected

  • Start Date, Start Time, Stop Date, Stop Time

Example Setting 3

If Analog Trigger is selected, the triggering channel and the triggering signal level have to be specified. The level in the Triggering Level box indicates the input value of the actual analog signal before it is multiplied by the gain. Therefore, the level setting should be scaled accordingly. In addition, the other triggering features (Rising edge, positive or Falling edge, negative) have to be specified; these can be accessed from the Edge/Slope menu.

Let's assume that Rising slope is selected, and the triggering level is set to 0.4. If the gain is 100, the triggering will occur at a voltage level of +40 V.

Example Setting 4

Let's assume that the option Save 5 samples within 5 second(s) is selected. Under this condition, a maximum of one sample per second will be saved into a spreadsheet file after the rms triggering condition is met. In this mode of operation, the program waits 1 second between the two consecutive time intervals, regardless of the speed of the execution. However, remember that the minimum sampling interval is limited by the specifications of the DAQ card and the software.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020