Home > Store

Strategies for Real-Time System Specification

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.

Strategies for Real-Time System Specification

eBook (Watermarked)

  • Your Price: $15.99
  • List Price: $19.99
  • Includes EPUB, MOBI, and PDF
  • About eBook Formats
  • This eBook includes the following formats, accessible from your Account page after purchase:

    ePub EPUB The open industry format known for its reflowable content and usability on supported mobile devices.

    MOBI MOBI The eBook format compatible with the Amazon Kindle and Amazon Kindle applications.

    Adobe Reader PDF The popular standard, used most often with the free Adobe® Reader® software.

    This eBook requires no passwords or activation to read. We customize your eBook by discreetly watermarking it with your name, making it uniquely yours.

Description

  • Copyright 2014
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-349201-X
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-349201-9

This is the digital version of the printed book (Copyright © 1987).


Here is a casebook, a practical reference, and an indispensable guide for creating a systematic, formal methodology for large, real-time, software-based systems.

The book introduces the widely implemented Hatley/Pirbhai methods, a major extension of the DeMarco analysis method describing how external events control the system's operating behavior. The techniques are used in major avionics and electronics companies worldwide, and are automated by most major CASE tools, including TurboCASE/Sys by StructSoft, Inc.

Large software-based systems, especially those for real-time applications, require multi-mode operation, direct interaction with a rapidly changing physical environment, and fast response times. In the past, the development of such systems was prone to massive cost and schedule overruns, and to inadequate performance and reliability. Strategies for Real-Time System Specification addresses these problems by integrating a finite-state machine structure into classical analysis methods.

The book contains nearly 200 diagrams, many of which illustrate the requirements specification of a flight management system for a major avionics developer.

Sample Content

Online Sample Chapters

An Overview of Strategies for Real-Time System Specification

Preface to Strategies for Real-Time System Specification

Strategies for Real-Time System Specification: Creating the System Architecture Model

Sample Pages

Download the sample pages (includes Chapter 3 and Index)

Table of Contents

List of Figures        xv

Foreword        xxiii

Preface         xxv

Part I: The Overall Strategy         1

Chapter 1: Overview        3

1.1  The Birth of the Requirements Model   4

1.2  The Birth of the Architecture Model   7

1.3  Compatibility of the Models   7

1.4  Applicability of the Models   8

1.5  The System Life Cycle   8


Chapter 2: The Role of the Methods         11

2.1  Structured Methods: What They Are   11

2.2  System Requirements Model   13

2.3  System Architecture Model   19

2.4  System Specification Model   25

2.5  The Development Life Cycle   27

2.6  Structured Methods: What They Are Not   31

2.7 Summary   32

PART II: The Requirements Model        33

Chapter 3: Overview           35

3.1  The Structure of the Model        37

Chapter 4: The Process Model        41

4.1  Data Context Diagrams   41

4.2  Data Flow Diagrams   44

4.3  Leveling and Balancing   47

4.4  The Numbering System   49

4.5  Data Flows   49

4.6  Data Stores   52

4.7  Process Specifications   53

4.8  Interpreting the Process Model   56

4.9  Summary   59

Chapter 5: The Control Model         61

5.1  Control Context Diagrams    61

5.2  Control Flow Diagrams   64

5.3  Control Flows   67

5.4  Data Conditions   69

5.5  Control Stores   70

5.6  Control Specifications   70

5.7  Process Controls   73

5.8  Summary   76

Chapter 6: Finite State Machines        77

6.1  Combinational Machines   79

6.2  Sequential Machines   83

6.3  Incorporating Finite State Machines into CSPECs   89

6.4  Summary   97

Chapter 7: Timing Requirements        98

7.1  Repetition Rate   99

7.2  Input-to-Output Response Time   99

7.3  Summary   102

Chapter 8: Requirements Dictionary        103

8.1  Primitive Attributes   104

8.2  Group Structure   105

8.3  Dictionary Data Bases   107

8.4  Summary   110

Chapter 9: Requirements Model Interpretation and Summary         111

9.1  The Requirements Model Interpreted    111

9.2  Requirements Model Summary   113

PART III: Building the Requirements Model         117

Chapter 10: Overview        119

10.1  Model Users and Builders   119

10.2  The Sources of Requirements   120

10.3  The Model Building Process   121

Chapter 11: Getting Started        124

11.1  User Requirements Statements   124

11.2  Separating Data and Control   125

11.3  Establishing the System Context   129

11.4  Partitioning the Top Levels   132

11.5  Summary   135

Chapter 12: Developing the Model's Structure        137

12.1  Abstraction and Decomposition   137

12.2  The Seven-Plus-or-Minus-Two Principle   138

12.3  Grouping and Decomposing Processes   139

12.4  Grouping and Decomposing Flows   140

12.5  Naming Processes and Flows   147

12.6  Use of Stores   149

12.7  Functionally Identical Processes   150

12.8  De-emphasizing the Control Model   151

12.9    Control Intensive Systems   153

12.10  The Dilemma of Detail: Requirements Versus Design   155

12.11  The Final Product   156

12.12  Summary   156

Chapter 13: Preparing Process Specifications        158

13.1  The Role of Process Specifications   158

13.2  The Different Types of PSPECs   159

13.3  Some Important Signal Conventions   162

13.4  Structured English   165

13.5  Annotating with Comments   167

13.6  Summary   167

Chapter 14: Preparing Control Specifications        169

14.1  Avoiding Control Specifications   169

14.2  Combinational Control   170

14.3  Sequential Control   176

14.4  Multi-Sheet CSPECs   182

14.5  Fitting CSPECs In   185

14.6  Summary   189

Chapter 15: Defining Timing         190

15.1  Timing Overview   190

15.2  Response Time Specification   192

15.3  Summary   193

Chapter 16: Managing the Dictionary          194

16.1  Flow Types   194

16.2  Dictionary Symbols   198

16.3  Summary   199

PART IV: The Architecture Model         201

Chapter 17: Overview          203

17.1  Requirements-to-Architecture Template   204

17.2  Architecture Model Symbols   207

Chapter 18: Architecture Diagrams         211

18.1       Architecture Context Diagrams   211

18.2       Flows and Interconnects   213

18.3       Architecture Flow Diagrams   213

18.4       Architecture Interconnect Diagrams   218

18.5       Summary   224

Chapter 19: Architecture Dictionary and Module Specifications         225

19.1  Architecture Module Specification   226

19.2  Architecture Interconnect Specification   229

19.3  Timing Requirements   232

19.4  Architecture Dictionary   233

19.5  Summary   234

Chapter 20: Completing the Architecture Model          235

20.1  Allocation to Hardware and Software   235

20.2  The Hardware and Software Architectures   236

20.3  The Complete Architecture Model   238

PART V: Building the Architecture Model        241

Chapter 21: Overview        243

21.1  Architecture Development Process   244

21.2  Systems Come in Hierarchies   246

Chapter 22: Enhancing the Requirements Model        248

22.1  Input and Output Processing   249

22.2  User Interface Processing   251

22.3  Maintenance and Self-Test Processing   254

22.4  The Complete Enhanced Requirements Model   256

22.5  Technology-Independent Versus Technology-Nonspecific   257

22.6  Organizational Implications   260

22.7  Summary   261


Chapter 23: Creating the System Architecture Model         263

23.1  Architecture Context Diagram   263

23.2  Architecture Flow and Interconnect Diagrams   264

23.3  Example of AFD and AID Mapping   266

23.4  Model Consistency and Balancing   268

23.5  The Complete Architecture Model   271

23.6  Summary   272

Chapter 24: Creating the Hardware and Software Architecture Models        273

24.1  Hardware and Software Partitioning   276

24.4  Applying the Template to Software Requirements    279

24.3  Developing the Software Architecture   282

24.4  The Hardware and Software Architecture Process   284

24.5  Summary   285

Chapter 25: Architecture Development Summary         286

25.1 Partitioning the Modeling Process   286

PART VI: Examples        293

Chapter 26: Automobile Management System           295

 26.1  Problem Statement   295

26.2  Requirements and Architecture Development   297

26.3  Requirements Model   299

26.4  Architecture Model   319

Chapter 27: Home Heating System         326

27.1  Problem Statement  326

27.2  Requirements Model   330

27.3  Architecture Model   340

Chapter 28: Vending Machine         342

28.1  Customer Dialogue    342

28.2  Requirements Model   344

28.3  Architecture Model   355

Appendices         363

Appendix A: Standard Symbols and Definitions          363

A.1    Introduction   363

A.2    Standard Symbols   363

A.3    Requirements Model   367

A.4    Architecture Model   382

Appendix B:  Making the Models into Documents        392

B.1  Organizing the Models   392

B.2  Military Standards   396

Appendix C:  Information Modeling: The Third Perspective        398

References         403

Index           405

Updates

Submit Errata

More Information

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020