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Minimization Methodology

The section defines a reusable methodology to produce a minimized domain configuration for an application by defining the packages needed to make up the minimized domain. This section describes common problems and solutions found when applying the minimization methodology to chosen applications.

The procedure requires the domain first to be installed with the Solaris OE meta-cluster SUNWCXall, to identify packages required, and to establish package dependencies.

The SUNWCXall meta-cluster of packages contains all Solaris OE and OEM software included in the Solaris OE distribution. This meta-cluster contains all the Solaris OE packages needed for an application to create the minimized profile. Other packages might need to be downloaded and installed, but these must be installed after the JumpStart installation has occurred.

Once the minimized profile is defined for the application, a JumpStart install operation is executed on the domain with the minimized profile to check that the install and main functionality of the application is error-free.

Having a second domain available, which is installed with SUNWCXall, can reduce the time needed to produce minimized configurations for multiple applications. Also, it can reduce time if references are made to the fully installed system during the minimization tasks.


It is assumed that the locale settings for applications installed are in the default language, U.S. English. This setting requires setting all environmental variables LC_* to C in your shell before running pkg.ksh. The pkg.ksh has an option to do this when it is run. Localization is not supported for the applications in this article other than for the default language. Setting the locale environmental variables to other settings might include additional packages in the minimized configuration such as locale library packages, additional font packages, X packages, and locale packages.

To apply the minimization methodology, see the following topics:

  • "Review Application Documentation" on page 22

  • "Install the Application" on page 23

  • "Identify Packages Needed by an Application" on page 24

  • "Build Minimized Profile" on page 27

  • "Use JumpStart With Minimized Profile" on page 27

  • "Install Software" on page 27

  • "Resolve Application Install Errors" on page 28

  • "Run the Primary Application and Look for Errors" on page 38

Review Application Documentation

Often the install documentation accompanying an application provides information about where application files are installed.

Install documentation might also define if the software has any package prerequisites. These can be found during the install process but, with some large applications (such as ORACLE 9i), this can be a lengthy process, so reviewing documentation can be a time saver.

Identify any Solaris OE packages required by an application so you can add them to the minimized JumpStart profile.

Documentation provides important information for setting the location of dynamic libraries. Two methods are available for specifying the location of dynamic libraries to the system: crle(1) and the environmental variable pair LD_LIBRARY_PATH and LD_LIBRARY_PATH_64. The recommended method is to use crle(1) wherever possible, but the documentation might require using the environmental variable pair method.

The location of the dynamic libraries should be configured before running pkg.ksh. Note that pkg.ksh has the ability to try to determine the location of the dynamic libraries, but this method is not fool proof.

Install the Application

The installation operation is a multistep process. Installing an application on a full system and minimized system should be exactly the same. Any differences that occur might cause the installation to take a different path through the installation process, which could have unexpected side effects. It is important that the install should be a typical installation, causing as much of the application to be installed as possible. This approach allows the minimization process to be as effective as possible.

To Install an Application

  1. Run pkginfo to capture the "before" installation snapshot, using the script command.

  2. Log the install using the script command, so the process can be reviewed later.

  3. Extract the application contents and examine the directory structure for packages that might be installed.

  4. Install the application on the system.

  5. If the application comes as a compressed tar file, then it might be possible to simply extract to a directory and perform subsequent steps in this methodology there, because no packages need to be installed.

  6. Run pkginfo to capture the "after" installation snapshot, using the script command.

  7. Run diff on the two snapshots to identify packages installed by the application.

  8. After installing the application, make sure the location of application dynamic libraries is configured according to the documentation.

  9. NOTE

    Set LC_* to C to prevent locale packages from being included.

    Failure to set the application dynamic libraries location properly can cause the minimization call to pkg.ksh to yield unwanted packages. For example, installing Sun Explorer without configuring where its libraries are located (the default location is /opt/SUNWexplo/lib) causes pkg.ksh to require SUNWfruid. However, the dynamic libraries that Sun Explorer uses are a subset of SUNWfruid, with each library needed available. So, configuring dynamic libraries properly prevents SUNWfruid from being needed on a minimized system. The pkg.ksh can attempt to guess what the dynamic library directories are by searching for them. Specifying this option can cause a lengthy wait for pkg.ksh to complete.

  10. Identify where all the packages and files from the install are located in the file system.

  11. For completeness of minimizing an application, identification is needed of where all the packages and files from an install are located in the file system. This task is often simple, but might be complex, depending on how the install works. It's completely application dependent.

    For example, installing the Sun Management Center 3.5 agent software produces an install log that contains the names of all packages installed. An important distinction here is the difference between Solaris OE packages and application packages that are part of Sun Management Center 3.5. Application packages should not be added to the minimized profile.

Identify Packages Needed by an Application

Executables and dynamic libraries within an application make use of dynamic libraries and other files, such as configuration files, startup scripts for daemons, and so forth, within the Solaris OE.

These dynamic libraries and other files are contained within Solaris OE packages. Identify the dynamic libraries by running pkg.ksh against the installed application files or packages. Identify the other files from package dependencies.

The packages required must have their dependency relationships to other packages maintained by following the dependency lists for each of them.

These packages and their dependencies need to be added to the minimized profile so they are installed as part of the minimized package configuration.

Removing Unneeded Dependent Packages

A general rule for package dependencies is that they should be satisfied whenever they exist. This rule is mostly the case with our minimization methodology, however, there are times when extra packages required to satisfy dependencies are simply not needed and are redundant.

The situations where dependencies are not needed is a shortcoming of how packages are sometimes specified in Solaris OE. A trade-off needs to occur with respect to stringently adhering to the package dependencies and weighing this with the goal of achieving a secure system through minimization.

A good example of unwanted package dependencies is seen by reviewing the install log output by the script command when installing the Sun Management Center 3.0 agent software. This troubleshooting requires using commands like ldd and pkgchk to find what is causing unexpected package requirements and whether their inclusion is fully justified.

After running pkg.ksh against the install on a fully loaded system, reviewing the output log shows the following lengthy dependency list for the library libcalendarservice.so.1.0.

ELF 32-bit MSB dynamic lib SPARC Version 1, dynamically linked, not stripped
Package:    SUNWesaes 
truss: SUNWesaes
ldd: SUNWcsl SUNWdtdst
depend: SUNWcar SUNWkvm SUNWcsr SUNWcsu SUNWcsd SUNWdtbas SUNWcsl SUNWxwdv 
SUNWxwplt SUNWesu SUNWpl5u SUNWpl5v SUNWxwfnt SUNWxwice SUNWdtcor 
SUNWlibms SUNWcpp SUNWzlib SUNWxwcft SUNWxwopt SUNWmfrun SUNWctpls 
SUNWctpls SUNWdtdmn SUNWdtdte SUNWocf SUNWj3rt SUNWlibC SUNWocfr 
SUNWocfr SUNWdticn SUNWtltk SUNWdtjxt SUNWdtscm

Investigating this library further, we see it has truss and ldd dependencies on three packages directly. One of these packages is creating the unexpected dependency list. Running depend-tree.pl on SUNWesaes and SUNWcsl yields nothing substantial, but running against SUNWdtdst shows the cause.

Manual investigation of libcalendarservice.so.1.0 using the ldd command shows that the library /usr/dt/lib/libcsa.so.0 looks most interesting because its path name contains "dt."

# ldd /opt/SUNWsymon/base/lib/sparc-sun-solaris2.8/libcalendarservice.so.1.0
    libcsa.so.0 =>  /usr/dt/lib/libcsa.so.0
    libdl.so.1 =>  /usr/lib/libdl.so.1
    libnsl.so.1 =>  /usr/lib/libnsl.so.1
    libc.so.1 =>   /usr/lib/libc.so.1
    libmp.so.2 =>  /usr/lib/libmp.so.2

The libcsa.so is a member of the package SUNWdtdst, as speculated, which is the CDE desktop applications package, as shown by the following.

# pkgchk -l -p /usr/dt/lib/libcsa.so.0
Pathname: /usr/dt/lib/libcsa.so.0
Type: regular file
Expected mode: 0755
Expected owner: root
Expected group: bin
Expected file size (bytes): 190800
Expected sum(1) of contents: 27313
Expected last modification: Mar 13 08:46:49 PM 2002
Referenced by the following packages:
Current status: installed

If the dependencies for SUNWdtdst are followed to their logical conclusion, then the following additional packages are also required.

# depend-tree.pl -u SUNWdtdst
Unique packages
 SUNWcar SUNWkvm SUNWcsr SUNWcsu SUNWcsd SUNWdtbas SUNWcsl SUNWxwdv 
SUNWxwplt SUNWesu SUNWpl5u SUNWpl5v SUNWxwfnt SUNWxwice SUNWdtcor 
SUNWlibms SUNWcpp SUNWzlib SUNWxwcft SUNWxwopt SUNWmfrun SUNWctpls 
SUNWctpls SUNWdtdmn SUNWdtdte SUNWocf SUNWj3rt SUNWlibC SUNWocfr 
SUNWocfr SUNWdticn SUNWtltk SUNWdtjxt SUNWdtscm

So, to satisfy the library requirement, the dependencies require Java™, X library, and CDE packages to be installed.

This requirement is not necessary because only a single-dynamic library from this package is needed, and this fact is the reason that dependency chains for shared libraries are not followed when pkg.ksh is run. We confirm this by searching the script output file for other dependencies on SUNWdtdst. There are none.

Without these shared library dependencies, only a few packages are needed to get Sun Management Center 3.0 running on a domain. With them, you have a potential security problem with redundant package inclusion.

Build Minimized Profile

A minimized profile comprises input from three areas:

  • Minimal bootable Solaris OE profile based on SUNWCreq, with required additional packages.

  • Installation package recommendations in documentation of the application, if applicable.

  • The package list produced by running pkg.ksh against application packages or directories.

To the minimal bootable Solaris OE profile, append the additional packages needed using the keyword add.

Use JumpStart With Minimized Profile

Add the minimized profile for the application to the JumpStart server and perform a domain install using it.

Only those packages specified will be installed and the system will be patched with the recommended cluster patch.

The installation logs for the JumpStart server will highlight any errors that occur during installation. These are located in /var/sadm/system/logs on the domain. If any errors occur, correct them and repeat the install procedure.

Install Software

Some software such as Solaris Secure Shell, which is now part of Solaris 9 OE, can be installed automatically during a JumpStart installation, by specifying it in the JumpStart profile.

Software such as Sun Validation Test Suite, Sun Explorer data collector, and so on, are added to a domain after JumpStart installations by using pkgadd. This process can be automated with an appropriate response file and finish script. The package to be installed should be stored on the JumpStart server.

Other software such as ORACLE 9i and Sun Management Center 3.5 have manual install requirements. The best you can do is use a JumpStart finish script to extract their contents to the /opt directory during the JumpStart installation, and manually run the install after JumpStart installation is completed.

The value of doing so needs to be evaluated in the context of how often domain installation is likely to occur and the storage space requirements of the application. ORACLE 9i comes on three CDs, which is almost 2 gigabytes of disk space and might be considered excessive if installation occurs only once.


It is possible to make custom packages for an application using the command pkgmk command. This command allows the deployment of the applications with a minimum of effort after a JumpStart install has occurred.

Resolve Application Install Errors

Errors that occur during application install are presented in different ways. The exact nature of these is hard to define, but relatively obvious when they occur because they typically lead to an aborted install or display a message on the console.

Generally, there are two states that should be achieved and be free of error before testing any application:

  • Install the application successfully without error.

  • Run pkg.ksh on application directories, as done in Step 3 of the minimization methodology, without any missing dynamic libraries. If any are missing, then this should be consistent with installation on the full system.

The following sections highlight and describe some of the problems encountered when using the minimization methodology and how the issues are resolved.

Quick Method of Installing Needed Packages on a Minimized System

If the installation of an application fails on a minimized system, then the missing packages need to be identified on a fully installed system.

Once these have been found, by NFS mounting the directory containing the image of Solaris, it is possible to add the missing packages directly to the minimized system by changing to the package directory of the NFS mounted Solaris install image, and using the pkgadd -d . <missing packages> command.

This command installs missing packages to the minimized JumpStart installation. Next, reinstall the application and check for further errors. If successful, add the missing packages to the minimized JumpStart profile, perform a new minimized JumpStart install, and reinstall the application and check for errors. This process ensures that no unexpected errors or inconsistencies occur during JumpStart installation.


By default, NFS is an unsecured service, but is a reasonable choice for this operation. For more information about securing the use of NFS, refer to the Sun BluePrints OnLine article titled "Solaris Operating Environment Security - Updated for Solaris 9 Operating Environment."

Dealing With Missing Packages

Installing an application on a minimized system can sometimes install more software than was added for installation on a full system. This happens because the application might install pre-requisite packages that are missing on the minimized system. These are already installed on the full system, so they do not need to be added.

When installing Patch Manager on a full system, the installer examines the system to see if packages are already installed. If so, then it does not install the Java Runtime Environment, as can be seen from the following Patch Manager install output.

Beginning installation ...
Now installing supporting packages...
    == installed version is newer
    == installed successfully
    == installed successfully
    == installed successfully
    == installed successfully
    == installed version is newer
    == installed successfully

Installation is complete and verified. Be sure to:

However, if Patch Manager is installed on the minimized system, the Java™ Runtime Environment and its companion packages are installed, as the following shows:

Beginning installation ...
Now installing supporting packages...
    == installed successfully
    == installed successfully
    == installed successfully
    == installed successfully
    == installed successfully
    == installed successfully
    == installed successfully
    == installed successfully
    == installed successfully
    == installed successfully
    == installed successfully

Installation is complete and verified. Be sure to:


If packages are added in this manner that are part of the Solaris OE, then it is recommended practice to reapply the Solaris Recommended Patch Cluster. See "Install Patches" on page 15 for more information about patches.

Subsequently, running pkg.ksh on the minimized system shows many shared libraries are missing as, in the Patch Manager example, the X shared libraries were not installed to satisfy Java dependencies. Running pkg.ksh on the fully installed system did not highlight these, due to incorrect dependencies in Patch Manager.

The extracted tar file for installing Patch Manager should have been examined before starting the minimization process. That would have shown the packages this application is most likely interested in. The following directory listing shows the packages Patch Manager could potentially install.

# ls pproSunOSsparc5.9jre2.1
README   SUNWcert  SUNWj3rt  SUNWjsse  SUNWpmgr  SUNWppro  patchlist 
SUNWapcy  SUNWj3dev SUNWjhrt  SUNWlj3rt SUNWppmn  SUNWsdb  setup

If Patch Manager dependencies were specified correctly for SUNWppro then executing pkg.ksh would yield all the packages required by following the dependency chain in the Solaris OE package management system.

To address this short coming, examine the application's directory structure to give hints of what to expect. Next, compare the diff output of the before and after for pkginfo on both installs of the fully installed and minimized system to spot inconsistencies.

In the Patch Manager case, the directory structure shows 11 packages, but installing on the full system only highlighted 7 packages, so this is something that raises a flag for further investigation.

Dealing With Java Runtime Environment and X Dependencies

The Patch Manager case mentioned in the previous section raises an interesting dilemma for performing minimization. For many applications, the use of the Java Runtime Environment is to display graphical applications, and it needs the X libraries available to produce these displays. But there is a further point; not every Java application is graphical. They can be console-only applications built to use the rich API that Java offers.

In the Patch Manager example, this application is a console-only application for updating patches on the system. It does not display a GUI, so although package dependencies show it requires various X libraries, these are not used, based on our experience of finding the minimal package configuration for the Patch Manager 1.0 application.


Exercise caution when faced with the decision of removing required packages, even if you believe that the contents of the packages might not be used by the application. The ability to support such a configuration can be adversely impacted.

For Solaris 9 OE, the fact that Patch Manager is run console-only allows Patch Manager to be installed free of X library requirements. Solaris 8 OE is more restrictive when it comes to leaving out X packages, due to mandatory packages included in metacluster SUNWCreq.

For other applications, it requires a judgement call by the user, who has experience with the application, to decide if it is graphical or not and if it needs X libraries packages installed, as indicated by pkg.ksh.

A side effect of having no X libraries is that the Java Runtime Environment does not install due to a dependency that the Motif RunTime Kit has on the SUNWmfrun package.

This package must be installed or the following message is displayed when Patch Manager installs SUNWj3rt.

  The <SUNWmfrun> package "Motif RunTime Kit" is a
  prerequisite package and should be installed.

Installation of <SUNWj3rt> was suspended (interaction required).
No changes were made to the system.

Finding Missing Packages After Minimized Install

A lot of applications do not specify their package dependencies properly. These missing dependencies are often exposed when a shell script executes as part of the install process. The script tries running a missing command and fails because the package containing the executable is not installed.

The application install script making the assumption that the executable will be installed is not realistic for a minimized system.

During the install of Sun Remote Services Net Connect 3.0 on a minimized system, this type of dependency problem became apparent because install complains that showrev is missing, as is shown in the following install output.

--- user/cron interaction test passed successfully.

InstallNetConnect.003.000.000.sh: showrev: not found

Processing package instance <SUNWsrspx> from 

showrev is often needed for installations and should always be installed as part of any minimized profile. The following shows which packages are needed when it is executed on a full system.

# pkg.ksh -d 'which showrev'
list is /usr/bin/showrev
/usr/bin/showrev:    ELF 32-bit MSB executable SPARC Version 1, dynamically 
linked, stripped
Package:    SUNWadmc
truss: SUNWadmc SUNWadmfw SUNWcsl SUNWcsr SUNWkvm SUNWlibC SUNWlibms
ldd: SUNWadmc SUNWadmfw SUNWcsl SUNWlibC SUNWlibms
depend: SUNWcar SUNWkvm SUNWcsr SUNWcsu SUNWcsd SUNWcsd SUNWadmc SUNWesu 
Unique packages needed:

This problem was not highlighted on the fully installed system because it was masked by the fact that SUNWadmc and SUNWadmfw, which contain showrev, were already installed.

Most of the packages identified by pkg.ksh are mandatory for a Solaris OE install. Those that are not mandatory need to be added to the minimized profile to install showrev. Make sure that Sun Remote Services Net Connect 3.0 installs properly. The packages needed by Sun Remote Services Net Connect 3.0 are listed in the following table.

TABLE 1 Mandatory Packages

Package Type



System administration core libraries


System and network administration framework


Sun Workshop compilers bundled libC


Forte Developer bundled shared libm

Dealing With Unresolved Dependencies

The methodology presented in this article uses a systematic way of going through each file of an installed application and figuring out the dependencies, if it is an executable or dynamic library.

A problem can occur where an executable is compatible with a specific version of the Solaris OE only. There may be libraries that cannot be resolved on a different version of Solaris OE, because the shared library versions might be different.

An example similar to this occurred when installing Sun Management Center 3.0 agent software on Solaris 9 OE.

Running pkg.ksh on the full system after installing the application shows missing libraries that clearly are not right, because no packages were removed.

# pkg.ksh SUNWeswga SUNWessta SUNWesspa SUNWesmod SUNWesmcp SUNWescom 
SUNWesasm SUNWesamn SUNWesagt SUNWesaes SUNWesaem SUNWesae
/opt/SUNWsymon/util/bin/sparc-sun-solaris2.8/snmp_edit: ELF 32-bit MSB 
executable SPARC Version 1, dynamically linked, not stripped
Package:    SUNWesagt 
truss: SUNWesagt
ldd: Couldn't find package for:
    libXm.so.2 =>  (file not found)
    libXext.so.5 => (file not found)
    libXmu.so.5 =>  (file not found)

The same issue occurs running pkg.ksh on the minimized system. This is expected, because the minimized system is a subset of the fully installed system.

In the previous case, it turns out that snmp_edit is a little used, undocumented GUI wrapper program within Sun Management Center 3.0. Typically, this program is not required and, because it is the only executable that uses X libraries within Sun Management Center 3.0, is the reason that this application has no X package dependencies.

Items that are learned from the snmp_edit example are as follows:

  • Not every executable or dynamic library is needed by an application. Where an executable has unusual dependencies, for example, with the snmp_edit executable being the only one that depends on X packages, it is always worth investigating further to understand if it is a main program. This judgement call differs from application to application. It is worth noting that this is a deficiency of automating minimization; this is not something that can be easily programmed to take account of. What the script tools can do is attempt to highlight rarely needed packages by specific dynamic libraries or executables based on frequency of use.

  • NOTE

    By using Solaris Basic Security Module auditing, it is possible to log audit records for any executable that is launched. This is done when calls are made to the execve() kernel system call. By exercising the application functionality over a period of time, it is possible to analyze audit records to determine if a program is used. For more information, refer to the Solaris Security Auditing Web site at http://www.sun.com/software/security/audit.

  • Dynamic libraries might not be installed on a system by default. If an executable cannot resolve dynamic libraries on a fully installed system, then one of the following might be the cause:

  • The command is not compatible with the installed Solaris version.

  • A custom package requires a special software load, for example, SUNWlxml and SUNWlxmlx on Solaris 8 OE.

  • Dynamic libraries might be installed on the system yet not found. If an executable has unresolved dynamic libraries, then the cause might be one of the following:

  • An incorrectly configured application dynamic library directory, configured through crle(1) or LD_LIBRARY_PATH and LD_LIBRARY_PATH_64. An example of this is given in the next section.

  • A missing symbolic link for a library version. The likelihood of this cause is low, and its occurrence unusual, but the version discrepancy in snmp_edit could be this.

Resolving Installed Shared Library Configuration Errors

Before executing an application for testing purposes, it is important to examine the environment and confirm that no problems occurred.

The most significant check is validating that all libraries the installed application might use are installed. This check can be performed by running pkg.ksh against the packages or directories, as done on the fully installed domain.

One important point is that libraries not found might indicate a library path problem with the crle(1) setting or LD_LIBRARY_PATH and LD_LIBRARY_PATH_64 environmental variable settings, rather than a package installation issue.

An example of this problem is found when applying the minimization methodology to Sun Validation Test Suite 5.1. After running pkg.ksh on the minimized system, a lot of shared libraries were installed, but their packages could not be identified.

# pkg.ksh SUNWvts SUNWvtsx
Unique packages needed:
Couldn't find package for /usr/lib/64/libc.so.1
Couldn't find package for /usr/lib/64/libdevinfo.so.1
Couldn't find package for /usr/lib/64/libdl.so.1
Couldn't find package for /usr/lib/64/libCrun.so.1
Couldn't find package for /usr/lib/64/libX11.so.4
Couldn't find package for /usr/lib/64/libaio.so.1
Couldn't find package for /usr/lib/64/libc.so.1
Couldn't find package for /usr/lib/64/libdl.so.1

Examining the script log produced when installing Sun Validation Test Suite 5.1 shows an executable with the problem libraries to focus on.

/opt/SUNWvts/bin/sparcv9/afbtest:    ELF 64-bit MSB executable SPARCV9 
Version 1, UltraSPARC1 Extensions Required, dynamically linked, not stripped
Package:    SUNWvtsx
truss: SUNWcsu SUNWvtsx SUNWxwplx
ldd: Couldn't find package for /usr/lib/64/libCrun.so.1
Couldn't find package for /usr/lib/64/libaio.so.1
Couldn't find package for /usr/lib/64/libc.so.1
Couldn't find package for /usr/lib/64/libdl.so.1

More clearly, running ldd shows the libraries are resolved, indicating they are installed. The directory of /usr/lib/64 is non-standard for 64-bit libraries in Solaris OE. The directory containing the libraries turns out to be a symbolic link to the traditional sparcv9 directory for 64-bit libraries.

# ldd /opt/SUNWvts/bin/sparcv9/afbtest
    libX11.so.4 =>  /usr/openwin/lib/sparcv9/libX11.so.4
    libnsl.so.1 =>  /usr/lib/64/libnsl.so.1
    libdl.so.1 =>  /usr/lib/64/libdl.so.1
    libsocket.so.1 =>    /usr/lib/64/libsocket.so.1
    libdga.so.1 =>  /usr/openwin/lib/sparcv9/libdga.so.1
    libvtstest.so.1 =>    /opt/SUNWvts/lib/sparcv9/libvtstest.so.1
    libCrun.so.1 => /usr/lib/64/libCrun.so.1
    libm.so.1 =>   /usr/lib/64/libm.so.1
# ls -lt /usr/lib/64
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root   root      7 Feb 7 11:43 /usr/lib/64 -> sparcv9

Setting LD_LIBRARY_PATH_64 to the sparcv9 directory path resolves the problem and allows finding package dependencies to succeed.

# echo $LD_LIBRARY_PATH_64
# ldd /opt/SUNWvts/bin/sparcv9/afbtest
    libX11.so.4 =>  /usr/lib/sparcv9/libX11.so.4
    libnsl.so.1 =>  /usr/lib/sparcv9/libnsl.so.1
    libdl.so.1 =>  /usr/lib/sparcv9/libdl.so.1
    libsocket.so.1 => /usr/lib/sparcv9/libsocket.so.1
    libdga.so.1 =>  /usr/openwin/lib/sparcv9/libdga.so.1
    libvtstest.so.1 => /opt/SUNWvts/lib/sparcv9/libvtstest.so.1
    libCrun.so.1 => /usr/lib/sparcv9/libCrun.so.1
# pkg.ksh SUNWvts SUNWvtsx
Unique packages needed:

Run the Primary Application and Look for Errors

Run the application and test it to make sure basic functionality is operational. Error checking should be carried out continuously during this process. The output to the console, to /var/adm/messages, and to the application's own logs should be constantly monitored.

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Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020