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Effective Cybersecurity: A Guide to Using Best Practices and Standards

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Effective Cybersecurity: A Guide to Using Best Practices and Standards

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• Understand the cybersecurity discipline and the role of standards and best practices 
• Define security governance, assess risks, and manage strategy and tactics 
• Safeguard information and privacy, and ensure GDPR compliance 
• Harden systems across the system development life cycle (SDLC) 
• Protect servers, virtualized systems, and storage 
• Secure networks and electronic communications, from email to VoIP 
• Apply the most appropriate methods for user authentication 
• Mitigate security risks in supply chains and cloud environments


  • Copyright 2019
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 800
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-477280-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-477280-6

William Stallings’ Effective Cybersecurity offers a comprehensive and unified explanation of the best practices and standards that represent proven, consensus techniques for implementing cybersecurity. Stallings draws on the immense work that has been collected in multiple key security documents, making this knowledge far more accessible than it has ever been before. Effective Cybersecurity is organized to align with the comprehensive Information Security Forum document The Standard of Good Practice for Information Security, but deepens, extends, and complements ISF’s work with extensive insights from the ISO 27002 Code of Practice for Information Security Controls, the NIST Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity, COBIT 5 for Information Security, and a wide spectrum of standards and guidelines documents from ISO, ITU-T, NIST, Internet RFCs, other official sources, and the professional, academic, and industry literature.

In a single expert source, current and aspiring cybersecurity practitioners will find comprehensive and usable practices for successfully implementing cybersecurity within any organization. Stallings covers:

  • Security Planning: Developing approaches for managing and controlling the cybersecurity function; defining the requirements specific to a given IT environment; and developing policies and procedures for managing the security function
  • Security Management: Implementing the controls to satisfy the defined security requirements
  • Security Evaluation: Assuring that the security management function enables business continuity; monitoring, assessing, and improving the suite of cybersecurity controls.

Beyond requiring a basic understanding of cryptographic terminology and applications, this book is self-contained: all technology areas are explained without requiring other reference material. Each chapter contains a clear technical overview, as well as a detailed discussion of action items and appropriate policies. Stallings, author of 13 TAA Computer Science Textbooks of the Year, offers many pedagogical features designed to help readers master the material. These include: clear learning objectives, keyword lists, and glossaries to QR codes linking to relevant standards documents and web resources.



Download: Appendix C: Answers to Review Questions (409 KB .pdf)

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Understanding Information Security Governance

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Table of Contents

Preface     xxvii
Chapter 1:  Best Practices, Standards, and a Plan of Action     2
1.1 Defining Cyberspace and Cybersecurity     3
1.2 The Value of Standards and Best Practices Documents     6
1.3 The Standard of Good Practice for Information Security     7
1.4 The ISO/IEC 27000 Suite of Information Security Standards     12
    ISO 27001     15
    ISO 27002     17
1.5 Mapping the ISO 27000 Series to the ISF SGP     18
1.6 NIST Cybersecurity Framework and Security Documents     21
    NIST Cybersecurity Framework     22
    NIST Security Documents     25
1.7 The CIS Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defense     27
1.8 COBIT 5 for Information Security     29
1.9 Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS)     30
1.10 ITU-T Security Documents     32
1.11 Effective Cybersecurity     34
    The Cybersecurity Management Process     34
    Using Best Practices and Standards Documents     36
1.12 Key Terms and Review Questions     38
    Key Terms     38
    Review Questions     38
1.13 References     39

Chapter 2:  Security Governance     42

2.1 Security Governance and Security Management     43
2.2 Security Governance Principles and Desired Outcomes     45
    Principles     45
    Desired Outcomes     46
2.3 Security Governance Components     47
    Strategic Planning     47
    Organizational Structure     51
    Roles and Responsibilities     55
    Integration with Enterprise Architecture     58
    Policies and Guidance     63
2.4 Security Governance Approach     63
    Security Governance Framework     63
    Security Direction     64
    Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed (RACI) Charts     66
2.5 Security Governance Evaluation     68
2.6 Security Governance Best Practices     69
2.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     70
    Key Terms     70
    Review Questions     71
2.8 References     71
Chapter 3:  Information Risk Assessment     74
3.1 Risk Assessment Concepts     75
    Risk Assessment Challenges     78
    Risk Management     80
    Structure of This     84
3.2 Asset Identification     85
    Hardware Assets     85
    Software Assets     85
    Information Assets     86
    Business Assets     87
    Asset Register     87
3.3 Threat Identification     89
    The STRIDE Threat Model     89
    Threat Types     90
    Sources of Information     92
3.4 Control Identification     98
3.5 Vulnerability Identification     102
    Vulnerability Categories     103
    National Vulnerability Database and Common Vulnerability Scoring System     103
3.6 Risk Assessment Approaches     107
    Quantitative Versus Qualitative Risk Assessment     107
    Simple Risk Analysis Worksheet     113
    Factor Analysis of Information Risk     114
3.7 Likelihood Assessment     116
    Estimating Threat Event Frequency     118
    Estimating Vulnerability     119
    Loss Event Frequency     121
3.8 Impact Assessment     122
    Estimating the Primary Loss     124
    Estimating the Secondary Loss     125
    Business Impact Reference Table     126
3.9 Risk Determination     128
3.10 Risk Evaluation     128
3.11 Risk Treatment     129
    Risk Reduction     130
    Risk Retention     130
    Risk Avoidance     130
    Risk Transfer     131
3.12 Risk Assessment Best Practices     131
3.13 Key Terms and Review Questions     132
    Key Terms     132
    Review Questions     133
3.14 References     134
Chapter 4:  Security Management     136
4.1 The Security Management Function     137
    Security Planning     140
    Capital Planning     142
4.2 Security Policy     145
    Security Policy Categories     146
    Security Policy Document Content     147
    Management Guidelines for Security Policies     151
    Monitoring the Policy     151
4.3 Acceptable Use Policy     152
4.4 Security Management Best Practices     154
4.5 Key Terms and Review Questions     154
    Key Terms     154
    Review Questions     155
4.6 References     155

Chapter 5:  People Management     160

5.1 Human Resource Security     161
    Security in the Hiring Process     162
    During Employment     164
    Termination of Employment     165
5.2 Security Awareness and Education     166
    Security Awareness     168
    Cybersecurity Essentials Program     173
    Role-Based Training     173
    Education and Certification     174
5.3 People Management Best Practices     175
5.4 Key Terms and Review Questions     176
    Key Terms     176
    Review Questions     176
5.5 References     177
Chapter 6:  Information Management     178
6.1 Information Classification and Handling     179
    Information Classification     179
    Information Labeling     185
    Information Handling     186
6.2 Privacy     186
    Privacy Threats     189
    Privacy Principles and Policies     191
    Privacy Controls     196
6.3 Document and Records Management     198
    Document Management     200
    Records Management     202
6.4 Sensitive Physical Information     204
6.5 Information Management Best Practices     205
6.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     206
    Key Terms     206
    Review Questions     207
6.7 References     208
Chapter 7:  Physical Asset Management     210
7.1 Hardware Life Cycle Management     211
    Planning     213
    Acquisition     214
    Deployment     214
    Management     215
    Disposition     216
7.2 Office Equipment     217
    Threats and Vulnerabilities     217
    Security Controls     219
    Equipment Disposal     222
7.3 Industrial Control Systems     223
    Differences Between IT Systems and Industrial Control Systems     225
    ICS Security     227
7.4 Mobile Device Security     231
    Mobile Device Technology     233
    Mobile Ecosystem     234
    Vulnerabilities     236
    Mobile Device Security Strategy     238
    Resources for Mobile Device Security     243
7.5 Physical Asset Management Best Practices     244
7.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     245
    Key Terms     245
    Review Questions     245
7.7 References     246
Chapter 8:  System Development     248
8.1 System Development Life Cycle     248
    NIST SDLC Model     249
    The SGP’s SDLC Model     252
    DevOps     254
8.2 Incorporating Security into the SDLC     259
    Initiation Phase     260
    Development/Acquisition Phase     264
    Implementation/Assessment Phase     266
    Operations and Maintenance Phase     270
    Disposal Phase     272
8.3 System Development Management     273
    System Development Methodology     274
    System Development Environments     275
    Quality Assurance     277
8.4 System Development Best Practices     278
8.5 Key Terms and Review Questions     278
    Key Terms     278
    Review Questions     279
8.6 References     279
Chapter 9:  Business Application Management     280
9.1 Application Management Concepts     281
    Application Life Cycle Management     281
    Application Portfolio Management     283
    Application Performance Management     285
9.2 Corporate Business Application Security     287
    Business Application Register     287
    Business Application Protection     288
    Browser-Based Application Protection     289
9.3 End User-Developed Applications (EUDAs)     295
    Benefits of EUDAs     296
    Risks of EUDAs     296
    EUDA Security Framework     297
9.4 Business Application Management Best Practices     300
9.5 Key Terms and Review Questions     301
    Key Terms     301
    Review Questions     302
9.6 References     302
Chapter 10:  System Access     304
10.1 System Access Concepts     304
    Authorization     306
10.2 User Authentication     307
    A Model for Electronic User Authentication     307
    Means of Authentication     310
    Multifactor Authentication     311
10.3 Password-Based Authentication     312
    The Vulnerability of Passwords     313
    The Use of Hashed Passwords     315
    Password Cracking of User-Chosen Passwords     317
    Password File Access Control     319
    Password Selection     320
10.4 Possession-Based Authentication     322
    Memory Cards     322
    Smart Cards     323
    Electronic Identity Cards     325
    One-Time Password Device     328
    Threats to Possession-Based Authentication     329
    Security Controls for Possession-Based Authentication     330
10.5 Biometric Authentication     330
    Criteria for Biometric Characteristics     331
    Physical Characteristics Used in Biometric Applications     332
    Operation of a Biometric Authentication System     333
    Biometric Accuracy     335
    Threats to Biometric Authentication     337
    Security Controls for Biometric Authentication     339
10.6 Risk Assessment for User Authentication     341
    Authenticator Assurance Levels     341
    Selecting an AAL     342
    Choosing an Authentication Method     345
10.7 Access Control     347
    Subjects, Objects, and Access Rights     348
    Access Control Policies     349
    Discretionary Access Control     350
    Role-Based Access Control     351
    Attribute-Based Access Control     353
    Access Control Metrics     358
10.8 Customer Access     360
    Customer Access Arrangements     360
    Customer Contracts     361
    Customer Connections     361
    Protecting Customer Data     361
10.9 System Access Best Practices     362
10.10 Key Terms and Review Questions     363
    Key Terms     363
    Review Questions     363
10.11 References     364
Chapter 11:  System Management     366
11.1 Server Configuration     368
    Threats to Servers     368
    Requirements for Server Security     368
11.2 Virtual Servers     370
    Virtualization Alternatives     371
    Virtualization Security Issues     374
    Securing Virtualization Systems     376
11.3 Network Storage Systems     377
11.4 Service Level Agreements     379
    Network Providers     379
    Computer Security Incident Response Team     381
    Cloud Service Providers     382
11.5 Performance and Capacity Management     383
11.6 Backup     384
11.7 Change Management     386
11.8 System Management Best Practices     389
11.9 Key Terms and Review Questions     390
    Key Terms     390
    Review Questions     390
11.10 References     391
Chapter 12:  Networks and Communications     392
12.1 Network Management Concepts     393
    Network Management Functions     393
    Network Management Systems     399
    Network Management Architecture     402
12.2 Firewalls     404
    Firewall Characteristics     404
    Types of Firewalls     406
    Next-Generation Firewalls     414
    DMZ Networks     414
    The Modern IT Perimeter     416
12.3 Virtual Private Networks and IP Security     417
    Virtual Private Networks     417
    IPsec     418
    Firewall-Based VPNs     420
12.4 Security Considerations for Network Management     421
    Network Device Configuration     421
    Physical Network Management     423
    Wireless Access     426
    External Network Connections     427
    Firewalls     428
    Remote Maintenance     429
12.5 Electronic Communications     430
    Email     430
    Instant Messaging     436
    Voice over IP (VoIP) Networks     438
    Telephony and Conferencing     444
12.6 Networks and Communications Best Practices     444
12.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     445
    Key Terms     445
    Review Questions     445
12.8 References     446
Chapter 13:  Supply Chain Management and Cloud Security     448
13.1 Supply Chain Management Concepts     449
    The Supply Chain     449
    Supply Chain Management     451
13.2 Supply Chain Risk Management     453
    Supply Chain Threats     456
    Supply Chain Vulnerabilities     459
    Supply Chain Security Controls     460
    SCRM Best Practices     463
13.3 Cloud Computing     466
    Cloud Computing Elements     466
    Cloud Computing Reference Architecture     470
13.4 Cloud Security     473
    Security Considerations for Cloud Computing     473
    Threats for Cloud Service Users     474
    Risk Evaluation     475
    Best Practices     476
    Cloud Service Agreement     477
13.5 Supply Chain Best Practices     478
13.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     479
    Key Terms     479
    Review Questions     479
13.7 References     480
Chapter 14:  Technical Security Management     482
14.1 Security Architecture     483
14.2 Malware Protection Activities     487
    Types of Malware     487
    The Nature of the Malware Threat     490
    Practical Malware Protection     490
14.3 Malware Protection Software     494
    Capabilities of Malware Protection Software     494
    Managing Malware Protection Software     495
14.4 Identity and Access Management     496
    IAM Architecture     497
    Federated Identity Management     498
    IAM Planning     500
    IAM Best Practices     501
14.5 Intrusion Detection     502
    Basic Principles     503
    Approaches to Intrusion Detection     504
    Host-Based Intrusion Detection Techniques     505
    Network-Based Intrusion Detection Systems     506
    IDS Best Practices     508
14.6 Data Loss Prevention     509
    Data Classification and Identification     509
    Data States     510
14.7 Digital Rights Management     512
    DRM Structure and Components     513
    DRM Best Practices     515
14.8 Cryptographic Solutions     517
    Uses of Cryptography     517
    Cryptographic Algorithms     518
    Selection of Cryptographic Algorithms and Lengths     525
    Cryptography Implementation Considerations     526
14.9 Cryptographic Key Management     528
    Key Types     530
    Cryptoperiod     532
    Key Life Cycle     534
14.10 Public Key Infrastructure     536
    Public Key Certificates     536
    PKI Architecture     538
    Management Issues     540
14.11 Technical Security Management Best Practices     541
14.12 Key Terms and Review Questions     543
    Key Terms     543
    Review Questions     543
14.13 References     544
Chapter 15:  Threat and Incident Management     546
15.1 Technical Vulnerability Management     547
    Plan Vulnerability Management     547
    Discover Known Vulnerabilities     548
    Scan for Vulnerabilities     549
    Log and Report     551
    Remediate Vulnerabilities     551
15.2 Security Event Logging     554
    Security Event Logging Objective     556
    Potential Security Log Sources     556
    What to Log     557
    Protection of Log Data     557
    Log Management Policy     558
15.3 Security Event Management     559
    SEM Functions     560
    SEM Best Practices     561
15.4 Threat Intelligence     563
    Threat Taxonomy     564
    The Importance of Threat Intelligence     566
    Gathering Threat Intelligence     568
    Threat Analysis     569
15.5 Cyber Attack Protection     570
    Cyber Attack Kill Chain     570
    Protection and Response Measures     573
    Non-Malware Attacks     576
15.6 Security Incident Management Framework     577
    Objectives of Incident Management     579
    Relationship to Information Security Management System     579
    Incident Management Policy     580
    Roles and Responsibilities     581
    Incident Management Information     583
    Incident Management Tools     583
15.7 Security Incident Management Process     584
    Preparing for Incident Response     585
    Detection and Analysis     586
    Containment, Eradication, and Recovery     587
    Post-Incident Activity     588
15.8 Emergency Fixes     590
15.9 Forensic Investigations     592
    Prepare     593
    Identify     594
    Collect     594
    Preserve     595
    Analyze     595
    Report     596
15.10 Threat and Incident Management Best Practices     597
15.11 Key Terms and Review Questions     598
    Key Terms     598
    Review Questions     599
15.12 References     599
Chapter 16:  Local Environment Management     602
16.1 Local Environment Security     602
    Local Environment Profile     603
    Local Security Coordination     604
16.2 Physical Security     606
    Physical Security Threats     606
    Physical Security Officer     609
    Defense in Depth     610
    Physical Security: Prevention and Mitigation Measures     612
    Physical Security Controls     615
16.3 Local Environment Management Best Practices     619
16.4 Key Terms and Review Questions     620
    Key Terms     620
    Review Questions     620
16.5 References     621
Chapter 17:  Business Continuity     622
17.1 Business Continuity Concepts     625
    Threats     626
    Business Continuity in Operation     628
    Business Continuity Objectives     629
    Essential Components for Maintaining Business Continuity     630
17.2 Business Continuity Program     630
    Governance     631
    Business Impact Analysis     631
    Risk Assessment     632
    Business Continuity Strategy     634
17.3 Business Continuity Readiness     637
    Awareness     637
    Training     638
    Resilience     639
    Control Selection     640
    Business Continuity Plan     642
    Exercising and Testing     647
    Performance Evaluation     650
17.4 Business Continuity Operations     655
    Emergency Response     655
    Crisis Management     656
    Business Recovery/Restoration     657
17.5 Business Continuity Best Practices     660
17.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     661
    Key Terms     661
    Review Questions     661
17.7 References     662

Chapter 18:  Security Monitoring and Improvement     666

18.1 Security Audit     666
    Security Audit and Alarms Model     667
    Data to Collect for Auditing     668
    Internal and External Audit     672
    Security Audit Controls     673
18.2 Security Performance     678
    Security Performance Measurement     678
    Security Monitoring and Reporting     686
    Information Risk Reporting     688
    Information Security Compliance Monitoring     690
18.3 Security Monitoring and Improvement Best Practices     691
18.4 Key Terms and Review Questions     692
    Key Terms     692
    Review Questions     692
18.5 References     693
Appendix A:  References and Standards     694
Appendix B:  Glossary     708
Index     726

Appendix C:  Answers to Review Questions    (Online Only)


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