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VLSI Design Methodology Development

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  • Copyright 2019
  • Pages: 752
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-573474-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-573474-2

The Complete, Modern Tutorial on Practical VLSI Chip Design, Validation, and Analysis

As microelectronics engineers design complex chips using existing circuit libraries, they must ensure correct logical, physical, and electrical properties, and prepare for reliable foundry fabrication. VLSI Design Methodology Development focuses on the design and analysis steps needed to perform these tasks and successfully complete a modern chip design.

Microprocessor design authority Tom Dillinger carefully introduces core concepts, and then guides engineers through modeling, functional design validation, design implementation, electrical analysis, and release to manufacturing. Writing from the engineer’s perspective, he covers underlying EDA tool algorithms, flows, criteria for assessing project status, and key tradeoffs and interdependencies. This fresh and accessible tutorial will be valuable to all VLSI system designers, senior undergraduate or graduate students of microelectronics design, and companies offering internal courses for engineers at all levels.

  • Reflect complexity, cost, resources, and schedules in planning a chip design project
  • Perform hierarchical design decomposition, floorplanning, and physical integration, addressing DFT, DFM, and DFY requirements
  • Model functionality and behavior, validate designs, and verify formal equivalency
  • Apply EDA tools for logic synthesis, placement, and routing
  • Analyze timing, noise, power, and electrical issues
  • Prepare for manufacturing release and bring-up, from mastering ECOs to qualification

This guide is for all VLSI system designers, senior undergraduate or graduate students of microelectronics design, and companies offering internal courses for engineers at all levels. It is applicable to engineering teams undertaking new projects and migrating existing designs to new technologies.

Sample Content

Table of Contents

Preface     xiv
I.1 Methodology Guidelines for Logical and Physical Design Hierarchy Correspondence     6
I.2 Managing Inter-Block Glue Logic     8
Chapter 1  Introduction     13
1.1 Definitions     13
1.2 Intellectual Property (IP) Models     21
1.3 Tapeout and NRE Fabrication Cost     42
1.4 Fabrication Technology     44
1.5 Power and Clock Domains On-chip     105
1.6 Physical Design Planning     113
1.7 Summary     126
References     127
Further Research     129
Chapter 2  VLSI Design Methodology     131
2.1 IP Design Methodology     131
2.2 SoC Physical Design Methodology     141
2.3 EDA Tool and Release Flow Management     165
2.4 Design Methodology “Trailblazing” and Reference Flows     168
2.5 Design Data Management (DDM)     171
2.6 Power and Clock Domain Management     175
2.7 Design for Testability (DFT)     177
2.8 Design-for-Manufacturability (DFM) and Design-for-Yield (DFY) Requirements     184
2.9 Design Optimization     185
2.10 Methodology Checks     186
References     190
Further Research     190
Chapter 3  Hierarchical Design Decomposition     193
3.1 Logical-to-Physical Correspondence     193
3.2 Division of SRAM Array Versus Non-Array Functionality     197
3.3 Division of Dataflow and Control Flow Functionality     198
3.4 Design Block Size for Logic Synthesis and Physical Design     202
3.5 Power and Clock Domain Considerations     206
3.6 Opportunities for Reuse of Hierarchical Units     207
3.7 Automated Test Pattern Generation (ATPG) Limitations     208
3.8 Intangibles     211
3.9 The Impact of Changes to the SoC Model Hierarchy During Design     212
3.10 Generating Hierarchical Electrical Abstracts Versus Top-Level Flat Analysis     214
3.11 Methodologies for Top-Level Logical and Physical Hierarchies     216
3.12 Summary     218
References     219
Further Research     219

Chapter 4  Cell and IP Modeling     223

4.1 Functional Modeling for Cells and IP     223
4.2 Physical Models for Library Cells     240
4.3 Library Cell Models for Analysis Flows     241
4.4 Design for End-of-Life (EOL) Circuit Parameter Drift     251
4.5 Summary     253
References     253
Further Research     254

Chapter 5  Characteristics of Functional Validation     259

5.1 Software Simulation     259
5.2 Testbench Stimulus Development     262
5.3 Hardware-Accelerated Simulation: Emulation and Prototyping     268
5.4 Behavioral Co-simulation     275
5.5 Switch-Level and Symbolic Simulation     275
5.6 Simulation Throughput and Resource Planning     281
5.7 Validation of Production Test Patterns     284
5.8 Event Trace Logging     288
5.9 Model Coverage Analysis     289
5.10 Switching Activity Factor Estimates for Power Dissipation Analysis     295
5.11 Summary     296
References     297
Further Research     298
Chapter 6  Characteristics of Formal Equivalency Verification     301
6.1 RTL Combinational Model Equivalency     301
6.2 State Mapping for Equivalency     302
6.3 Combinational Logic Cone Analysis     305
6.4 Use of Model Input Assertions for Equivalency     306
6.5 Sequential Model Equivalency     307
6.6 Functional and Test-Mode Equivalence Verification     309
6.7 Array Equivalence Verification     310
6.8 Summary     313
References     314
Further Research     314

Chapter 7  Logic Synthesis     319

7.1 Level of Hardware Description Language Modeling     319
7.2 Generation and Verification of Timing Constraints     320
7.3 Technology Mapping to the Cell Library     328
7.4 Signal Repowering and “High-Fan-out” Net Synthesis (HFNS)     335
7.5 Post-Synthesis Netlist Characteristics     339
7.6 Synthesis with a Power Format File     340
7.7 Post-Technology Mapping Optimizations for Timing and Power     343
7.8 Hold Timing Optimization     348
7.9 Clock Tree Synthesis (CTS)     350
7.10 Integration of Hard IP Macros in Synthesis     353
7.11 Low-Effort Synthesis (LES) Methodology     354
7.12 Summary     359
References     360
Further Research     360
Chapter 8  Placement     363
8.1 Global Floorplanning of Hierarchical Units     363
8.2 Parasitic Interconnect Estimation     366
8.3 Cell Placement     367
8.4 Clock Tree Local Buffer Placement     369
8.5 Summary     370
References     370
Further Research     370
Chapter 9  Routing     373
9.1 Routing Introduction     373
9.2 Global and Detailed Routing Phases     378
9.3 Back End Of Line Interconnect “Stacks”     383
9.4 Routing Optimizations     387
9.5 Summary     399
References     400
Further Research     400

Chapter 10  Layout Parasitic Extraction and Electrical Modeling     405

10.1 Introduction     405
10.2 Cell- and Transistor-Level Parasitic Modeling for Cell Characterization     411
10.3 Decoupling Capacitance Calculation for Power Grid Analysis     431
10.4 Interconnect Extraction     433
10.5 “Selected Net” Extraction Options     438
10.6 RLC Modeling     439
10.7 Summary     439
References     440
Further Research     442
Chapter 11  Timing Analysis     443
11.1 Cell Delay Calculation     443
11.2 Interconnect Delay Calculation     446
11.3 Electrical Design Checks     452
11.4 Static Timing Analysis     453
11.5 Summary     469
References     470
Further Research     472
Chapter 12  Noise Analysis     475
12.1 Introduction to Noise Analysis     475
12.2 Static Noise Analysis, Part I     476
12.3 Noise Impact on Delay     481
12.4 Electrical Models for Static Noise Analysis     485
12.5 Static Noise Analysis, Part II     488
12.6 Summary     491
References     492
Further Research     493
Chapter 13  Power Analysis     495
13.1 Introduction to Power Analysis     495
13.2 Models for Switching Activity Power Dissipation     497
13.3 IP Power Models     501
13.4 Device Self-Heat Models     502
13.5 Design-for-Power Feedback from Power Analysis     504
13.6 Summary     505
References     506
Further Research     506
Chapter 14  Power Rail Voltage Drop Analysis     509
14.1 Introduction to Power Rail Voltage Drop Analysis     509
14.2 Static I*R Rail Analysis     512
14.3 Dynamic P/G Voltage Drop Analysis     513
14.4 Summary     526
References     526
Further Research     527
Chapter 15  Electromigration (EM) Reliability Analysis     529
15.1 Introduction to EM Reliability Analysis     529
15.2 Fundamentals of Electromigration     535
15.3 Power Rail Electromigration Analysis: powerEM     545
15.4 Signal Interconnect Electromigration Analysis: sigEM     548
15.5 Summary     555
References     555
Further Research     556
Chapter 16  Miscellaneous Electrical Analysis Requirements     559
16.1 SleepFET Power Rail Analysis     559
16.2 Substrate Noise Injection and Latchup Analysis     562
16.3 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Checking     568
16.4 Soft Error Rate (SER) Analysis     576
16.5 Summary     590
References     590
Further Research     591

Chapter 17  ECOs     595

17.1 Application of an Engineering Change     595
17.2 ECOs and Equivalency Verification     599
17.3 Use of Post-Silicon Cells for ECOs     600
17.4 ECOs and Design Version Management     602
17.5 Summary     605
References     606
Further Research     606
Chapter 18  Physical Design Verification     607
18.1 Design Rule Checking (DRC)     607
18.2 Layout-Versus-Schematic (LVS) Verification     610
18.3 Electrical Rule Checking (ERC)     616
18.4 Lithography Process Checking (LPC)     618
18.5 DRC Waivers     620
18.6 Summary     622
Further Research     622
Chapter 19  Design for Testability Analysis     625
19.1 Stuck-at Fault Models and Automated Test Pattern Generation (ATPG)     625
19.2 DFT Design Rule Checking     636
19.3 Memory Built-in Self-Test (MBIST)     638
19.4 Logic Built-in Self-Test (LBIST)     645
19.5 Delay Faults     659
19.6 Bridging Faults     664
19.7 Pattern Diagnostics     665
19.8 Summary     672
References     673
Further Research     674
Chapter 20  Preparation for Tapeout     677
20.1 Introduction to Tapeout Preparation     677
20.2 Foundry Interface Release Tapeout Options     678
20.3 Tapeout Checklist Review     684
20.4 Project Tapeout Planning     689
Further Research     692
Chapter 21  Post-Silicon Debug and Characterization (“Bring-up”) and Product Qualification     693
21.1 Systematic Test Fails     693
21.2 “Shmoo” of Performance Dropout Versus Frequency     695
21.3 Product Qualification     698
21.4 Summary     702
Reference     702
Further Research     703
Epilogue     705
Index     711


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