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Information Privacy Engineering and Privacy by Design: Understanding Privacy Threats, Technology, and Regulations Based on Standards and Best Practices

Information Privacy Engineering and Privacy by Design: Understanding Privacy Threats, Technology, and Regulations Based on Standards and Best Practices

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Description

  • Copyright 2020
  • Pages: 528
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-527840-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-527840-6

The Comprehensive Guide to Engineering and Implementing Privacy Best Practices

As systems grow more complex and cybersecurity attacks more relentless, safeguarding privacy is ever more challenging. Organizations are increasingly responding in two ways, and both are mandated by key standards such as GDPR and ISO/IEC 27701:2019. The first approach, privacy by design, aims to embed privacy throughout the design and architecture of IT systems and business practices. The second, privacy engineering, encompasses the technical capabilities and management processes needed to implement, deploy, and operate privacy features and controls in working systems.

In Information Privacy Engineering and Privacy by Design, internationally renowned IT consultant and author William Stallings brings together the comprehensive knowledge privacy executives and engineers need to apply both approaches. Using the techniques he presents, IT leaders and technical professionals can systematically anticipate and respond to a wide spectrum of privacy requirements, threats, and vulnerabilities—addressing regulations, contractual commitments, organizational policies, and the expectations of their key stakeholders.

• Review privacy-related essentials of information security and cryptography
• Understand the concepts of privacy by design and privacy engineering
• Use modern system access controls and security countermeasures to partially satisfy privacy requirements
• Enforce database privacy via anonymization and de-identification
• Prevent data losses and breaches
• Address privacy issues related to cloud computing and IoT
• Establish effective information privacy management, from governance and culture to audits and impact assessment
• Respond to key privacy rules including GDPR, U.S. federal law, and the California Consumer Privacy Act

This guide will be an indispensable resource for anyone with privacy responsibilities in any organization, and for all students studying the privacy aspects of cybersecurity.

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Table of Contents

Preface     xxii
PART I:  OVERVIEW     1
Chapter 1:  Security and Cryptography Concepts     2

1.1 Cybersecurity, Information Security, and Network Security     2
    Security Objectives     3
    The Challenges of Information Security     5
1.2 Security Attacks     6
    Passive Attacks     8
    Active Attacks     8
1.3 Security Services     10
    Authentication     10
    Access Control     11
    Data Confidentiality     11
    Data Integrity     11
    Nonrepudiation     12
    Availability Service     12
1.4 Security Mechanisms     12
1.5 Cryptographic Algorithms     13
    Keyless Algorithms     14
    Single-Key Algorithms     14
    Two-Key Algorithms     15
1.6 Symmetric Encryption     15
1.7 Asymmetric Encryption     17
1.8 Cryptographic Hash Functions     20
1.9 Digital Signatures     22
1.10 Practical Considerations     23
    Selection of Cryptographic Algorithms and Key Lengths     23
    Implementation Considerations     24
    Lightweight Cryptographic Algorithms     24
    Post-Quantum Cryptographic Algorithms     25
1.11 Public-Key Infrastructure     25
    Public-Key Certificates     25
    PKI Architecture     27
1.12 Network Security     29
    Communications Security     29
    Device Security     30
1.13 Key Terms and Review Questions     30
    Key Terms     30
    Review Questions     31
1.14 References     31
Chapter 2:  Information Privacy Concepts     32
2.1 Key Privacy Terminology     32
2.2 Privacy by Design     35
    Privacy by Design Principles     35
    Requirements and Policy Development     37
    Privacy Risk Assessment     37
    Privacy and Security Control Selection     39
    Privacy Program and Integration Plan     40
2.3 Privacy Engineering     41
    Privacy Implementation     44
    System Integration     44
    Privacy Testing and Evaluation     45
    Privacy Auditing and Incident Response     45
2.4 Privacy and Security     46
    Areas of Overlap Between Security and Privacy     46
    Trade-Offs Between Security and Privacy     48
2.5 Privacy Versus Utility     48
2.6 Usable Privacy     49
    Users of Privacy Services and Functions     50
    Usability and Utility     50
2.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     50
    Key Terms     50
    Review Questions     51
2.8 References     51
PART II:  PRIVACY REQUIREMENTS AND THREATS     53
Chapter 3:  Information Privacy Requirements and Guidelines     54

3.1 Personally Identifiable Information and Personal Data     55
    Sources of PII     57
    Sensitivity of PII     58
3.2 Personal Information That Is Not PII     59
3.3 Fair Information Practice Principles     63
3.4 Privacy Regulations     66
    European Union     66
    U.S. Privacy Laws and Regulations     67
3.5 Privacy Standards     68
    International Organization for Standardization (ISO)     69
    National Institute of Standards and Technology     77
3.6 Privacy Best Practices     88
    Information Security Forum (ISF)     88
    Cloud Security Alliance (CSA)     90
3.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     91
    Key Terms     91
    Review Questions     91
3.8 References     92
Chapter 4:  Information Privacy Threats and Vulnerabilities     94
4.1 The Evolving Threat Environment     95
    Overall Impact of Advances in Technology     95
    Repurposing Collected Data     96
    Means of Collection of PII     96
4.2 Privacy Threat Taxonomy     97
    Information Collection     98
    Information Processing     98
    Information Dissemination     98
    Invasions     99
4.3 NIST Threat Model     100
4.4 Threat Sources     105
4.5 Identifying Threats     106
4.6 Privacy Vulnerabilities     108
    Vulnerability Categories     108
    Location of Privacy Vulnerabilities     109
    National Vulnerability Database and Common Vulnerability Scoring System     110
4.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     114
    Key Terms     114
    Review Questions     115
4.8 References     116
PART III:  TECHNICAL SECURITY CONTROLS FOR PRIVACY     117
Chapter 5:  System Access     118

5.1 System Access Concepts     119
    Privileges     119
    System Access Functions     120
    Privacy Considerations for System Access     121
5.2 Authorization     122
    Privacy Authorization     123
5.3 User Authentication     124
    Means of Authentication     125
    Multifactor Authentication     126
    A Model for Electronic User Authentication     127
5.4 Access Control     129
    Subjects, Objects, and Access Rights     130
    Access Control Policies     131
    Discretionary Access Control     131
    Role-Based Access Control     133
    Attribute-Based Access Control     135
5.5 Identity and Access Management     140
    IAM Architecture     140
    Federated Identity Management     142
5.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     144
    Key Terms     144
    Review Questions     145
5.7 Reference     145
Chapter 6:  Malicious Software and Intruders     146
6.1 Malware Protection Activities     147
    Types of Malware     147
    The Nature of the Malware Threat     149
    Practical Malware Protection     150
6.2 Malware Protection Software     153
    Capabilities of Malware Protection Software     153
    Managing Malware Protection Software     154
6.3 Firewalls     155
    Firewall Characteristics     155
    Types of Firewalls     156
    Next-Generation Firewalls     163
    DMZ Networks     164
    The Modern IT Perimeter     165
6.4 Intrusion Detection     166
    Basic Intrusion Detection Principles     167
    Approaches to Intrusion Detection     167
    Host-Based Intrusion Detection Techniques     169
    Network-Based Intrusion Detection Systems     169
    IDS Best Practices     171
6.5 Key Terms and Review Questions     172
    Key Terms     172
    Review Questions     173
6.6 References     174
PART IV:  PRIVACY ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES     175
Chapter 7:  Privacy in Databases     176

7.1 Basic Concepts     178
    Personal Data Attributes     179
    Types of Data Files     180
7.2 Re-Identification Attacks     183
    Types of Attacks     184
    Potential Attackers     186
    Disclosure Risks     186
    Applicability to Privacy Threats     187
7.3 De-Identification of Direct Identifiers     188
    Anonymization     189
    Pseudonymization     189
7.4 De-Identification of Quasi-Identifiers in Microdata Files     190
    Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing     192
    Disclosure Risk Versus Data Utility     193
    PPDP Techniques     194
7.5 K-Anonymity, L-Diversity, and T-Closeness     196
    K-Anonymity     196
    L-Diversity     198
    T-Closeness     199
7.6 Summary Table Protection     199
    Frequency Tables     200
    Magnitude Tables     203
7.7 Privacy in Queryable Databases     204
    Privacy Threats     205
    Protecting Queryable Databases     206
7.8 Key Terms and Review Questions     211
    Key Terms     211
    Review Questions     212
7.9 References     212
Chapter 8:  Online Privacy     214
8.1 The Online Ecosystem for Personal Data     215
8.2 Web Security and Privacy     217
    Web Server Security and Privacy     218
    Web Application Security and Privacy     219
    Web Browser Security and Privacy     222
8.3 Mobile App Security     224
    Mobile Ecosystem     224
    Mobile Device Vulnerabilities     225
    BYOD Policies     227
    Mobile Application Vetting     229
    Resources for Mobile Device Security     230
8.4 Online Privacy Threats     231
    Web Application Privacy     231
    Mobile App Privacy     232
8.5 Online Privacy Requirements     234
    Online Privacy Principles     234
    Online Privacy Framework     236
    Simplified Consumer Choice     241
    Transparency of Data Practices     241
8.6 Privacy Notices     242
    Notice Requirements     243
    Notice Content     243
    Notice Structure     246
    Mobile App Privacy Notices     246
    Privacy Notice Design Space     248
8.7 Tracking     250
    Cookies     250
    Other Tracking Technologies     253
    Do Not Track     254
8.8 Key Terms and Review Questions     254
    Key Terms     254
    Review Questions     255
8.9 References     255
Chapter 9:  Other PET Topics     258
9.1 Data Loss Prevention     258
    Data Classification and Identification     259
    Data States     260
    DLP for Email     262
    DLP Model     263
9.2 The Internet of Things     266
    Things on the Internet of Things     266
    Components of IoT-Enabled Things     266
    IoT and Cloud Context     267
9.3 IoT Security     270
    IoT Device Capabilities     270
    Security Challenges of the IoT Ecosystem     271
    IoT Security Objectives     273
9.4 IoT Privacy     274
    An IoT Model     275
    Privacy Engineering Objectives and Risks     276
    Challenges for Organizations     278
9.5 Cloud Computing     280
    Cloud Computing Elements     280
    Threats for Cloud Service Users     284
9.6 Cloud Privacy     285
    Data Collection     286
    Storage     287
    Sharing and Processing     290
    Deletion     290
9.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     290
    Key Terms     290
    Review Questions     291
9.8 References     291
PART V:  INFORMATION PRIVACY MANAGEMENT     293
Chapter 10:  Information Privacy Governance and Management     294

10.1 Information Security Governance     295
    Information Security Management System     295
    Information Security Governance Concepts     295
    Security Governance Components     298
    Integration with Enterprise Architecture     303
    Policies and Guidance     307
10.2 Information Privacy Governance     308
    Information Privacy Roles     308
    The Privacy Program Plan     312
10.3 Information Privacy Management     315
    Key Areas of Privacy Management     316
    Privacy Planning     317
    Privacy Policy     319
10.4 OASIS Privacy Management Reference Model     322
    Privacy Management Reference Model and Methodology (PMRM)     322
    Privacy by Design Documentation for Software Engineers     328
10.5 Key Terms and Review Questions     331
    Key Terms     331
    Review Questions     331
10.6 Reference     332
Chapter 11:  Risk Management and Privacy Impact Assessment     334
11.1 Risk Assessment     335
    Risk Assessment Process     335
    Risk Assessment Challenges     339
    Quantitative Risk Assessment     340
    Qualitative Risk Assessment     342
11.2 Risk Management     346
    NIST Risk Management Framework     347
    ISO 27005: Information Security Risk Management     348
    Risk Evaluation     351
    Risk Treatment     352
11.3 Privacy Risk Assessment     353
    Privacy Impact     356
    Likelihood     361
    Assessing Privacy Risk     363
11.4 Privacy Impact Assessment     365
    Privacy Threshold Analysis     365
    Preparing for a PIA     366
    Identify PII Information Flows     367
    Identify Potential User Behavior     367
    Determine Relevant Privacy Safeguarding Requirements     368
    Assess Privacy Risk     368
    Determine Risk Treatment     368
    The PIA Report     369
    Implement Risk Treatment     370
    Review/Audit Implementation     370
    Examples     371
11.5 Key Terms and Review Questions     371
    Key Terms     371
    Review Questions     372
11.6 References     372
Chapter 12:  Privacy Awareness, Training, and Education     374
12.1 Information Privacy Awareness     376
    Awareness Topics     377
    Awareness Program Communication Materials     378
    Awareness Program Evaluation     379
12.2 Privacy Training and Education     380
    Cybersecurity Essentials     380
    Role-Based Training     381
    Education and Certification     383
12.3 Acceptable Use Policies     384
    Information Security Acceptable Use Policy     384
    PII Acceptable Use Policy     386
12.4 Key Terms and Review Questions     386
    Key Terms     386
    Review Questions     387
12.5 References     387
Chapter 13:  Event Monitoring, Auditing, and Incident Response     388
13.1 Event Monitoring     388
    Security Event Logging     389
    Security Event Management     391
    Event Logging Related to PII     392
13.2 Information Security Auditing     393
    Data to Collect for Auditing     394
    Internal and External Audits     395
    Security Audit Controls     396
13.3 Information Privacy Auditing     398
    Privacy Audit Checklist     398
    Privacy Controls     400
13.4 Privacy Incident Management and Response     401
    Objectives of Privacy Incident Management     401
    Privacy Incident Response Team     402
    Preparing for Privacy Incident Response     403
    Detection and Analysis     405
    Containment, Eradication, and Recovery     406
    Notification to Affected Individuals     407
    Post-Incident Activity     408
13.5 Key Terms and Review Questions     409
    Key Terms     409
    Review Questions     410
13.6 References     410
Part VI:  Legal and Regulatory Requirements     411
Chapter 14:  The EU General Data Protection Regulation     412

14.1 Key Roles and Terms in the GDPR     413
14.2 Structure of the GDPR     415
14.3 GDPR Objectives and Scope     417
    Objectives     417
    Scope of the GDPR     418
14.4 GDPR Principles     420
    Fairness421
    Lawful     422
    Transparency     423
14.5 Restrictions on Certain Types of Personal Data     423
    Children’s Personal Data     423
    Special Categories of Personal Data     424
14.6 Rights of the Data Subject     426
14.7 Controller, Processor, and Data Protection Officer     428
    Data Protection by Design and Default     428
    Records of Processing Activities     429
    Security of Processing     431
    Data Protection Officer     431
14.8 Data Protection Impact Assessment     433
    Risk and High Risk     433
    Determining Whether a DPIA Is Needed     434
    DPIA Process     436
    GDPR Requirements     438
    Criteria for an Acceptable DPIA     439
14.9 Key Terms and Review Questions     441
    Key Terms     441
    Review Questions     441
14.10 References     442
Chapter 15:  U.S. Privacy Laws     444
15.1 A Survey of Federal U.S. Privacy Laws     445
15.2 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act     449
    HIPAA Overview     449
    HIPAA Privacy Rule     450
15.3 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act     456
    Breach Notification     456
    Encryption of PHI     457
    Data Destruction     459
15.4 Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act     460
    General Provisions     460
    The COPPA Final Rule     461
15.5 California Consumer Privacy Act     462
    Basic Concepts     462
    Rights of Consumers     466
    Comparison with the GDPR     468
15.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     470
    Key Terms     470
    Review Questions     470
15.7 References     471
Index     472
Appendix (Online Only): Answers to Review Questions

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