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Software Craftsmanship is a call to arms for programmers: an impassioned manifesto that restores the developer to a central role in large-scale projects, and shows developers how to master the skills they need to succeed in that role. Software Craftsmanship transcends "software engineering," demonstrating that quality software can't simply be "manufactured": it must be built by craftspeople with pride in their work, and a personal commitment to excellence. In Software Craftsmanship, Pete McBreen focuses on the craft of software development, explaining why current "software engineering" techniques often fail, and offering programmers a new path to excellence. Just as the modern carpenter benefits from better tools, materials, and understanding, the modern programmer can benefit from better computers, reusable components, and more robust languages -- but only if he or she is prepared to treat the software profession as a true "craft." McBreen explains what software "craftsmanship" means, how its affects users, and how it changes the developer's relationship with customers. He introduces the concepts of software apprentices and journeymen, shows what can (and can't) be learned from the software engineering movement, and presents specific steps you can take now to move towards craftsmanship in your work -- and your organization.
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I. QUESTIONING SOFTWARE ENGINEERING.1. Understanding Software Engineering.
The Paradox of Software Engineering.
The Modern Definition of Software Engineering.
Is Software Engineering a Good Choice for Your Project?2. The Problems with Software Engineering.
Can Software Development Be Made Systematic and Quantified?
The Hazards of the Good Enough Software Approach.
What Is the Alternative to Software Engineering?3. Understanding Software Development.
Software as Capital.
Does the Division of Labor Work for Software Development?
One Size Does Not Fit All.4. Finding a Better Metaphor Than Software Engineering.
Finding a Better Metaphor Than Software Engineering.
The Craft of Software Development.
Parallels with Traditional Craftsmanship.
The Resurgence of the Craft of Software Development.
II. SOFTWARE CRAFTSMANSHIP.5. Putting People Back into Software Development.
Craftsmanship Is About Getting Better at Software Development.
Craftsmanship Encourages Developers to Write Great Software.
A Call to Arms.6. Craftsmanship Is the Opposite of Licensing.
Craftsmanship Is Personal.
Licensing Is an Illusion.
Craftsmanship Focuses on the Individual.
III. IMPLICATIONS OF SOFTWARE CRAFTSMANSHIP.7. How Craftsmanship Affects the Users of Systems.
Software Craftsmanship Works Because Software Is Easy to Copy.
Craftsmen Have a Different Relationship with Their Users.
Great Software Deserves to Be Signed.
Craftsmen Need Demanding Users.
Software Craftsmanship Leads to Collaborative Development.8. Customers Have a Different Relationship with Craftsmen.
Setting Realistic Delivery Dates.
Exposing the Fallacy of Good Enough Software.
Allowing Software Craftsmen to Take Credit for Their Work.
Start Exploiting the Difference in Productivity Between Developers.
But How Do We Know How Good a Developer Really Is?
Customers Make a Cost/Quality Trade-off When Choosing Craftsmen.
Customers Have Long Term Relationships with Software Craftsmen.
Customer Interests Are Aligned with the Interests of Software Craftsmen.9. Managing Craftsmen.
Software Craftsmen Are Not Hired Hands.
Good Developers Are More Valuable Than Their Managers.
Software Craftsmen Have a Different Relationship with Their Managers,
Managing Great Developers Is a Pleasure and a Privilege.
Software Craftsmen Like Creating Applications.
Managing Software Craftsmen Is Different.
Software Craftsmen Push for What They Need.10. Becoming a Software Craftsman.
Software Craftsmanship Is a Rejection of Narrow Specialization.
Craftsmanship Requires Dedication.
How Does a Person Become a Software Craftsman?
The Craft Tradition Has Endured for Centuries.11. Mastering the Craft.
What Does a Master Software Craftsman Look Like?
Use Your Old-timers.
Mastery Implies the Use of Stable Technologies.
Developing Mastery Takes Time.
Mastery Implies Taking Responsibility for Passing on the Craft.12. Apprentice Developers.
We Must Reverse the Decline in the Quality of Developer Training.
Becoming an Apprentice Is a Significant Step.
Apprenticeship Instills Lifelong Learning.
The Role of Apprentices.
An Apprenticeship Is a Significant Investment of Time and Energy.13. Journeymen Developers.
Where Journeymen Fit in the Craft Tradition.
Journeymen Are Focused on Delivering Applications.
Journeymen Play a Key Role in Software Craftsmanship.
IV. REPOSITIONING SOFTWARE ENGINEERING.14. Software Engineering Projects.
Software Engineering Is Designed for Large Systems Projects.
Software Engineering Projects Are Diverse and Varied.15. Hazards of the Software Engineering Metaphor.
You Cannot Do Software Engineering on a Low Budget.
Software Engineering Encourages Scientific Management.
Software Factories: The Production Line for Software.
Reuse over Time Is Hazardous.
The Myth of the Standardized Software Development Process.
Software Engineering Forces Us to Forget the Individual.
We Need More Variety in Our Development Processes, Not Less.16. Learning from Software Engineering.
Size and Complexity Matter.
Applications Need to Be Well Structured.
Change Can Be Expensive Unless You Allow for It.
Communication Inside the Team and with Users Is Crucial.
Producing Accurate Estimates Is Very Expensive.
V. WHAT TO DO ON MONDAY MORNING.17. Experience— The Best Indicator of Project Success.
Choose Software Craftsmen Based on Their Reputations.
Evaluate Craftsmen Based on Their Reputations and Portfolio.
Auditioning a Software Craftsman.
Let Your Software Craftsman Pick the Rest of the Development Team.
Avoid Bleeding-Edge Technology If At All Possible.
Paying for Experience.
Be Prepared to Be Amazed.
Design for Testing and Maintenance.
Think Applications, Not Projects.
Maintenance Teams Should Refuse to Accept Bad Applications.18. Design for Maintenance.
Software Craftsmen Prefer Nonproprietary, Open Source Tools.
Great Software Is Global.
Software Craftsmen Need to Fight Back Against Planned Obsolescence.
Great Software Needs to Be Given a Great User Interface.
Maintainable Software Is Easy to Diagnose.
The Hazards of Outsourcing.
You Can Still Use Outside Craftsmen to Create Your Application.
Maintenance Is the Most Important Part of the Life of Any Application.
Not All Software Has to Be Maintainable.
Design for Testing and Maintenance Is Not Rocket Science.19. Perpetual Learning.
Creating a Learning Environment.
Mastering the Craft of Software Development.
Choose Training Courses Very Carefully.
Encourage Your People to Be Visible in the Software Development Community.
Becoming a Reflective Practitioner.Epilogue.
Craftsmanship is a return to the roots of software development: Good software developers have always understood that programming is a craft skill. Regardless of the amount of arcane and detailed technical knowledge that a person has, in the end, application development comes down to feel and experience. Someone can know all of the esoteric technical details of the Java programming language, but that person will never be able to master application development unless he or she develops a feel for the aesthetics of software. Conversely, once a person gets the feel for software development, the specific technical details become almost irrelevant. Great developers are always picking up and using new technology and techniques; learning a new technology is just a normal part of the life of a software developer.
The term software engineering was coined in 1967 by a NATO study group that recommended a conference to discuss “the problems of software.” The report from this 1968 conference, which was sponsored by the NATO Science Committee and took place in Garmish, Germany, was titled Software Engineering.1 In the report, Peter Naur and Brian Randell stated, “The phrase ‘software engineering’ was deliberately chosen to be provocative, in implying the need for software manufacture to be based on the types of theoretical foundations and practical disciplines that are traditional in the established branches of engineering.”
In the same spirit, it is the intention of this book to be deliberately provocative in implying the need for practitioners to start paying attention to the craft of software development. Software craftsmanship is important because it takes us away from the manufacturing metaphor that software engineering invokes and makes us pay attention to the people who do software development. Craftsmanship brings with it the metaphor of skilled practitioners intent on mastering their craft, of pride in and responsibility for, the fruits of their labor.
Software craftsmanship is not the opposite of software engineering or computer science. Rather, craftsmanship is a different tradition that happily coexists with and benefits from science and engineering. Just as the modern blacksmith benefits from better tools, materials, and understanding, so software craftsmanship benefits from better computers, reusable components, and programming languages. Just as blacksmiths transcend science and engineering with their skill and artistry, software craftsmanship can transcend computer science and software engineering to produce great programs, applications, and systems. UNIX and the modern-day GNU Linux are probably the best-known examples of this—systems that are thriving due to the craft, skill, and dedication of their creators.
Software craftsmanship is a response to the problems of trying to force-fit software engineering into commercial application development. Software engineering was developed to meet the needs of NATO in developing very large defense systems. Commercial application development differs from the development of defense and government systems in that applications are a whole lot smaller and normally have to be up and running in less than 18 months. It is rare for a commercial application to be developed by a team of more than 20 people, and most application developers work in teams with fewer than 10 members. Software engineering is good at handling the problems of really large teams of 200 or more people, but it has little to say about how the individuals in a team should practice their craft.
Software engineering encourages the “human wave” 2 approach to software development. Rather than solving the problem of how to develop highly skilled developers, software engineering attempts to deskill software development by suggesting that every problem can be solved by throwing more people at it.
Although this approach sometimes succeeds, the resulting software is junk. Slow and bloated, it just never feels right. Users are dazzled by the graphics and animation but never really manage to come to grips with the software. They are thwarted by their inability to learn the software and use only a small fraction of the available features.
Software does not have to be like that.All too often I see application development teams shipping valuable applications that provide real, measurable business benefit, but apologizing for not following software engineering best practices. For me, the real test of a team is whether it manages to ship and then enhance and extend the application for years afterward. Timely shipping of the first release is important, but it is more important that subsequent releases occur in a timely fashion and that each new release improves the application.
Whenever I’m asked about hiring developers, I tell people to look for developers who have shipped a few applications successfully and then stuck around long enough to handle the next enhancement or maintenance release. Shipping proves that the developer can make something work; staying around for the next release allows the developer to experience the effects of the way that he or she built the application in the first place. If a developer has done this three times, my guess is that he or she is skilled and experienced enough in the craft of software development to be successful again.
Software craftsmanship is the new imperative because many members of the software development community are starting to chase technology for its own sake, forgetting what is important. The purpose of software development is to create high-quality, robust software applications that deliver value to their users. What matters is growing a new generation of developers who can do that.
Software craftsmanship stands for putting the joy and excitement back into creating applications for our users.
1 Naur, Peter, and Brian Randell, (eds.), Software Engineering: A Report on a Conference Spnsored by the NATO Science Committee,NATO, 1969.
2 Levy, Steven, Hackers, Penguin Books, 1994, p. 88.
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