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Virtual Routing in the Cloud

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Virtual Routing in the Cloud


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  • Copyright 2016
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 352
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 1-58714-494-8
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-58714-494-3

The Cisco expert guide to planning, deploying, and operating virtual routing with the CSR 1000V Cloud Services Router

Virtual routing and the Cisco Cloud Services Router (CSR 1000V) are key enablers of today’s revolutionary shift to elastic cloud applications and low-cost virtualized networking. Now, there’s an authoritative, complete guide to building real solutions with the Cisco CSR 1000V platform.

Three leading experts cover every essential building block, present key use cases and configuration examples, illuminate design and deployment scenarios, and show how the CSR 1000V platform and APIs can enable state-of-the-art software-defined networks (SDN). Drawing on extensive early adopter experience, they illuminate crucial OS and hypervisor details, help you overcome migration challenges, and offer practical guidance for monitoring and operations.

This guide is an essential resource for all technical professionals planning or deploying data center and enterprise cloud services, and for all cloud network operators utilizing the Cisco CSR 1000V or future Cisco virtual routing platforms.

· Review the fundamentals of cloud virtualization, multitenant data-center design, and software-defined networking

· Understand the Cisco CSR 1000V’s role, features, and infrastructure requirements

· Compare server hypervisor technologies for managing VM hardware with CSR 1000V deployments

· Understand CSR 1000V software architecture, control and data-plane design, licensing requirements, and packet flow

· Walk through common virtual router scenarios and configurations, including multiple cloud and data center examples

· Integrate CSR 1000V into the OpenStack SDN framework, and use its APIs to solve specific problems

· Master a best-practice workflow for deploying the CSR 1000V

· Use the Cisco management tools to automate, orchestrate, and troubleshoot virtualized routing

Category: Networking/Cloud Computing

Covers: Cloud Services Router

This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers

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Table of Contents

Introduction xv

Chapter 1 Introduction to Cloud 1

Evolution of the Data Center 1

Data Center Architecture Building Blocks 2

Introduction to Virtualization in the Data Center 4

Evolution of Virtualization 5

Conceptual Architecture of Virtualization 5

Types of Virtualization Technologies 6

Server Virtualization 6

Types of Server Virtualization 8

Storage Virtualization 9

Types of Storage Virtualization 11

Network Virtualization 12

Network Virtualization Evolution 13

Types of Network Virtualization 14

Service Virtualization 15

Introduction to the Multitenant Data Center 16

Introduction to Cloud Services 18

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 18

Platform as a Service (PaaS) 19

Software as a Service (SaaS) 20

Cloud Deployment Models 20

Cloud Design Considerations 21

Domain 1: Infrastructure and Environmental 22

Domain 2: Abstraction and Virtualization 23

Domain 3: Automation and Orchestration 23

Domain 4: Customer Interface 24

Domains 5 and 6: Service Catalog and Financials 24

Domains 7 and 8: Platform and Application 24

Domain 9: Security and Compliance 24

Domain 10: Organization, Governance, and Process 25

Enterprise Connectivity to the Cloud 26

Internet for Transport 26

Direct Connectivity to a Cloud Provider 28

Enterprise Cloud Adoption Challenges 29

Software-Defined Networking 30

Open Networking Foundation 31

OpenDaylight Project 32

Network Function Virtualization 33

OpenStack 34

Summary 35

Chapter 2 Software Evolution of the CSR 1000 37

IOS Software Architecture 37

IOS XE Architecture 39

The IOS XE Kernel 40

The IOS Daemon 40

The Forwarding Manager 41

The Interface Manager 41

The Platform Manager 41

Cisco ASR 1000 System Architecture Overview 41

Route Processor 42

Embedded Service Processor 42

SPA Interface Processor 43

Cloud Service Router 1000V Overview 44

Deployment Requirements 45

Elastic Performance and Scaling 47

Rapid Deployment and Routing Flexibility in the Cloud 49

CSR 1000V Deployment Examples 50

Secure Cloud VPN Gateway 50

Network Extension from Premises to Cloud 51

Segmentation Within a Cloud 52

CSR 1000V Key Features 52

Summary 57

Chapter 3 Hypervisor Considerations for the CSR 59

Understanding Operating Systems 59

Operating System Design 60

Physical Resource Management 60

Software Access to Physical Resources 62

Kernels 63

Microkernels 63

Hybrid Kernels 64

The Cisco IOS Kernel 64

The Boot Process 66

Linux Memory Management 69

Linux Swap Space and Memory Overcommit 69

Linux Caching 71

Understanding Hypervisors 71

How Does a Hypervisor Compare to an Operating System? 72

Type 1 Hypervisor Design 74

Monolithic Architecture 74

Microkernel Architecture 74

Core Partitioning 75

ESXi Hypervisor 75

Architectural Components of ESXi 75

The VMkernel 75

Components of the VMkernel 76

Processes Running on the VMkernel 77

Device Drivers 78

File Systems 79

Management 80

KVM 82

Architectural Components of KVM/QEMU 84

Guest Emulator (QEMU) 85

Management Daemon (Libvirt) 88

User Tools (virsh, virt-manager) 89

Hyper-V 91

Xen 92

Summary 94

Chapter 4 CSR 1000V Software Architecture 95

System Design 95

Virtualizing the ASR 1001 into the CSR 1000V 98

CSR 1000V Initialization Process 99

CSR 1000V Data Plane Architecture 100

CSR 1000V Software Crypto Engine 103

Life of a Packet on a CSR 1000V: The Data Plane 103

Netmap I/O 104

Packet Flow 106

Device Initialization Flow 106

TX Flow 107

RX Flow 108

Unicast Traffic Packet Flow 109

Installing the CSR 1000V on a VMware Hypervisor 110

Bringing Up the VM with the CSR 1000V on ESXi 110

Installing the CSR 1000V on a KVM Hypervisor 126

Bring Up the CSR 1000V as a Guest 126

Performance Tuning of the CSR 1000V 137

Summary 139

Chapter 5 CSR 1000V Deployment Scenarios 141

VPN Services 141

Layer 2 VPNs 141

Layer 3 VPNs 142

Site-to-Site VPNs 143

Remote Access VPNs 147

Use Cases for the CSR 1000V as a VPN Service Gateway 148

Enterprise Data Center Network Extension 148

The CSR 1000V as a VPN Gateway 148

CSR for Secure Inter-Cloud Connectivity 152

Remote VPN Access into the Cloud 153

BGP Route Reflector Use Case for the CSR 155

The CSR 1000V in a Hierarchical Route Reflector Use Case 157

Planning for Future Branch Design with the CSR 1000V 162

Evolution of Branch Virtualization 164

LISP and CSR 168

LISP Terminology 169

The LISP Data Plane 171

The LISP Control Plane 171

Typical LISP Use Cases 175

IP Mobility 175

IPv6 Migration 175

Network-to-Network Connectivity 175

Network-to-Network Interconnection Topology and Configuration 176

Summary 183

Chapter 6 CSR Cloud Deployment Scenarios 185

CSR in a Multitenant Data Center 185

Cloudburst 190

Direct Access Model 191

Redirection Access Model 192

The Cisco Inter-Cloud Fabric 194

Private Cloud Deployment with CSR in OpenStack 195

Introduction to OpenStack 196

Primary Use Case for OpenStack 196

OpenStack Components 197

CSR Within OpenStack 206

CSR 1000V as a Neutron Router 206

CSR 1000V as a Tenant Router 209

CSR 1000V in a Public Cloud 211

Amazon Web Services Deployment for the CSR 211

Amazon Web Service Solutions 211

Routing in AWS Clouds 212

CSR 1000V Deployment in AWS 216

Instantiate a CSR in AWS 217

Summary 222

Chapter 7 CSR in the SDN Framework 223

Deploying OpenStack 225

CSR as an OpenStack Tenant Deployment 235

Instantiate CSR Plugin to OpenStack 242

Summary 245

Chapter 8 CSR 1000V Automation, Orchestration, and Troubleshooting 247

Automation 248

BDEO 248

NSO (Tail-f) 249

NSO Example for NFV Orchestration with OpenStack (Service Chain) 252

Orchestration 267

Virtual Managed Services (VMS) 267

Cisco Prime Network Services Controller (PNSC) 269

CSR 1000V Troubleshooting 271

Architecture Overview 271

I/O Configuration 272

vSwitch 272

PCI Passthrough 274

SR-IOV (Single Root I/O Virtualization) 274

Host Configurations 275

Debugging Packet Loss 276

High-Level Packet Flow 276

ESXi Packet Debugging 289

Summary 292

Appendix A Sample Answer File for Packstack 293

9781587144943 TOC 4/8/2016


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