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IoT Fundamentals: Networking Technologies, Protocols, and Use Cases for the Internet of Things

IoT Fundamentals: Networking Technologies, Protocols, and Use Cases for the Internet of Things

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  • Copyright 2017
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-430710-0
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-430710-7

Today, billions of devices are Internet-connected, IoT standards and protocols are stabilizing, and technical professionals must increasingly solve real problems with IoT technologies. Now, five leading Cisco IoT experts present the first comprehensive, practical reference for making IoT work. IoT Fundamentals brings together knowledge previously available only in white papers, standards documents, and other hard-to-find sources—or nowhere at all.

The authors begin with a high-level overview of IoT and introduce key concepts needed to successfully design IoT solutions. Next, they walk through each key technology, protocol, and technical building block that combine into complete IoT solutions.

Building on these essentials, they present several detailed use cases, including manufacturing, energy, utilities, smart+connected cities, transportation, mining, and public safety. Whatever your role or existing infrastructure, you’ll gain deep insight what IoT applications can do, and what it takes to deliver them.

  • Fully covers the principles and components of next-generation wireless networks built with Cisco IOT solutions such as IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi), IEEE 802.15.4-2015 (Mesh), and LoRaWAN
  • Brings together real-world tips, insights, and best practices for designing and implementing next-generation wireless networks
  • Presents start-to-finish configuration examples for common deployment scenarios
  • Reflects the extensive first-hand experience of Cisco experts

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Table of Contents

    Foreword xxvi
    Introduction xxviii
Part I Introduction to IoT 1
Chapter 1 What Is IoT? 3
    Genesis of IoT 4
    IoT and Digitization 6
    IoT Impact 7
        Connected Roadways 8
        Connected Factory 12
        Smart Connected Buildings 15
        Smart Creatures 19
    Convergence of IT and OT 21
    IoT Challenges 23
    Summary 24
    References 24
Chapter 2 IoT Network Architecture and Design 27
    Drivers Behind New Network Architectures 28
        Scale 30
        Security 31
        Constrained Devices and Networks 32
        Data 32
        Legacy Device Support 32
    Comparing IoT Architectures 33
        The oneM2M IoT Standardized Architecture 33
        The IoT World Forum (IoTWF) Standardized Architecture 35
        Additional IoT Reference Models 39
    A Simplified IoT Architecture 40
    The Core IoT Functional Stack 43
        Layer 1: Things: Sensors and Actuators Layer 44
        Layer 2: Communications Network Layer 46
        Layer 3: Applications and Analytics Layer 59
    IoT Data Management and Compute Stack 63
        Fog Computing 65
        Edge Computing 68
        The Hierarchy of Edge, Fog, and Cloud 68
    Summary 70
    References 71
Part II Engineering IoT Networks 73
Chapter 3 Smart Objects: The “Things” in IoT 75
    Sensors, Actuators, and Smart Objects 76
        Sensors 76
        Actuators 81
        Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) 83
        Smart Objects 84
    Sensor Networks 87
        Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 88
        Communication Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 92
    Summary 93
Chapter 4 Connecting Smart Objects 95
    Communications Criteria 96
        Range 96
        Frequency Bands 98
        Power Consumption 101
        Topology 102
        Constrained Devices 103
        Constrained-Node Networks 104
    IoT Access Technologies 107
        IEEE 802.15.4 108
        IEEE 802.15.4g and 802.15.4e 118
        IEEE 1901.2a 124
        IEEE 802.11ah 130
        LoRaWAN 134
        NB-IoT and Other LTE Variations 142
    Summary 146
Chapter 5 IP as the IoT Network Layer 149
    The Business Case for IP 150
        The Key Advantages of Internet Protocol 150
        Adoption or Adaptation of the Internet Protocol 152
    The Need for Optimization 154
        Constrained Nodes 155
        Constrained Networks 156
        IP Versions 157
    Optimizing IP for IoT 159
        From 6LoWPAN to 6Lo 159
        Header Compression 161
        Fragmentation 162
        Mesh Addressing 163
        6TiSCH 165
        RPL 167
        Authentication and Encryption on Constrained Nodes 173
    Profiles and Compliances 174
        Internet Protocol for Smart Objects (IPSO) Alliance 174
        Wi-SUN Alliance 174
        Thread 174
        IPv6 Ready Logo 175
    Summary 175
Chapter 6 Application Protocols for IoT 177
    The Transport Layer 178
    IoT Application Transport Methods 180
        Application Layer Protocol Not Present 180
        SCADA 182
        Generic Web-Based Protocols 189
        IoT Application Layer Protocols 191   
    Summary 204
Chapter 7 Data and Analytics for IoT 205
    An Introduction to Data Analytics for IoT 206
        Structured Versus Unstructured Data 207
        Data in Motion Versus Data at Rest 209
        IoT Data Analytics Overview 209
        IoT Data Analytics Challenges 211
    Machine Learning 212
        Machine Learning Overview 212
        Machine Learning and Getting Intelligence from Big Data 218
        Predictive Analytics 220
        Big Data Analytics Tools and Technology 220
        Massively Parallel Processing Databases 222
        NoSQL Databases 223
        Hadoop 224
        The Hadoop Ecosystem 227
        Edge Streaming Analytics 230
        Comparing Big Data and Edge Analytics 231
        Edge Analytics Core Functions 232
        Distributed Analytics Systems 235
        Network Analytics 236
        Flexible NetFlow Architecture 238
    Summary 242
    References 243
Chapter 8 Securing IoT 245
    A Brief History of OT Security 246
    Common Challenges in OT Security 249
        Erosion of Network Architecture 249
        Pervasive Legacy Systems 250
        Insecure Operational Protocols 250
        Other Protocols 253
        Device Insecurity 254
        Dependence on External Vendors 255
        Security Knowledge 256
    How IT and OT Security Practices and Systems Vary 256
        The Purdue Model for Control Hierarchy 257
        OT Network Characteristics Impacting Security 259
        Security Priorities: Integrity, Availability, and Confidentiality 261
        Security Focus 261
    Formal Risk Analysis Structures: OCTAVE and FAIR 262
        OCTAVE 262
        FAIR 265
    The Phased Application of Security in an Operational Environment 266
        Secured Network Infrastructure and Assets 266
        Deploying Dedicated Security Appliances 269
        Higher-Order Policy Convergence and Network Monitoring 272
    Summary 274
Part III IoT in Industry 275
Chapter 9 Manufacturing 277
    An Introduction to Connected Manufacturing 278
        An IoT Strategy for Connected Manufacturing 279
        Business Improvements Driven Through IoT 281
    An Architecture for the Connected Factory 282
        Industrial Automation and Control Systems Reference Model 282
        The CPwE Reference Model 284
        CPwE Resilient Network Design 286
        CPwE Wireless 289
    Industrial Automation Control Protocols 293
        EtherNet/IP and CIP 293
        PROFINET 294
        The PROFINET Architecture 296
        Media Redundancy Protocol (MRP) 297
        Modbus/TCP 298
    Connected Factory Security 299
        A Holistic Approach to Industrial Security 299
    Edge Computing in the Connected Factory 304
        Connected Machines and Edge Computing 304
    Summary 307
    References 307
Chapter 10 Oil and Gas 309
    An Introduction to the Oil and Gas Industry 310
        Defining Oil and Gas 310
        The Oil and Gas Value Chain 313
        Current Trends in the Oil and Gas Industry 314
    Industry Key Challenges as Digitization Drivers 316
        IoT and the Oil and Gas Industry 319
    Improving Operational Efficiency 321
        The Purdue Model for Control Hierarchy in Oil and Gas Networks 321
        Oil and Gas Use Cases for IoT 323
    IoT Architectures for Oil and Gas 326
        Control Room Networks for Oil and Gas 327
        Wired Networks for Oil and Gas 328
        Wireless Networks for Oil and Gas 328
        Wireless Use Cases in the Oil and Gas Industry 332
        The Risk Control Framework for Cybersecurity in IoT 335
        Securing the Oil and Gas PCN: Background 337
        Securing the Oil and Gas PCN: Use Cases and Requirements 338
        Data Analytics for Predictive Asset Monitoring 341
    Summary 342
    References 343
Chapter 11 Utilities 345
    An Introduction to the Power Utility Industry 347
        The IT/OT Divide in Utilities 348
    The GridBlocks Reference Model 350
        GridBlocks: An 11-Tiered Reference Architecture 352
    The Primary Substation GridBlock and Substation Automation 356
        SCADA 357
        IEC 61850: The Modernization of Substation Communication
        Standards 358
        Network Resiliency Protocols in the Substation 362
    System Control GridBlock: The Substation WAN 364
        Defining Teleprotection 364
        Designing a WAN for Teleprotection 367
    The Field Area Network (FAN) GridBlock 369
        Advanced Metering Infrastructure 371
        Other Use Cases 373
        Securing the Smart Grid 377
        NERC CIP 378
    Smart Grid Security Considerations 380
    The Future of the Smart Grid 381
    Summary 382
    References 383
Chapter 12 Smart and Connected Cities 385
    An IoT Strategy for Smarter Cities 386
        Vertical IoT Needs for Smarter Cities 386
        Global vs. Siloed Strategies 389
    Smart City IoT Architecture 390
        Street Layer 391
        City Layer 394
        Data Center Layer 395
        Services Layer 397
        On-Premises vs. Cloud 398
    Smart City Security Architecture 398
    Smart City Use-Case Examples 401
        Connected Street Lighting 401
        Connected Environment 409
    Summary 411
    References 412
Chapter 13 Transportation 413
    Transportation and Transports 413
    Transportation Challenges 415
        Roadways 415
        Mass Transit 416
        Rail 417
        Challenges for Transportation Operators and Users 418
    IoT Use Cases for Transportation 420
        Connected Cars 421
        Connected Fleets 422
        Infrastructure and Mass Transit 422
    An IoT Architecture for Transportation 427
        IoT Technologies for Roadways 427
        Connected Roadways Network Architecture 434
        Extending the Roadways IoT Architecture to Bus Mass Transit 440
        Extending Bus IoT Architecture to Railways 442
    Summary 447
    References 448
Chapter 14 Mining 449
    Mining Today and Its Challenges 451
        Scale 451
        Safety 455
        Environment 455
        Security 456
        Volatile Markets 456
    Challenges for IoT in Modern Mining 456
        The OT Roles in Mining 456
        Connectivity 457
    An IoT Strategy for Mining 459
        Improved Safety and Location Services 459
        Location Services 461
        Improved Efficiencies 464
        Improved Collaboration 465
        IoT Security for Mining 466
    An Architecture for IoT in Mining 467
        IEEE 802.11 as the IoT Access Layer 468
        802.11 Outdoor Wireless Mesh 468
        4G/LTE 474
        Wireless in Underground Mining 475
        Industrial Wireless 476
        Isolated vs. Connected Mine Networks 476
        Core Network Connectivity 478
        Network Design Consideration for Mining Applications 479
        Data Processing 480
    Summary 481
Chapter 15 Public Safety 483
    Overview of Public Safety 484
        Public Safety Objects and Exchanges 484
        Public and Private Partnership for Public Safety IoT 486
        Public Safety Adoption of Technology and the IoT 488
    An IoT Blueprint for Public Safety 489
        Mission Continuum 489
        Mission Fabric 490
        Inter-agency Collaboration 491
    Emergency Response IoT Architecture 493
        Mobile Command Center 494
        Mobile Vehicles: Land, Air, and Sea 501
    IoT Public Safety Information Processing 506
    School Bus Safety 508
        Bus Location and Student Onboarding/Offboarding 508
        Driver Behavior Reporting 510
        Diagnostic Reporting 511
        Video Surveillance 511
        Student Wi-Fi 513
        Push-to-Talk Communication 513
        School Bus Safety Network Architecture 513
    Summary 514
    Reference 515
9781587144561, TOC, 5/16/2017


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