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Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) Foundation Learning Guide: (CCNP ROUTE 300-101)

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Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) Foundation Learning Guide: (CCNP ROUTE 300-101)

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  • Copyright 2015
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 768
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-396919-3
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-396919-1

Now updated for Cisco’s new ROUTE 300-101 exam, Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) Foundation Learning Guide is your Cisco® authorized learning tool for CCNP® or CCDP® preparation. Part of the Cisco Press Foundation Learning Series, it teaches you how to plan, configure, maintain, and scale a modern routed network.

Focusing on Cisco routers connected in LANs and WANs at medium-to-large network sites, the authors show how to select and implement Cisco IOS services for building scalable, routed networks. They examine basic network and routing protocol principles in detail; introduce both IPv4 and IPv6; fully review EIGRP, OSPF, and BGP; explore enterprise Internet connectivity; cover routing updates and path control; and present today’s router security best practices.

Each chapter opens with a list of topics that clearly identifies its focus. Each chapter ends with a summary of key concepts for quick study, as well as review questions to assess and reinforce your understanding. Throughout, configuration and verification output examples illustrate critical issues in network operation and troubleshooting.

This guide is ideal for all certification candidates who want to master all the topics covered on the ROUTE 300-101 exam.

  • Serves as the official book for the newest version of the Cisco Networking Academy CCNP ROUTE course
  • Includes all the content from the newest Learning@Cisco ROUTE course and information on each of the ROUTE exam topics
  • Compares basic routing protocol features and limitations
  • Examines RIPv2 and RIPng
  • Covers EIGRP operation and implementation for both IPv4 and IPv6
  • Explores OSPFv2 implementation, and OSPFv3 for both IPv4 and IPv6
  • Discusses network performance optimization via routing updates
  • Introduces path control with Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) switching, policy-based routing (PBR), and service level agreements (SLAs)
  • Addresses enterprise Internet connectivity via single or redundant ISP connections
  • Explains BGP terminology, concepts, operation, configuration, verification, and troubleshooting
  • Covers securing the management plane of Cisco routers using authentication and other recommended practices
  • Presents self-assessment review questions, chapter objectives, and summaries to facilitate effective studying

Sample Content

Table of Contents

Introduction xxv

Chapter 1 Basic Network and Routing Concepts 1

    Differentiating Routing Protocols 2

        Enterprise Network Infrastructure 2

        Role of Dynamic Routing Protocols 3

        Choosing a of Dynamic Routing Protocols 5

        IGP versus EGP 5

        Types of Routing Protocols 7

        Convergence 8

        Route Summarization 9

        Route Protocol Scalability 10

    Understanding Network Technologies 10

        Traffic Types 11

        IPv6 Address Types 13

        ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery 14

        Network Types 15

        NBMA Networks 16

        Routing Over the Internet 18

    Connecting Remote Locations with Headquarters 18

        Principles of Static Routing 19

        Configuring an IPv4 Static Route 20

        Configuring a Static Default Route 22

        Basic PPP Overview 23

        PPP Authentication Overview 23

        PPPoE 26

        Basic Frame Relay Overview 28

        VPN Connectivity Overview 31

        MPLS-based VPNs 31

        Tunneling VPNs 32

        Hybrid VPNs 32

        Routing Across MPLS VPNs 32

        Routing Over GRE Tunnel 34

        Dynamic Multipoint Virtual Private Network 35

        Multipoint GRE 36

        NHRP 37

        IPsec 39

    Routing and TCP/IP Operations 40

        MSS, Fragmentation, and PMTUD 40

        IPv4 Fragmentation and PMTUD 41

        Bandwidth Delay Product 41

        TCP Starvation 42

        Latency 42

        ICMP Redirect 42

    Implementing RIPng 43

        RIP Overview 43

        RIPv2 Overview 45

        Configuring RIPng 47

        Basic RIPng Configuration 47

        Propagating a Default Route 50

        Investigating the RIPng Database 53

    Summary 55

    Review Questions 56

Chapter 2 EIGRP Implementation 59

    Establishing EIGRP Neighbor Relationships 60

        EIGRP Features 60

        EIGRP Features 62

        EIGRP Operation Overview 63

        Configuring and Verifying Basic EIGRP for IPv4 64

        Manipulating EIGRP Timers 73

        EIGRP Neighbor Relationship over Frame Relay 74

        Establishing EIGRP over Layer 3 MPLS VPN 74

        Establishing EIGRP over Layer 2 MPLS VPN 75

    Building the EIGRP Topology Table 76

        Building and Examining the EIGRP Topology Table 77

        Choosing the Best Path 80

        Exchange of Routing Knowledge in EIGRP 88

        EIGRP Metric 88

        EIGRP Metric Calculation 89

        EIGRP Wide Metrics 90

        EIGRP Metric Calculation Example 90

        EIGRP Metric Calculation Example 91

        EIGRP Path Calculation Example 92

    Optimizing EIGRP Behavior 94

        EIGRP Queries 95

        EIGRP Stub Routers 96

        Configuring EIGRP Stub Routing 97

        EIGRP Stub Options 100

        Stuck in Active 108

        Reducing Query Scope by Using Summary Routes 109

        Configuring EIGRP Summarization 110

        Determining the Summary Route 116

        Obtaining Default Route 120

        Load Balancing with EIGRP 123

        Configuring EIGRP Load Balancing 123

        EIGRP Load Balancing 124

        EIGRP Load Balancing Across Unequal-Metric Paths 126

    Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 128

        Overview of EIGRP for IPv6 128

        Configuring and Verifying EIGRP for IPv6 129

        EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration 130

        Determining the IPv6 Summary Route 134

    Named EIGRP Configuration 136

        Introduction to Named EIGRP Configuration 136

        Configuring Named EIGRP 137

        Address Families 139

        EIGRP for IPv4 Address Family 139

        EIGRP for IPv6 Address Family 142

        Named EIGRP Configuration Modes 148

        Classic Versus Named EIGRP Configuration 150

    Summary 151

    Review Questions 152

Chapter 3 OSPF Implementation 155

    Establishing OSPF Neighbor Relationships 155

        OSPF Features 156

        OSPF Operation Overview 157

        Hierarchical Structure of OSPF 158

        Design Restrictions of OSPF 160

        OSPF Message Types 160

        Basic OSPF Configuration 161

        Optimizing OSPF Adjacency Behavior 170

        Using OSPF Priority in the DR/BDR Election 174

        OSPF Behavior in NBMA Hub-and-Spoke Topology 175

        The Importance of MTU 177

        Manipulating OSPF Timers 179

        OSPF Neighbor Relationship over Point-to-Point Links 182

        OSPF Neighbor Relationship over Layer 3 MPLS VPN 182

        OSPF Neighbor Relationship over Layer 2 MPLS VPN 184

        OSPF Neighbor States 184

        OSPF Network Types 186

        Configuring Passive Interfaces 187

    Building the Link-State Database 187

        OSPF LSA Types 188

        Examining the OSPF Link-State Database 189

        OSPF Link-State Database 190

        OSPF Type 2 Network LSA 196

        OSPF Type 3 Summary LSA 197

        OSPF Type 4 ASBR Summary LSA 199

        OSPF Type 5 External LSA 201

        Periodic OSPF Database Changes 203

        Exchanging and Synchronizing LSDBs 204

        Synchronizing the LSDB on Multiaccess Networks 206

        Running the SPF Algorithm 207

        Configuring OSPF Path Selection 208

        OSPF Path Selection 208

        OSPF Best Path Calculation 210

        Default OSPF Costs 211

        Calculating the Cost of Intra-Area Routes 214

        Calculating the Cost of Interarea Routes 214

        Selecting Between Intra-Area and Interarea Routes 215

    Optimizing OSPF Behavior 215

        OSPF Route Summarization 216

        Benefits of Route Summarization 217

        Configuring OSPF Route Summarization 218

        Summarization on ABRs 223

        Summarization on ASBRs 224

        OSPF Virtual Links 225

        Configuring OSPF Virtual Links 227

        Configuring OSPF Stub Areas 229

        OSPF Stub Areas 230

        OSPF Totally Stubby Areas 234

        Cost of the Default Route in a Stub Area 236

        The default-information originate Command 237

        Other Stubby Area Types 238

    OSPFv3 239

        Configuring OSPFv3 240

        Implementing OSPFv3 241

        OSPFv3 for IPv4 and IPv6 246

        Configuring Advanced OSPFv3 260

        OSPFv3 Caveats 261

    Summary 262

Review Questions 263

Chapter 4 Manipulating Routing Updates 267

    Using Multiple IP Routing Protocols on a Network 267

        Why Run Multiple Routing Protocols? 269

        Running Multiple Routing Protocols 269

        Administrative Distance 269

        Multiple Routing Protocols Solutions 270

    Implementing Route Redistribution 270

        Defining Route Redistribution 270

        Planning to Redistribute Routes 271

        Redistributing Routes 271

        Seed Metrics 272

        Default Seed Metrics 273

        Configuring and Verifying Basic Redistribution in IPv4 and IPv6 275

        Redistributing OSPFv2 Routes into the EIGRP Routing Domain 276

        Redistributing OSPFv3 Routes into the EIGRP for IPv6 Routing Domain 279

        Redistributing EIGRP Routes into the OSPFv2 Routing Domain 281

        Redistributing EIGRP for IPv6 Routes into the OSPFv3 Routing Domain 285

        Types of Redistribution Techniques 287

        One-Point Redistribution 287

        Multipoint Redistribution 288

        Redistribution Problems 289

        Preventing Routing Loops in a Redistribution Environment 291

        Verifying Redistribution Operation 292

    Controlling Routing Update Traffic 292

        Why Filter Routes? 292

        Route Filtering Methods 293

        Using Distribute Lists 294

            Configuring Distribute Lists 294

        Distribute List and ACL Example 295

        Using Prefix Lists 297

        Prefix List Characteristics 297

        Configuring Prefix Lists 298

        Distribute List and Prefix List Example 299

        Prefix List Examples 300

        Verifying Prefix Lists 301

        Manipulating Redistribution Using ACLs, Prefix Lists, and Distribute Lists 302

        Using Route Maps 305

        Understanding Route Maps 305

        Route Map Applications 305

        Configuring Route Maps 306

        Route Map Match and Set Statements 308

        Configuring Route Redistribution Using Route Maps 310

        Using Route Maps with Redistribution 310

        Manipulating Redistribution Using Route Maps 311

        Mutual Redistribution without Route Filtering 312

        Mutual Redistribution with Route Maps 313

        Change Administrative Distance to Enable Optimal Routing 315

        Manipulating Redistribution Using Route Tagging 318

        Caveats of Redistribution 319

    Summary 320

    References 323

    Review Questions 323

Chapter 5 Path Control Implementation 327

    Using Cisco Express Forwarding Switching 327

        Control and Data Plane 328

        Cisco Switching Mechanisms 328

        Process and Fast Switching 332

        Cisco Express Forwarding 333

        Analyzing Cisco Express Forwarding 335

        Verify the Content of the CEF Tables 335

        Enable and Disable CEF by Interface and Globally 341

    Understanding Path Control 343

        The Need for Path Control 343

        Implementing Path Control Using Policy-Based Routing 344

        PBR Features 344

        Steps for Configuring PBR 345

        Configuring PBR 346

        Verifying PBR 348

        Configuring PBR Example 348

        Implementing Path Control Using Cisco IOS IP SLAs 354

        PBR and IP SLA 354

        IP SLA Features 354

        Steps for Configuring IP SLAs 356

        Verifying Path Control Using IOS IP SLAs 360

        Configuring IP SLA Example 361

        Configuring PBR and IP SLA Example 364

    Summary 369

    References 370

    Review Questions 370

Chapter 6 Enterprise Internet Connectivity 373

    Planning Enterprise Internet Connectivity 374

        Connecting Enterprise Networks to an ISP 374

        Enterprise Connectivity Requirements 374

        ISP Redundancy 375

        Public IP Address Assignment 376

        The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority 376

        Regional Internet Registries 377

        Public IP Address Space 377

        Autonomous System Numbers 378

    Establishing Single-Homed IPv4 Internet Connectivity 381

        Configuring a Provider-Assigned IPv4 Address 381

        DHCP Operation 382

        Obtaining a Provider-Assigned IPv4 Address with DHCP 383

        Configuring a Router as a DHCP Server and DHCP Relay Agent 384

        NAT 385

        Configuring Static NAT 388

        Configuring Dynamic NAT 389

        Configuring PAT 390

        Limitations of NAT 392

        NAT Virtual Interface 393

        Configuring NAT Virtual Interface 393

        Verifying NAT Virtual Interface 396

    Establishing Single-Homed IPv6 Internet Connectivity 398

        Obtaining a Provider-Assigned IPv6 Address 398

        Manual Assignment 399

        Configuring Basic IPv6 Internet Connectivity 399

        Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 401

        DHCPv6 Operation 402

        Stateless DCHPv6 403

        Stateful DHCPv6 404

        DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation 405

        NAT for IPv6 405

        NAT64 405

        NPTv6 405

        IPv6 ACLs 405

        IPv6 ACL Characteristics 406

        Configuring IPv6 ACLs 406

        Securing IPv6 Internet Connectivity 409

    Improving Internet Connectivity Resilience 410

        Drawbacks of a Single-Homed Internet Connectivity 410

        Dual-Homed Internet Connectivity 410

        Dual-Homed Connectivity Options 411

        Configuring Best Path for Dual-Homed Internet Connectivity 411

        Multihomed Internet Connectivity 413

    Summary 415

    References 417

    Review Questions 418

Chapter 7 BGP Implementation 423

    BGP Terminology, Concepts, and Operation 424

        BGP Use Between Autonomous Systems 424

        Comparison with Other Scalable Routing Protocols 425

        BGP Path Vector Characteristics 426

        BGP Characteristics 428

        BGP Tables 430

        BGP Message Types 431

        Open and Keepalive Messages 431

        Update Messages 433

        Notification Messages 433

        When to Use BGP 433

        When Not to Use BGP 434

    Implementing Basic BGP 435

        BGP Neighbor Relationships 435

        External BGP Neighbors 436

        Internal BGP Neighbors 437

        iBGP on All Routers in a Transit Path 438

        Basic BGP Configuration Requirements 442

        Entering BGP Configuration Mode 442

        Defining BGP Neighbors and Activating BGP Sessions 443

        Basic BGP Configuration and Verification 444

        Configuring and Verifying an eBGP Session 445

        Configuring and Verifying an iBGP Session 449

        Advertising Networks in BGP and Verifying That They Are Propagated 450

        Using the Next-Hop-Self Feature 457

        Understanding and Troubleshooting BGP Neighbor States 458

        BGP Session Resilience 460

        Sourcing BGP from Loopback Address 461

        eBGP Multihop 463

        Resetting BGP Sessions 464

    BGP Attributes and the Path-Selection Process 467

        BGP Path Selection 467

        BGP Path-Selection Process 468

        The Path-Selection Decision Process with a Multihomed Connection 469

        BGP Attributes 471

        Well-Known Attributes 471

        Optional Attributes 472

        Defined BGP Attributes 472

        The AS-Path Attribute 473

        The Next-Hop Attribute 474

        The Origin Attribute 475

        The Local-Preference Attribute 475

        The Community Attribute 475

        The MED Attribute 476

        The Weight Attribute (Cisco Only) 478

        Changing the Weight for All Updates from a Neighbor 479

        Changing the Weight Using Route Maps 479

        Influencing BGP Path Selection 480

        Changing the Weight 485

        Changing Local Preference 486

        Setting the AS-Path 488

    Controlling BGP Routing Updates 491

        Filtering BGP Routing Updates 492

        BGP Filtering Using Prefix Lists 492

        BGP Filtering Using AS-Path Access Lists 494

        BGP Filtering Using Route Maps 496

        Filtering Order 498

        Clearing the BGP Session 498

        BGP Peer Groups 498

        Peer Group Operation 498

        Peer Group Configuration 500

        Peer Group Configuration Example 500

    Implementing BGP for IPv6 Internet Connectivity 502

        MP-BGP Support for IPv6 502

        Exchanging IPv6 Routes over an IPv4 Session 504

        Exchanging IPv6 Routes over an IPv6 Session 506

        BGP for IPv6 Configuration and Verification 507

        Initial State of Routers 508

        Enable eBGP IPv6 Route Exchange 511

        Enable iBGP IPv6 Route Exchange 516

        Comparing IPv4 to Dual (IPv4/IPv6) BGP Transport 518

        BGP Filtering Mechanisms for IPv6 518

        IPv6 Prefix List Filtering 518

        IPv6 Path Selection with BGP Local Preference 519

    Summary 520

    References 522

    Review Questions 523

Chapter 8 Routers and Routing Protocol Hardening 527

    Securing the Management Plane on Cisco Routers 528

        Securing the Management Plane 529

        Router Security Policy 530

        Encrypted Passwords 531

        Use Strong Passwords 532

        Encrypting Passwords 532

        Authentication, Authorization, Accounting 536

        RADIUS and TACACS+ Overview 536

        Enabling AAA and Local Authentication 538

        Enabling AAA RADIUS Authentication with Local User for Backup 539

        Enabling AAA TACACS+ Authentication with Local User for Backup 541

        Configuring Authorization and Accounting 542

        Limitations of TACACS+ and RADIUS 542

        Use SSH Instead of Telnet 543

        Securing Access to the Infrastructure Using Router ACLs 547

        Implement Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding 549

        uRPF in an Enterprise Network 550

        uRPF Examples 550

        Enabling uRPF 551

        Implement Logging 551

        Implementing Network Time Protocol 552

        NTP Modes 552

        Enabling NTP 554

        Securing NTP 555

        NTP Versions 556

        NTP in IPv6 Environment 557

        Simple NTP 557

        Implementing SNMP 558

        SNMPv3 561

        Enabling SNMPv3 561

        Verifying SNMPv3 562

        Configuration Backups 563

        The archive Command 563

        Using SCP 565

        Enabling SCP on a Router 565

        Disabling Unused Services 567

        Conditional Debugging 568

        Enabling Conditional Debugging 569

    Routing Protocol Authentication Options 570

        The Purpose of Routing Protocol Authentication 570

        Plain-Text Authentication 571

        Hashing Authentication 572

        Time-Based Key Chains 574

        Key Chain Specifics 574

        Authentication Options with Different Routing Protocols 575

    Configuring EIGRP Authentication 576

        EIGRP Authentication Configuration Checklist 577

        Configuring EIGRP Authentication 577

        Configure EIGRP MD5 Authentication Mode 578

        Configure EIGRP Key-Based Routing Authentication 579

        Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 Authentication 581

        Configure EIGRP for IPv6 MD5 Authentication Mode 581

        Configuring Named EIGRP Authentication 582

    Configuring OSPF Authentication 583

        OSPF Authentication 583

        OSPF MD5 Authentication 584

        Configure OSPF MD5 Authentication 584

        Configure OSPF MD5 Authentication on Interfaces 585

        Configure OSPF MD5 Authentication in an Area 586

        OSPFv2 Cryptographic Authentication 587

        Configuring OSPFv2 Cryptographic Authentication 587

        Configure OSPFv2 Cryptographic Authentication Example 588

        OSPFv3 Authentication 590

        Configuring OSPFv3 Authentication 590

        Configuring OSPFv3 Authentication on an Interface Example 591

        Configuring OSPFv3 Authentication in an Area Example 592

    Configuring BGP Authentication 593

        BGP Authentication Configuration Checklist 594

        BGP Authentication Configuration 594

        BGP for IPv6 Authentication Configuration 596

    Implementing VRF-Lite 597

        VRF and VRF-Lite 597

        Enabling VRF 597

    Easy Virtual Network 601

    Summary 603

    References 604

    Review Questions 604

Appendix A Answers to End of Chapter Review Questions 607

Appendix B IPv4 Supplement 613

Appendix C BGP Supplement 671

Appendix D Acronyms and Abbreviations 697

9781587204562, TOC, 12/18/2014



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