Home > Store

Extreme Programming Examined

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.

Extreme Programming Examined

Premium Website

  • Sorry, this book is no longer in print.
Not for Sale

About

Features

Description

  • Copyright 2001
  • Edition: 1st
  • Premium Website
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-71040-4
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-71040-3

Extreme Programming (XP) is a flexible programming discipline that emphasizes constant integration, frequent small releases, continual customer feedback, and a teamwork approach. With considerable fanfare, XP has taken the mainstream of software engineering by storm. It has been adopted by an increasing number of development organizations worldwide. At the first annual Conference on Extreme Programming and Flexible Processes in Software Engineering, held in Italy in June of 2000, leading theorists and practitioners came together to share principles, techniques, tools, best practices for XP, and other flexible methodologies.

Extreme Programming Examined gathers the 33 most insightful papers from this conference into one volume. With contributions from several visionaries in the field, these papers together represent the state-of-the-art in XP methodology as well as a glimpse at the future of XP.

Individual articles are organized into cohesive categories that allow the reader to learn and apply this material easily. Extreme Programming Examined addresses some of the most vital issues facing XP developers. It offers a high-level examination of XP programming theory and discusses specific methodologies, processes, techniques, tools, and case studies. You will find articles exploring specific—and often misunderstood—topics, including:

  • The role of design in XP
  • Just-in-time software development
  • XP frameworks
  • Combining flexible methodologies with the UML, including a novel approach to fast modeling software systems
  • Design patterns and XP
  • Tools to support pair programming, testing, and refactoring
  • Case studies illustrating the transition to XP, XP in R&D, and the integration of XP into an existing C++ project
  • An innovative approach to teaching XP
  • Bringing legacy code into XP
  • Flexible manufacturing for software agents
  • Management of variants in an extreme environment
  • Integrating XP with software product lines

Extreme Programming Examined is a valuable resource that offers the practical techniques and deeper understanding that developers and programmers need to initiate and implement successful XP projects.



0201710404B06042001

Sample Content

Table of Contents



Introduction.

I. FOUNDATIONS OF XP AND FLEXIBLE TECHNIQUES.

1. Is Design Dead?, Marttin Fowler.
2. The Tao of Extreme Programming, Peter Merel.

II. METHODOLOGY AND PROCESS.

3. A Comparison of the Value Systems of Adaptive Software Development and Extreme Programming: How Methodologies May Learn from Each Other, Dirk Riehle.
4. Let's Get Layered: A Proposed Reference Architecture for Refactoring in XP, Mark Collins-Cope and Hubert Matthews.
5. Extreme Frameworking: How to Aim Applications at Evolving Frameworks, Stefan Roock.
6. Hierarchical XP: Improving XP for Large-Scale Projects in Analogy to Reorganization Processes, Carsten Jacobi and Bernhard Rumpe.
7. JWAM and XP: Using XP for Framework Development, Martin Lippert, Stefan Roock, Henning Wolf, and Heinz Züllighoven.
8. XP and Large Distributed Software Projects, Even-André Karlsson and Lars-Göran Andersson.

III. FLEXIBLE TECHNIQUES AND UML.

<P>Chapter 9. XP Inside the Trojan Horse: Refactoring the Unified Software Development Process, Jutta Eckstein and Rolf F. Katzenberger.
10. A Flexible Software Development Process for Emergent Organizations, Giuliano Armano and Michele Marchesi.
11. Extreme Modeling, Marko Boger, Toby Baier, Frank Wienberg, and Winfried Lamersdorf.
12. A Stochastic Model of Software Maintenance and Its Implications on Extreme Programming Processes, Sergio Focardi, Michele Marchesi, and Giancarlo Succi.
13. Patterns and XP, Joshua Kerievsky.

IV. PAIR PROGRAMMING, TESTING, AND REFACTORING.

<P>Chapter 14. The Costs and Benefits of Pair Programming, Alistair Cockburn and Laurie Williams.

Appendix: The "Expert-In-Earshot" Project Management Pattern.

15. Unit Testing in a Java Project, Peter Gassmann.

Sample Code.

16. Retrofitting Unit Tests with JUnit, Kevin Rutherford.
17. Endo-Testing: Unit Testing with Mock Objects, Tim Mackinnon, Steve Freeman, and Philip Craig.
18. Refactoring and Re-Reasoning, Neelam Soundarajan.

V. TOOLS FOR XP DEVELOPMENT.

Chapter 19. Developing the Refactoring Browser, Ralph Johnson.
20. Team Streams: Extreme Team Support, Jim des Rivières, Erich Gamma, Ivan Moore, Kai-Uwe Mätzel, André Weinand, John Wiegand.
21. Support for Distributed Teams in Extreme Programming, Till Schümmer, Jan Schümmer.
@CHAPTER = 22. Automated Testing for a CORBA-Based Distributed System, Renato Cerqueira and Roberto Ierusalimschy.

VI. PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES.

23. The VCAPS Project: An Example of Transitioning to XP, Don Wells and Trish Buckley.
24. Adopting XP, Peter Sommerlad.
25. Introducing Extreme Programming in a Research and Development Laboratory, Karl Boutin.
26. After the Fact: Introducing XP into an Existing C++ Project, Manfred Lange.
27. The XP of TAO: Extreme Programming of Large, Open-Source Frameworks, Michael Kircher and David L. Levine.

VII. XP AND BEYOND.

28. Learn XP: Host a Boot Camp, Christian Wege and Frank Gerhardt.
29. Legacy to the Extreme, Arie van Deursen, Tobias Kuipers, and Leon Moonen.
30. The Design Is in the Code: Enhanced Reuse Techniques in C++, Andrei Alexandrescu.
31. Tracing Development Progress: A Variability Perspective, Giancarlo Succi, Paolo Predonzani, and Tullio Vernazza.
32. Flexible Manufacturing for Software Agents, Luigi Benedicenti, Ramon Paranjape, and Kevin Smith.
33. How Do Flexible Processes Relate to Software Product-Lines?, Jason Yip, Giancarlo Succi, and Eric Liu.
Index. 0201710404T04232001

Preface

Only geniuses can make difficult things simple, while any idiot can make a simple task difficult! Albert Einstein used to say something like that and we think that it applies quite well to extreme programming. Extreme programming –aka XP, (and other flexible methodologies) are an extreme attempt to dramatically simplify the process of developing software systems, focusing on what delivers value: the requirements for the system and the code that implements the system. There isn't much else!

In extreme programming everything starts with the requirements in the form of user stories. The customers deliver and prioritize the user stories. The developers analyses such stories and write tests for them.

... and everything ends with code. The code is developed in pairs of developers to increase quality. The code is refactored to make it simpler. The code is tested against requirements, constantly.

... and there is nothing in between!

Both requirements and code are subject to a careful scrutiny: as mentioned, the code does exactly what the user stories tell and nothing more and is always maintained to highest possible form.

This collection contains experiences in extreme programming and other flexible methodologies. It discusses what is in extreme programming -requirements and code, and how we can improve it.

The flow of the topics in the volume is top down. We start with the foundations, then we move to process, practices, tool support, experiences, to end with possible new avenues for exploration.

The volume starts with a discussion of the essence of XP and other flexible methodologies. Martin Fowler argues about the role of design. Peter Merel synthesizes the principles of XP.

The second section focuses on methodologies and processes. After a discussion of the value system of XP by Dirk Riehle and other methodologies and of the role of just-in-time software development by Alistair Cockburn, a comprehensive analysis of frameworks and other large software development practice take place through the contributions of Lars-Göran Andersson, Mark Collins-Cope, Carsten Jacobi, Even-André Karlsson, Martin Lippert, Hubert Matthews, Stefan Roock, Bernhard Rumpe, Henning Wolf, and Heinz Züllighoven.

In the third section, several authors attempt to combine what other people consider not compatible: flexible methodologies with UML. Jutta Eckstein and Rolf Katzenberger compare the Unified Software Development Proces (USDP) to XP; Michele Marchesi and Giuliano Armano present experience in the field inside newly created companies. Marko Boger, Toby Baier, and Frank Wienberg detail an interesting approach to fast modeling software systems. Focardi and the two of us explain why XP is different using the formalism of stochastic graphs. Joshua Kerievsky conciliates design patterns with XP.

The fourth section contains experiences and consideration on three key practices of XP: pair programming (Alistair Cockburn and Laurie Williams), testing (Philip Craig, Steve Freeman, Peter Gassmann, Tim Mackinnon, and Kevin Rutherford), and refactoring (Neelam Soundarajan).

The fifth section reviews existing tools to support pair programming with focus on refactoring (Ralph Johnson); XP specific team support (Jim des Rivières, Erich Gamma, Ivan Moore, Kai-Uwe Mätzel, Jan Schümmer, Till Schümmer, André Weinand, and John Wiegand) testing – (Renato Cerqueira and Roberto Ierusalimschy).

Karl Boutin, Michael Kircher, Manfred Lange David Levine, Peter Sommerlad, and Don Wells present their experiences in XP in section 6.

Champagne at the end! Sparkling ideas on how to address some terrifying aspects of XP are presented in the end of the book! Christian Wege and Frank Gerhardt outline their approach to teaching XP. Arie van Deursen, Tobias Kuipers, and Leon Moonen address the issue of legacy code. Paolo Predonzani, Giancarlo Succi, and Tullio Vernazza discuss how to handle the management of variants in an extreme environment. The inherent extreme flexibility of software agents is discussed by Luigi Benedicenti, Raman Paranjape, Kevin Smith. Jason Yip, Giancarlo Succi, Eric Liu explain how several products developed using XP can be organized in a line of production, without becoming heavy weighted.

Index

A

Abstract data types (ADTs) versus pair programming, 111—112

ACE (Adoptive Communication Environment), 463—464

code ownership, 474

development by DOC group, 467

refractoring, 475—476

testing, 475

XP for large project, 476—479

The ACE ORB. See TAO

Activities (USDP), 141, 149—151

Activity explorer, 370—372

Adaptive Leadership-Collaboration model, 39

Adaptive Software Development. See ASD

Adoptive Communication Environment (ACE), 463—464

code ownership, 474

development by DOC group, 467

refractoring, 475—476

testing, 475

XP for large project, 476—479

ADTs (abstract data types) versus pair programming, 111—112

Aglets distributed agent system, 538

Apcon Workplace Solutions Ltd. (JWAM), 104—105

APIs (application programing interfaces), XP in open-source projects, 469

Application development. See Software development

Application layer, architectural reference model, 57—58

Architectural layering, reference model, 52—54

application layer, 57—58

basics, 54—57

compromises, 66—67

domain layer, 58

infrastructure layer, 58—59

interface layer, 57

Architectural layering

motivation, 54

platform software layer, 59

requirements, 64—65

rules, 59

semantics, 59—61

support of XP, 62—66

USDP, 143—144, 166

ArgoUML tool, 187—188

Artifacts (USDP), 141, 151—153

activities, 149

ASD (Adaptive Software Development). See also Software development; XP

basics, 39—41

emergence, 37

value systems model, 44—45

XP, comparison, 38—39, 43, 45—46

XP, compatibility, 46—48

Automated testing

C++ project, integrating XP, 453

external customers, 430—431

transitioning to XP project, 416—417

Automated testing, CORBA-based distributed system

basics, 379—381

Distributed Sonar Simulator project, 381—385

LuaOrb tool, basics, 385—390

LuaOrb tool, test implementation, 390—392

Awareness model, 360, 363—364

activity explorer, 370—372

cooperative browsers, 369—370

FLECSE tools, 372—373

project examples, 365—368

B

Backward compatibility, versioning, 74—77

Baselines for scheduling, framework development, 107—108

Bespoke components, infrastructure layer, architectural reference model, 58

C

C++

conversions between classes, 526—527

policy classes, 519—522

policy classes, combining multiple classes, 523—526

policy classes, generic behavior, 522—523

templates as design constraints, 518—519

C++ project, integrating XP

design strategies, 455

error simulations, 454

pair programming, 459—460

problems to be solved, 450

refractoring, 456—458

testing, automated, 453

testing, interfaces, 452

testing, multithreaded, 451—452

Capability Maturity Model
(CMM), 43

CAS (Complex Adaptive Systems), 39

Cayley tree, 198—199

Center for Distributed Object Computing (DOC) and XP, 464—467

40-hour week guideline, 476

group roles, 473—474

Center of gravity, applications, defined, 60

Change curve, software development, 6—7

Chime tool, 372—373

Class browser, 369—370

Class-Responsbility Collaboration (CRC) cards, 14, 166—167

VCAPS project, 406—408

Classes

C++ policy classes, 519—522

C++ policy classes, combining multiple classes, 523—526

C++ policy classes, conversions between classes, 526—527

C++ policy classes, generic behavior, 522—523

versus interfaces, 209

refractoring, 306—310

"Clever code," 10

CloneDr tool, 505

CMM (Capabililty Maturity Model), 43

Coaching in software development, 25—27

VCAPS transitioning project, 412—413

COAST groupware framework, TUKAN development, 364

Code and fix development, 3

team communication, 157

Code ownership

team practices (XP),
335—336

transitioning to XP, VCAPS project, 409

XP in open-source projects, 474

Coding, basic XP approach, 86

Collaborative programming. See Pair Programming

Compatibility, versioning in framework development, 74—77

Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS), 39

Components of applications, defined, 54—55

Confucius, doctrines compared to traditional software development, 19—20

Construction phase, USDP, 140, 167—169

Control flags, refractoring, 311—312

Cooperative class browser, 369—370

CORBA-based distributed system, automated testing

basics, 379—381

Distributed Sonar Simulator project, 381—385

LuaOrb tool, basics,
385—390

LuaOrb tool, test implementation, 390—392

Corvette framework, unit testing in JUnit, 271

CRC (Class-Responsbility Collaboration) cards, 14, 166—167

VCAPS project, 406—408

Crystal, 37

D

Daily builds, Ericsson’s GSM division project, 121—125

design impact, 126—129

testing advantages, 129—130

Data-change information (DCI), 123

Deprecated tags, framework development, 77, 79

Design strategies

based on end-user functionality or system modules, 126—127

C++ project, integrating XP, 455

code and fix, 3

multiple solutions, 517—518

planned versus evolutionary, 4—6

Simple Design, 8—10

templates as constraints, 518—519

up-front, 3

Design strategies (XP)

approach, 86

lightweight methodology, 87—88

open-source projects, 469—470

practices, 6—7

skills required, 16

Design view of components, 55

Diagrams

Front Door use case, 23

XP and UML, 13—15

Diagrams, UML

documentation, 14—15

execution, 177—179

interactions, 179—180

interactions with code, 180

layered architecture, 52—53

Distribution, XP

communication-centered view, 357—363

problems, 361

DOC (Center for Distributed Object Computing) and XP, 464—467

40-hour week guideline, 476

group roles, 473—474

DocGen tool, 504—505

Documentation, UML diagrams, 14—15

Domain layer, architectural reference model, 58

DRY ("Don’t Repeat Yourself") practice, 10

E

Economics, XP for external customers, 426

Elaboration phase, USDP,
166—167

ENVY

versus TUKAN, 372

TUKAN development, 364

Evolutionary design,

Introduction

Only geniuses can make difficult things simple, while any idiot can make a simple task difficult

Only geniuses can make difficult things simple, while any idiot can make a simple task difficult! Albert Einstein used to say something like that, and we think that it applies quite well to extreme programming. Extreme programming–aka XP–(and other flexible methodologies) are an extreme attempt to dramatically simplify the process of developing software systems, focusing on what delivers value: the requirements for the system and the code that implements the system. There isn’t much else!

In extreme programming everything starts with the requirements, in the form of user stories. The customers deliver and prioritize the user stories. The developers analyze such stories and write tests for them.

. . . and everything ends with code. The code is developed by pairs of developers to increase quality. The code is refactored to make it simpler.
The code is tested against requirements, constantly.

. . . and there is nothing in between!

Both requirements and code are subject to careful scrutiny: as mentioned, the code does exactly what the user stories tell and nothing more and is always maintained to its highest possible form.

This collection contains experiences in extreme programming and other flexible methodologies. It discusses what is in extreme programming–requirements and code–and how we can improve it.

The flow of the topics in this book is top down. We start with the foundations, then we move to process, practices, tool support, and experiences, and end with possible new avenues for exploration.

This book starts with a discussion of the essence of XP and other flexible methodologies. Martin Fowler argues about the role of design. Peter Merel synthesizes the principles of XP.

The second part focuses on methodologies and processes. After a discussion of the value systems of XP and other methodologies by Dirk Riehle a comprehensive analysis of frameworks and other large software development practices take place through the contributions of Lars- Göran Andersson, Mark Collins-Cope, Carsten Jacobi, Even-André Karlsson, Martin Lippert, Hubert Matthews, Stefan Roock, Bernhard Rumpe, Henning Wolf, and Heinz Züllighoven.

In the third part, several authors attempt to combine what other people consider incompatible: flexible methodologies and UML. Jutta Eckstein and Rolf Katzenberger compare the Unified Software Development Process (USDP) with XP; Giuliano Armano and Michele Marchesi present experience in the field inside newly created companies. Marko Boger, Toby Baier, Frank Wienberg, and Winfried Lamersdorf detail an interesting approach to fast modeling software systems. Sergio Focardi and the two of us explain why XP is a genetically different way of developing software using the formalism of stochastic graphs. Joshua Kerievsky conciliates design patterns with XP.

The fourth part contains experiences and consideration of three key practices of XP: pair programming (Alistair Cockburn and Laurie Williams), testing (Philip Craig, Steve Freeman, Peter Gassmann, Tim Mackinnon, and Kevin Rutherford), and refactoring (Neelam Soundarajan).

The fifth part reviews existing tools for supporting pair programming with a focus on refactoring (Ralph Johnson); XP-specific team support (Jim des Rivières, Erich Gamma, Ivan Moore, Kai-Uwe Mätzel, Jan Schümmer, Till Schümmer, André Weinand, and John Wiegand); and testing (Renato Cerqueira and Roberto Ierusalimschy).

Karl Boutin, Michael Kircher, Manfred Lange, David Levine, Peter Sommerlad, and Don Wells present their experiences in XP in Part 6.

Champagne at the end! Sparkling ideas on how to address some terrifying aspects of XP are presented at the end of the book! Christian Wege and Frank Gerhardt outline their approach to teaching XP. Arie van Deursen, Tobias Kuipers, and Leon Moonen address the issue of legacy code. Andrei Alexandrescu explains how flexible methodologies can be implemented in C++. Paolo Predonzani, Giancarlo Succi, and Tullio Vernazza discuss how to handle the management of variants in an extreme environment. The inherent extreme flexibility of software agents is discussed by Luigi Benedicenti, Raman Paranjape, and Kevin Smith. Jason Yip, Giancarlo Succi, and Eric Liu explain how several products developed using XP can be organized in a line of production, without becoming heavyweight.

Updates

Submit Errata

More Information

Unlimited one-month access with your purchase
Free Safari Membership