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Strategies for Real-Time System Specification

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Strategies for Real-Time System Specification

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  • Copyright 2014
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-349201-X
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-349201-9

This is the digital version of the printed book (Copyright © 1987).

Here is a casebook, a practical reference, and an indispensable guide for creating a systematic, formal methodology for large, real-time, software-based systems.

The book introduces the widely implemented Hatley/Pirbhai methods, a major extension of the DeMarco analysis method describing how external events control the system's operating behavior. The techniques are used in major avionics and electronics companies worldwide, and are automated by most major CASE tools, including TurboCASE/Sys by StructSoft, Inc.

Large software-based systems, especially those for real-time applications, require multi-mode operation, direct interaction with a rapidly changing physical environment, and fast response times. In the past, the development of such systems was prone to massive cost and schedule overruns, and to inadequate performance and reliability. Strategies for Real-Time System Specification addresses these problems by integrating a finite-state machine structure into classical analysis methods.

The book contains nearly 200 diagrams, many of which illustrate the requirements specification of a flight management system for a major avionics developer.

Sample Content

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An Overview of Strategies for Real-Time System Specification

Preface to Strategies for Real-Time System Specification

Strategies for Real-Time System Specification: Creating the System Architecture Model

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Table of Contents

List of Figures        xv

Foreword        xxiii

Preface         xxv

Part I: The Overall Strategy         1

Chapter 1: Overview        3

1.1  The Birth of the Requirements Model   4

1.2  The Birth of the Architecture Model   7

1.3  Compatibility of the Models   7

1.4  Applicability of the Models   8

1.5  The System Life Cycle   8

Chapter 2: The Role of the Methods         11

2.1  Structured Methods: What They Are   11

2.2  System Requirements Model   13

2.3  System Architecture Model   19

2.4  System Specification Model   25

2.5  The Development Life Cycle   27

2.6  Structured Methods: What They Are Not   31

2.7 Summary   32

PART II: The Requirements Model        33

Chapter 3: Overview           35

3.1  The Structure of the Model        37

Chapter 4: The Process Model        41

4.1  Data Context Diagrams   41

4.2  Data Flow Diagrams   44

4.3  Leveling and Balancing   47

4.4  The Numbering System   49

4.5  Data Flows   49

4.6  Data Stores   52

4.7  Process Specifications   53

4.8  Interpreting the Process Model   56

4.9  Summary   59

Chapter 5: The Control Model         61

5.1  Control Context Diagrams    61

5.2  Control Flow Diagrams   64

5.3  Control Flows   67

5.4  Data Conditions   69

5.5  Control Stores   70

5.6  Control Specifications   70

5.7  Process Controls   73

5.8  Summary   76

Chapter 6: Finite State Machines        77

6.1  Combinational Machines   79

6.2  Sequential Machines   83

6.3  Incorporating Finite State Machines into CSPECs   89

6.4  Summary   97

Chapter 7: Timing Requirements        98

7.1  Repetition Rate   99

7.2  Input-to-Output Response Time   99

7.3  Summary   102

Chapter 8: Requirements Dictionary        103

8.1  Primitive Attributes   104

8.2  Group Structure   105

8.3  Dictionary Data Bases   107

8.4  Summary   110

Chapter 9: Requirements Model Interpretation and Summary         111

9.1  The Requirements Model Interpreted    111

9.2  Requirements Model Summary   113

PART III: Building the Requirements Model         117

Chapter 10: Overview        119

10.1  Model Users and Builders   119

10.2  The Sources of Requirements   120

10.3  The Model Building Process   121

Chapter 11: Getting Started        124

11.1  User Requirements Statements   124

11.2  Separating Data and Control   125

11.3  Establishing the System Context   129

11.4  Partitioning the Top Levels   132

11.5  Summary   135

Chapter 12: Developing the Model's Structure        137

12.1  Abstraction and Decomposition   137

12.2  The Seven-Plus-or-Minus-Two Principle   138

12.3  Grouping and Decomposing Processes   139

12.4  Grouping and Decomposing Flows   140

12.5  Naming Processes and Flows   147

12.6  Use of Stores   149

12.7  Functionally Identical Processes   150

12.8  De-emphasizing the Control Model   151

12.9    Control Intensive Systems   153

12.10  The Dilemma of Detail: Requirements Versus Design   155

12.11  The Final Product   156

12.12  Summary   156

Chapter 13: Preparing Process Specifications        158

13.1  The Role of Process Specifications   158

13.2  The Different Types of PSPECs   159

13.3  Some Important Signal Conventions   162

13.4  Structured English   165

13.5  Annotating with Comments   167

13.6  Summary   167

Chapter 14: Preparing Control Specifications        169

14.1  Avoiding Control Specifications   169

14.2  Combinational Control   170

14.3  Sequential Control   176

14.4  Multi-Sheet CSPECs   182

14.5  Fitting CSPECs In   185

14.6  Summary   189

Chapter 15: Defining Timing         190

15.1  Timing Overview   190

15.2  Response Time Specification   192

15.3  Summary   193

Chapter 16: Managing the Dictionary          194

16.1  Flow Types   194

16.2  Dictionary Symbols   198

16.3  Summary   199

PART IV: The Architecture Model         201

Chapter 17: Overview          203

17.1  Requirements-to-Architecture Template   204

17.2  Architecture Model Symbols   207

Chapter 18: Architecture Diagrams         211

18.1       Architecture Context Diagrams   211

18.2       Flows and Interconnects   213

18.3       Architecture Flow Diagrams   213

18.4       Architecture Interconnect Diagrams   218

18.5       Summary   224

Chapter 19: Architecture Dictionary and Module Specifications         225

19.1  Architecture Module Specification   226

19.2  Architecture Interconnect Specification   229

19.3  Timing Requirements   232

19.4  Architecture Dictionary   233

19.5  Summary   234

Chapter 20: Completing the Architecture Model          235

20.1  Allocation to Hardware and Software   235

20.2  The Hardware and Software Architectures   236

20.3  The Complete Architecture Model   238

PART V: Building the Architecture Model        241

Chapter 21: Overview        243

21.1  Architecture Development Process   244

21.2  Systems Come in Hierarchies   246

Chapter 22: Enhancing the Requirements Model        248

22.1  Input and Output Processing   249

22.2  User Interface Processing   251

22.3  Maintenance and Self-Test Processing   254

22.4  The Complete Enhanced Requirements Model   256

22.5  Technology-Independent Versus Technology-Nonspecific   257

22.6  Organizational Implications   260

22.7  Summary   261

Chapter 23: Creating the System Architecture Model         263

23.1  Architecture Context Diagram   263

23.2  Architecture Flow and Interconnect Diagrams   264

23.3  Example of AFD and AID Mapping   266

23.4  Model Consistency and Balancing   268

23.5  The Complete Architecture Model   271

23.6  Summary   272

Chapter 24: Creating the Hardware and Software Architecture Models        273

24.1  Hardware and Software Partitioning   276

24.4  Applying the Template to Software Requirements    279

24.3  Developing the Software Architecture   282

24.4  The Hardware and Software Architecture Process   284

24.5  Summary   285

Chapter 25: Architecture Development Summary         286

25.1 Partitioning the Modeling Process   286

PART VI: Examples        293

Chapter 26: Automobile Management System           295

 26.1  Problem Statement   295

26.2  Requirements and Architecture Development   297

26.3  Requirements Model   299

26.4  Architecture Model   319

Chapter 27: Home Heating System         326

27.1  Problem Statement  326

27.2  Requirements Model   330

27.3  Architecture Model   340

Chapter 28: Vending Machine         342

28.1  Customer Dialogue    342

28.2  Requirements Model   344

28.3  Architecture Model   355

Appendices         363

Appendix A: Standard Symbols and Definitions          363

A.1    Introduction   363

A.2    Standard Symbols   363

A.3    Requirements Model   367

A.4    Architecture Model   382

Appendix B:  Making the Models into Documents        392

B.1  Organizing the Models   392

B.2  Military Standards   396

Appendix C:  Information Modeling: The Third Perspective        398

References         403

Index           405


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