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Computer Networking Problems and Solutions: An innovative approach to building resilient, modern networks

Computer Networking Problems and Solutions: An innovative approach to building resilient, modern networks

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  • Copyright 2018
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-476286-X
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-476286-9

Master Modern Networking by Understanding and Solving Real Problems

Computer Networking Problems and Solutions offers a new approach to understanding networking that not only illuminates current systems but prepares readers for whatever comes next. Its problem-solving approach reveals why modern computer networks and protocols are designed as they are, by explaining the problems any protocol or system must overcome, considering common solutions, and showing how those solutions have been implemented in new and mature protocols.

Part I considers data transport (the data plane). Part II covers protocols used to discover and use topology and reachability information (the control plane). Part III considers several common network designs and architectures, including data center fabrics, MPLS cores, and modern Software-Defined Wide Area Networks (SD-WAN). Principles that underlie technologies such as Software Defined Networks (SDNs) are considered throughout, as solutions to problems faced by all networking technologies.

This guide is ideal for beginning network engineers, students of computer networking, and experienced engineers seeking a deeper understanding of the technologies they use every day. Whatever your background, this book will help you quickly recognize problems and solutions that constantly recur, and apply this knowledge to new technologies and environments.

Coverage Includes

·         Data and networking transport

·         Lower- and higher-level transports and interlayer discovery

·         Packet switching

·         Quality of Service (QoS)

·         Virtualized networks and services

·         Network topology discovery

·         Unicast loop free routing

·         Reacting to topology changes

·         Distance vector control planes, link state, and path vector control

·         Control plane policies and centralization

·         Failure domains

·         Securing networks and transport

·         Network design patterns

·         Redundancy and resiliency

·         Troubleshooting

·         Network disaggregation

·         Automating network management

·         Cloud computing

·         Networking the Internet of Things (IoT)

·         Emerging trends and technologies

Sample Content

Table of Contents


Part I: The Data Plane

Chapter 1: Fundamental Concepts

Art or Engineering?

Circuit Switching

Packet Switching

    Packet Switched Operation

    Flow Control in Packet Switched Networks

Fixed Versus Variable Length Frames

Calculating Loop-Free Paths

Quality of Service

The Revenge of Centralized Control Planes


    Why So Complex?

    Defining Complexity

    Managing Complexity through the Wasp Waist

Final Thoughts

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 2: Data Transport Problems and Solutions

Digital Grammars and Marshaling

    Digital Grammars and Dictionaries

    Fixed Length Fields

    Type Length Value

    Shared Object Dictionaries


    Error Detection

    Error Correction


    Addressing Devices and Applications



Flow Control


    Negotiated Bit Rates

Final Thoughts on Transport

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 3: Modeling Network Transport

United States Department of Defense (DoD) Model

Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) Model

Recursive Internet Architecture (RINA) Model

Connection Oriented and Connectionless

Final Thoughts

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 4: Lower Layer Transports



    Error Control

    Data Marshaling

    Flow Control

Wireless 802.11


    Data Marshaling, Error Control, and Flow Control

Final Thoughts on Lower Layer Transmission Protocols

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 5: Higher Layer Data Transports

The Internet Protocol

    Transport and Marshaling


Transmission Control Protocol

    Flow Control

    Error Control

    TCP Port Numbers

    TCP Session Setup



Final Thoughts

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 6: Interlayer Discovery

Interlayer Discovery Solutions

    Well-Known and/or Manually Configured Identifiers

    Mapping Database and Protocol

    Advertising Identifier Mappings in a Protocol

    Calculating One Identifier from the Other

Interlayer Discovery Examples

    The Domain Name System


    IPv4 Address Resolution Protocol

    IPv6 Neighbor Discovery

The Default Gateway Problem

Final Thoughts

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 7: Packet Switching

Physical Media to Memory

Processing the Packet



    Why Route?

    Equal Cost Multipath

    Packet Processing Engines

Across the Bus

    Crossbars and Contention

Memory to Physical Media

Final Thoughts on Packet Switching

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 8: Quality of Service

Defining the Problem Space

    Why Not Just Size Links Large Enough?


    Preserving Classification

    The Unmarked Internet

Congestion Management

    Timeliness: Low-Latency Queueing

    Fairness: Class-Based Weighted Fair Queueing


    Other QoS Congestion Management Tools

Queue Management

    Managing a Full Buffer: Weighted Random Early Detection

    Managing Buffer Delay, Bufferbloat, and CoDel

Final Thoughts on Quality of Service

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 9: Network Virtualization

Understanding Virtual Networks

    Providing Ethernet Services over an IP Network

    Virtual Private Access to a Corporate Network

    A Summary of Virtualization Problems and Solutions

Segment Routing

    Segment Routing with Multiprotocol Label Switching

    Segment Routing with IPv6

    Signaling Segment Routing Labels

Software-Defined Wide Area Networks

Complexity and Virtualization

    Interaction Surfaces and Shared Risk Link Groups

    Interaction Surfaces and Overlaid Control Planes

Final Thoughts on Network Virtualization

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 10: Transport Security

The Problem Space

    Validating Data

    Protecting Data from Being Examined

    Protecting User Privacy

The Solution Space


    Key Exchange

    Cryptographic Hashes

    Obscuring User Information

Transport Layer Security

Final Thoughts on Transport Security

Further Reading

Review Questions

Part II: The Control Plane

Chapter 11: Topology Discovery

Nodes, Edges, and Reachable Destinations



    Reachable Destination


Learning about the Topology

    Detecting Other Network Devices

    Detecting Two-Way Connectivity

    Detecting the Maximum Transmission Unit

Learning about Reachable Destinations

    Learning Reactively

    Learning Proactively

Advertising Reachability and Topology

    Deciding When to Advertise Reachability and Topology

    Reactive Distribution of Reachability

    Proactive Distribution of Reachability

Redistribution between Control Planes

    Redistribution and Metrics

    Redistribution and Routing Loops

Final Thoughts on Topology Discovery

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 12: Unicast Loop-Free Paths (1)

Which Path Is Loop Free?


Alternate Loop-Free Paths

    Waterfall (or Continental Divide) Model

    P/Q Space

    Remote Loop-Free Alternates

Bellman-Ford Loop-Free Path Calculation

Garcia’s Diffusing Update Algorithm

Final Thoughts

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 13: Unicast Loop-Free Paths (2)

Dijkstra’s Shortest Path First

    Partial and Incremental SPF

    Calculating LFAs and rLFAs

Path Vector

Disjoint Path Algorithms

    Two-Connected Networks

    Suurballe’s Disjoint Path Algorithm

    Maximally Redundant Trees

Two-Way Connectivity

Final Thoughts

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 14: Reacting to Topology Changes

Detecting Topology Changes

    Polling to Detect Failures

    Event-Driven Failure Detection

    Comparing Event-Driven and Polling-Based Detection

    An Example: Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

Change Distribution


    Hop by Hop

    A Centralized Store

Consistency, Accessibility, and Partitionability

Final Thoughts

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 15: Distance Vector Control Planes

Control Plane Classification

Spanning Tree Protocol

    Building a Loop-Free Tree

    Learning about Reachable Destinations

    Concluding Thoughts on the Spanning

    Tree Protocol

The Routing Information Protocol

    Tying Bellman-Ford to RIP

    Reacting to Topology Changes

    Concluding Thoughts on RIP

The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

    Reacting to a Topology Change

    Neighbor Discovery and Reliable Transport

    Concluding Thoughts on EIGRP

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 16: Link State and Path Vector Control Planes

A Short History of OSPF and IS-IS

The Intermediate System to Intermediate System Protocol

    OSI Addressing

    Marshalling Data in IS-IS

    Neighbor and Topology Discovery

    Reliable Flooding

    Concluding Thoughts on IS-IS

The Open Shortest Path First Protocol

    Marshalling Data in OSPF

    Neighbor and Topology Discovery

    Reliable Flooding

    Concluding Thoughts on OSPF

Common Elements of OSPF and IS-IS

    Multiaccess Links

    Conceptualizing Links, Nodes, and Reachability in Link State Protocols

    Validating Two-Way Connectivity in SPF

Border Gateway Protocol

    BGP Peering

    The BGP Best Path Decision Process

    BGP Advertisement Rules

    Concluding Thoughts on BGP

Final Thoughts

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 17: Policy in the Control Plane

Control Plane Policy Use Cases

    Routing and Potatoes

    Resource Segmentation

    Flow Pinning for Application Optimization

Defining Control Plane Policy

Control Plane Policy and Complexity

    Routing and Potatoes

    Resource Segmentation

    Flow Pinning for Applications

Final Thoughts on Control Plane Policy

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 18: Centralized Control Planes

Considering the Definition of Software Defined

    A Taxonomy of Interfaces

    Considering the Division of Labor

BGP as an SDN





CAP Theorem and Subsidiarity

Final Thoughts on Centralized Control Planes

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 19: Failure Domains and Information Hiding

The Problem Space

    Defining Control Plane State Scope

    Positive Feedback Loops

The Solution Space

    Summarizing Topology Information

    Aggregating Reachability Information

    Filtering Reachability Information

    Layering Control Planes


    Slowing Down

Final Thoughts on Hiding Information

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 20: Examples of Information Hiding

Summarizing Topology Information

    Intermediate System to Intermediate System

    Open Shortest Path First



    The Border Gateway Protocol as a Reachability Overlay

    Segment Routing with a Controller Overlay

Slowing Down State Velocity

    Exponential Backoff

    Link State Flooding Reduction

Final Thoughts on Failure Domains

Further Reading

Review Questions

Part III: Network Design

Chapter 21: Security: A Broader Sweep

The Scope of the Problem

    The Biometric Identity Conundrum


    The Problem Space

The Solution Space

    Defense in Depth

    Access Control

    Data Protection

    Service Availability Assurance

The OODA Loop as a Security Model





Final Thoughts on Security

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 22: Network Design Patterns

The Problem Space

    Solving Business Problems

    Translating Business Requirements into Technical

    What Is a Good Network Design?

Hierarchical Design

Common Topologies

    Ring Topologies

    Mesh Topologies

    Hub-and-Spoke Topologies

    Planar, Nonplanar, and Regular

Final Thoughts on Network Design Patterns

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 23: Redundant and Resilient

The Problem Space: What Failures Look Like to Applications

Resilience Defined

    Other “Measures”

Redundancy as a Tool to Create Resilience

    Shared Risk Link Groups

    In-Service Software Upgrade and Graceful Restart

    Dual and Multiplanar Cores

Modularity and Resilience

Final Thoughts on Resilience

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 24: Troubleshooting

What Is the Purpose?

What Are the Components?

Models and Troubleshooting

    Build How Models

    Build What Models

    Build Accurate Models

    Shifting between Models

Half Split and Move

    Using Manipulability

    Simplify before Testing

Fixing the Problem

Final Thoughts on Troubleshooting

Further Reading

Review Questions

Part IV: Current Topics

Chapter 25: Disaggregation, Hyperconvergence, and the Changing Network

Changes in Compute Resources and Applications

    Converged, Disaggregated, Hyperconverged, and Composable

    Applications Virtualized and Disaggregated

The Impact on Network Design

    The Rise of East/West Traffic

    The Rise of Jitter and Delay

Packet Switched Fabrics

    The Special Properties of a Fabric

    Spine and Leaf

    Traffic Engineering on a Spine and Leaf

    A Larger-Scale Spine and Leaf

Disaggregation in Networks

Final Thoughts on Disaggregation

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 26: The Case for Network Automation

Automation Concepts

Modern Automation Methods



Automation with Programmatic Interfaces

On-box Automation

Network Automation with Infrastructure Automation Tools

Network Controllers and Automation

Network Automation for Deployment

Final Thoughts on the Future of Network Automation: Automation to Automatic

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 27: Virtualized Network Functions

Network Design Flexibility

    Service Chaining

Scaling Out

Decreased Time to Service through Automation

    Centralized Policy Management

    Intent-Based Networking


Compute Advantages and Architecture

    Improving VNF Throughput

Considering Tradeoffs




    Other Tradeoffs to Consider

Final Thoughts

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 28: Cloud Computing Concepts and Challenges

Public Cloud Business Drivers

    Shifting from Capital to Operational Expenditure

    Time-to-Market and Business Agility

Nontechnical Public Cloud Tradeoffs

    Operational Tradeoffs

    Business Tradeoffs

Technical Challenges of Cloud Networking


    Populating Remote Storage

    Data Gravity

    Selecting Among Multiple Paths to the Public Cloud

Security in the Cloud

    Protecting Data over Public Transport

    Managing Secure Connections

    The Multitenant Cloud

    Role-Based Access Controls

Monitoring Cloud Networks

Final Thoughts

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 29: Internet of Things

Introducing IoT

IoT Security

    Securing Insecurable Devices Through Isolation

IoT Connectivity

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)


    IPv6 for IoT

IoT Data

Final Thoughts on the Internet of Things

Further Reading

Review Questions

Chapter 30: Looking Forward

Pervasive Open Automation

    Modeling Languages and Models

    A Brief Introduction to YANG

    Looking Forward Toward Pervasive Automation

Hyperconverged Networks

Intent-Based Networking

Machine Learning and Artificial Narrow Intelligence

Named Data Networking and Blockchains

    Named Data Networking Operation


The Reshaping of the Internet

Final Thoughts on the Future of Network Engineering

Further Reading

Review Questions

9781587145049   TOC   11/27/2017


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