Home > Store

Digital Archaeology: The Art and Science of Digital Forensics

eBook (Watermarked)

  • Your Price: $51.19
  • List Price: $63.99
  • Includes EPUB and PDF
  • About eBook Formats
  • This eBook includes the following formats, accessible from your Account page after purchase:

    ePub EPUB The open industry format known for its reflowable content and usability on supported mobile devices.

    Adobe Reader PDF The popular standard, used most often with the free Adobe® Reader® software.

    This eBook requires no passwords or activation to read. We customize your eBook by discreetly watermarking it with your name, making it uniquely yours.

Also available in other formats.

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.


  • Copyright 2014
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 608
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-285381-7
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-285381-1

The Definitive, Up-to-Date Guide to Digital Forensics

The rapid proliferation of cyber crime is increasing the demand for digital forensics experts in both law enforcement and in the private sector. In Digital Archaeology, expert practitioner Michael Graves has written the most thorough, realistic, and up-to-date guide to the principles and techniques of modern digital forensics.

Graves begins by providing a solid understanding of the legal underpinnings of and critical laws affecting computer forensics, including key principles of evidence and case law. Next, he explains how to systematically and thoroughly investigate computer systems to unearth crimes or other misbehavior, and back it up with evidence that will stand up in court.

Drawing on the analogy of archaeological research, Graves explains each key tool and method investigators use to reliably uncover hidden information in digital systems. His detailed demonstrations often include the actual syntax of command-line utilities. Along the way, he presents exclusive coverage of facilities management, a full chapter on the crucial topic of first response to a digital crime scene, and up-to-the-minute coverage of investigating evidence in the cloud.

Graves concludes by presenting coverage of important professional and business issues associated with building a career in digital forensics, including current licensing and certification requirements.

Topics Covered Include

  • Acquiring and analyzing data in ways consistent with forensic procedure
  • Recovering and examining e-mail, Web, and networking activity
  • Investigating users’ behavior on mobile devices
  • Overcoming anti-forensics measures that seek to prevent data capture and analysis
  • Performing comprehensive electronic discovery in connection with lawsuits
  • Effectively managing cases and documenting the evidence you find
  • Planning and building your career in digital forensics

Digital Archaeology is a key resource for anyone preparing for a career as a professional investigator; for IT professionals who are sometimes called upon to assist in investigations; and for those seeking an explanation of the processes involved in preparing an effective defense, including how to avoid the legally indefensible destruction of digital evidence.

Sample Content

Table of Contents

Preface          xiii

About the Author         xxi

Chapter 1: The Anatomy of a Digital Investigation         1

A Basic Model for Investigators  2

Understanding the Scope of the Investigation  8

Identifying the Stakeholders  12

The Art of Documentation  13

Chapter Review  21

Chapter Exercises  21

References  22

Chapter 2: Laws Affecting Forensic Investigations          23

Constitutional Implications of Forensic Investigation  24

The Right to Privacy  29

The Expert Witness  31

Chapter Review  32

Chapter Exercises  32

References  33

Chapter 3: Search Warrants and Subpoenas          35

Distinguishing between Warrants and Subpoenas  36

What Is a Search and When Is It Legal?  37

Basic Elements of Obtaining a Warrant  40

The Plain View Doctrine  43

The Warrantless Search  44

Subpoenas  50

Chapter Review 51

Chapter Exercises  52

References  52

Chapter 4: Legislated Privacy Concerns          55

General Privacy  56

Financial Legislation  59

Privacy in Health Care and Education  62

Privileged Information  64

Chapter Review  67

Chapter Exercises  68

References  68

Chapter 5: The Admissibility of Evidence          71

What Makes Evidence Admissible?  71

Keeping Evidence Authentic  76

Defining the Scope of the Search  84

When the Constitution Doesn’t Apply  84

Chapter Review  89

Chapter Exercises  89

References  89

Chapter 6: First Response and the Digital Investigator         91

Forensics and Computer Science  91

Controlling the Scene of the Crime  96

Handling Evidence  100

Chapter Review  109

Chapter Exercises  109

References  110

Chapter 7: Data Acquisition         111

Order of Volatility  112

Memory and Running Processes  112

Acquiring Media  121

Chapter Review  128

Chapter Exercises  128

References  129

Chapter 8: Finding Lost Files         131

File Recovery  131

The Deleted File  141

Data Carving  145

Chapter Review  149

Chapter Exercises  150

References  150

Chapter 9: Document Analysis          151

File Identification  151

Understanding Metadata  157

Mining the Temporary Files  172

Identifying Alternate Hiding Places of Data  176

Chapter Review  183

Chapter Exercises  183

References  183

Chapter 10: E-mail Forensics          185

E-mail Technology  185

Information Stores  191

The Anatomy of an E-mail  196

An Approach to E-mail Analysis  203

Chapter Review  210

Chapter Exercises  211

References  211

Chapter 11: Web Forensics           213

Internet Addresses  213

Web Browsers  215

Web Servers  233

Proxy Servers  238

Chapter Review  244

Chapter Exercises  244

References  245

Chapter 12: Searching the Network          247

An Eagle’s Eye View  247

Initial Response  248

Proactive Collection of Evidence  250

Post-Incident Collection of Evidence  262

Router and Switch Forensics  268

Chapter Review  275

Chapter Exercises  275

References  276

Chapter 13: Excavating a Cloud          277

What Is Cloud Computing?  277

Shaping the Cloud  279

The Implications of Cloud Forensics  284

On Virtualization  291

Constitutional Issues  300

Chapter Review  303

Chapter Exercises  304

References  304

Chapter 14: Mobile Device Forensics         307

Challenges of Mobile Device Forensics  307

How Cell Phones Work  308

Data Storage on Cell Phones  313

Acquisition and Storage  317

Legal Aspects of Mobile Device Forensics  322

Chapter Review  324

Chapter Exercises  325

References  325

Chapter 15: Fighting Antiforensics         327

Artifact Destruction  328

Hiding Data on the System  336

Covert Data  347

Chapter Review  354

Chapter Exercises 355

References  355

Chapter 16: Litigation and Electronic Discovery          357

What Is E-Discovery?  358

A Roadmap of E-Discovery  358

Conclusion  377

Chapter Review  377

Chapter Exercises  377

References  378

Chapter 17: Case Management and Report Writing          379

Managing a Case  379

Writing Reports  389

Chapter Review  393

Chapter Exercises  394

References  394

Chapter 18: Tools of the Digital Investigator         395

Software Tools  395

Working with “Court-Approved” Tools  410

Hardware Tools  413

Nontechnical Tools  418

Chapter Review  421

Chapter Exercises  422

References  422

Chapter 19: Building a Forensic Workstation          423

What Is a Forensic Workstation?  424

Commercially Available Forensic Workstations  425

Building a Forensic Workstation From Scratch  429

Chapter Review  440

Chapter Exercises  440

References  440

Chapter 20: Licensing and Certification          441

Digital Forensic Certification  441

Vendor-Neutral Certification Programs  442

Vendor-Specific Certification Programs  449

Digital Forensic Licensing Requirements  452

Chapter Review  454

Chapter Exercises  454

References  454

Chapter 21: The Business of Digital Forensics         457

Starting a New Forensics Organization  458

Maintaining the Organization  466

Generating Revenue  478

Organizational Certification  481

Chapter Review  483

Chapter Exercises  483

References  483

Appendix A: Chapter Review Answers          485

Appendix B: Sample Forms         505

Glossary         511

Index       521


Submit Errata

More Information

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020