Home > Store

The Agile Guide to Business Analysis and Planning: From Strategic Plan to Continuous Value Delivery

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.

The Agile Guide to Business Analysis and Planning: From Strategic Plan to Continuous Value Delivery

Best Value Purchase

Book + eBook Bundle

  • Your Price: $64.79
  • List Price: $107.98
  • Includes EPUB, MOBI, and PDF
  • About eBook Formats
  • This eBook includes the following formats, accessible from your Account page after purchase:

    ePub EPUB The open industry format known for its reflowable content and usability on supported mobile devices.

    MOBI MOBI The eBook format compatible with the Amazon Kindle and Amazon Kindle applications.

    Adobe Reader PDF The popular standard, used most often with the free Adobe® Reader® software.

    This eBook requires no passwords or activation to read. We customize your eBook by discreetly watermarking it with your name, making it uniquely yours.

More Purchase Options

Book

  • Your Price: $47.99
  • List Price: $59.99
  • Usually ships in 24 hours.

eBook (Watermarked)

  • Your Price: $38.39
  • List Price: $47.99
  • Includes EPUB, MOBI, and PDF
  • About eBook Formats
  • This eBook includes the following formats, accessible from your Account page after purchase:

    ePub EPUB The open industry format known for its reflowable content and usability on supported mobile devices.

    MOBI MOBI The eBook format compatible with the Amazon Kindle and Amazon Kindle applications.

    Adobe Reader PDF The popular standard, used most often with the free Adobe® Reader® software.

    This eBook requires no passwords or activation to read. We customize your eBook by discreetly watermarking it with your name, making it uniquely yours.

About

Features

  • Helps you adapt agile business analysis practices to any organization's projects and business environment
  • Covers agile use cases, user stories, business process modeling, decision tables, structural modeling, and more
  • Shows how to structure the interview process to ask the right questions at the right time
  • Offers practical guidance on when to use each analysis tool, which techniques to perform upfront, and what to do later

Audio & Video

Video

Watch Howard's discussion about the book at BA Beyond.

Watch Howard Podeswa describe four different techniques to help us to create stories that could be passed to the development team.

Description

  • Copyright 2021
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 800
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-419112-9
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-419112-6

Complete Agile Roadmap for Analyzing Customer Needs and Planning Product Development

"This book will become a staple reference that both product owners and business analysis practitioners should have
by their side."
--From the Foreword by Alain Arseneault, former IIBA Acting President & CEO
The Agile Guide to Business Analysis and Planning presents clear, actionable guidance for every product owner, product and program manager, business analyst, requirements engineer, and project manager seeking to improve agile analysis and planning. Renowned author and consultant Howard Podeswa teaches best practices drawn from agile and agile-adjacent frameworks, including ATDD, BDD, DevOps, CI/CD, Kanban, Scrum, SAFe, XP, Lean Thinking, Lean Startup, Circumstance-Based Market Segmentation, and theories of disruptive innovation. He offers a comprehensive agile roadmap for analyzing customer needs and planning product development, including discussion of legacy business analysis tools that still offer immense value to agile teams.

Using a running case study, Podeswa walks through the full agile product lifecycle, from visioning through release and continuous value delivery. You learn how to carry out agile analysis and planning responsibilities more effectively, using tools such as Kano analysis, minimum viable products (MVPs), minimum marketable features (MMFs), story maps, product roadmaps, customer journey mapping, value stream mapping, spikes, and the definition of ready (DoR). Podeswa presents each technique in context: what you need to know and when to apply each tool. Read this book to
  • Master principles, frameworks, concepts, and practices of agile analysis and planning in order to maximize value delivery throughout the product's lifecycle
  • Explore planning and analysis for short-term, long-term, and scaled agile initiatives using MVPs and data-informed learning to test hypotheses and find high-value features
  • Split features into MMFs and small stories that deliver significant value and enable quick wins
  • Refine, estimate, and specify features, stories, and their acceptance criteria, following ATDD/BDD guidance
  • Address the unique analysis and planning challenges of scaled agile organizations
  • Implement 13 practices for optimizing enterprise agility
Supported by 175+ tools, techniques, examples, diagrams, templates, checklists, and other job aids, this book is a complete toolkit for every practitioner. Whatever your role, you'll find indispensable guidance on agile planning and analysis responsibilities so you can help your organization respond more nimbly to a fast-changing environment.

Register your book for convenient access to downloads, updates, and/or corrections as they become available. See inside book for details.

Downloads

Downloads

Download a collection of digital resources (templates, checklists, etc.) from The Agile Guide to Business Analysis and Planning: Digital Resources (2.2 MB .zip)

Download a collection of case study workshops: Case Study Workshops (1.5 MB .pdf)

You may also access up-to-date resources at nobleinc.ca/downloads.html.

Extras

Related Article

Flow-based (Kanban) or Timeboxed (Scrum, SAFe) Agile?

Author's Site

Please visit the author's site at nobleinc.ca.

Sample Content

Table of Contents

Foreword xxvii
Preface xxxi
About the Author xlvii


Chapter 1: The Art of Agile Analysis and Planning 1
1.1 Objectives 1
1.2 On Art and Agile Analysis 1
1.3 I Work for a Mainstream Company! What’s This Got to Do with Me? 5
1.4 Story 1: It’s Not My Problem 8
1.5 Story 2: The Cantankerous Customer 10
1.6 Chapter Summary 11
1.7 What’s Next? 11

Chapter 2: Agile Analysis and Planning: The Value Proposition 13
2.1 Objectives 13
2.2 What Is Agile Analysis and Planning? 13
2.3 Who Is a Business Analyst? 14
2.4 Why Agile Analysis and Planning? 15
2.5 The Parallel Histories of Agile and Business Analysis 16
2.6 Two Diagnoses for the Same Problem 18
2.7 The Business Analysis Diagnosis 19
2.8 The Business Analysis Track Record 19
2.9 The Agile Diagnosis 22
2.10 The Agile Track Record 22
2.11 Why Agile Teams Should Include an Effective BA Competency 24
2.12 Chapter Summary 25
2.13 What’s Next? 25

Chapter 3: Fundamentals of Agile Analysis and Planning 27
3.1 Objectives 27
3.2 What the Agile Manifesto Means for Business Analysis 28
3.3 What the Twelve Principles Mean for Business Analysis 29
3.4 Practices, Standards, and Frameworks 31
3.5 Overview of Agile Roles and the Business Analyst 58
3.6 Soft Skills of the Agile Business Analyst 63
3.7 13 Key Practices of Agile Analysis and How They Differ from Waterfall 65
3.8 Agile Business Analysis Rules of Thumb 68
3.9 Chapter Summary 68
3.10 What’s Next? 68

Chapter 4: Analysis and Planning Activities across the Agile Development Lifecycle 69
4.1 Objectives 69
4.2 Overview of the Agile Analysis and Planning Map 72
4.3 The Zones 72
4.4 The Lanes 73
4.5 A Story in Three Acts 74
4.6 Act 1: The Short Lane 74
4.7 Act 2: The Long Lane 79
4.8 Act 3: The Grand Lane 79
4.9 Chapter Summary 81
4.10 What’s Next? 81

Chapter 5: Preparing the Organization 83
5.1 Objectives 83
5.2 This Chapter on the Map 86
5.3 What Is Initiation and Planning? 86
5.4 How Long Should You Spend Up Front on Initiation and Planning? 87
5.5 The Purpose Alignment Model 88
5.6 Preparing the Infrastructure 90
5.7 Organizing Development Teams 93
5.8 Managing Stakeholder Expectations about Agile Development 99
5.9 Preparing the Customer–Developer Relationship 101
5.10 Agile Financial Planning 102
5.11 Preparing the Marketing and Distribution Teams 103
5.12 Preparing Channels and Supply Chains 104
5.13 Preparing Governance and Compliance 104
5.14 Preparing for Increased Demand on Resources 106
5.15 Preparing an Enterprise for Agile Development 107
5.16 Determine Organizational Readiness 112
5.17 Chapter Summary 113
5.18 What’s Next? 114

Chapter 6: Preparing the Process 115
6.1 Objectives 115
6.2 This Chapter on the Map 115
6.3 Process Preparation 118
6.4 Tailoring the Agile Practice to the Context 118
6.5 Tuning the Process 122
6.6 Optimizing the Process Using Value Stream Mapping 145
6.7 Determining Process Readiness 145
6.8 Chapter Summary 146
6.9 What’s Next? 146

Chapter 7: Visioning 147
7.1 Objectives 150
7.2 This Chapter on the Map 150
7.3 Overview of Product Visioning and Epic Preparation 150
7.4 Root-Cause Analysis 152
7.5 Specifying a Product or Epic 166
7.6 The Problem or Opportunity Statement 167
7.7 The Product Portrait 169
7.8 Crafting the Product and Epic Vision Statements 172
7.9 Stakeholder Analysis and Engagement 175
7.10 Analyzing Goals and Objectives 182
7.11 Analyze Leap of Faith Hypotheses 185
7.12 Chapter Summary 192
7.13 What’s Next? 192

Chapter 8: Seeding the Backlog—Discovering and Grading Features 193
8.1 Objectives 193
8.2 This Chapter on the Map 196
8.3 Overview: Seeding the Backlog 196
8.4 Circumstance-Based Market Segmentation for Feature Discovery 198
8.5 Other Ways to Discover Initial Features 198
8.6 Feature Independence 199
8.7 Using the Role-Feature-Reason Template to Represent Epics and Features 199
8.8 Specifying Emergent Features 200
8.9 Physical Representation of Features 200
8.10 Feature Attributes 201
8.11 Determining Customer and User Value with Kano Analysis 202
8.12 Sequencing Epics and Features in the Backlog 212
8.13 Writing Feature Acceptance Criteria 215
8.14 Analyzing Nonfunctional Requirements and Constraints 216
8.15 Chapter Summary 220
8.16 What’s Next? 220

Chapter 9: Long-Term Agile Planning 221
9.1 Objectives 221
9.2 This Chapter on the Map 224
9.3 Overview of Long-Term Planning, Epic Planning, and MVP 224
9.4 The Full-Potential Plan 225
9.5 Using MVPs to Validate the Assumptions behind the Plan 228
9.6 Capabilities for Effective MVP Implementation 231
9.7 Overview of the Product Roadmap 240
9.8 Planning the Interim Periods 241
9.9 Using the Product Roadmap for Shorter Planning Horizons 248
9.10 Chapter Summary 248
9.11 What’s Next? 249

Chapter 10: Quarterly and Feature Preparation 251
10.1 Objectives 251
10.2 This Chapter on the Map 254
10.3 Overview of Features 254
10.4 Benefits of Feature Preparation 256
10.5 Feature Preparation Activities 256
10.6 Timing of Feature Preparation 257
10.7 Assessing Readiness 258
10.8 Accounting for Preparation Work: Tasks and Spikes 258
10.9 Specifying Features and Their Acceptance Criteria 259
10.10 Context Analysis 263
10.11 Stakeholder Analysis 264
10.12 Persona Analysis 264
10.13 Overview of Journey, Process, and Value Stream Maps 272
10.14 Journey Mapping 272
10.15 Value Stream Mapping 283
10.16 Business Process Modeling 285
10.17 Use-Case Modeling 298
10.18 User-Role Modeling Workshops 300
10.19 Review the Architecture 307
10.20 Chapter Summary 312
10.21 What’s Next? 313

Chapter 11: Quarterly and Feature Planning 315
11.1 Objectives 315
11.2 This Chapter on the Map 318
11.3 Overview of Quarterly Planning 318
11.4 Overview of Flow-Based Feature Planning 318
11.5 When Is Planning at This Level Advised and Not Advised? 319
11.6 When to Use Quarterly Planning versus Flow-Based Feature Planning 319
11.7 How to Conduct Quarterly Planning with Agility 320
11.8 XP’s Planning Game Guidelines 322
11.9 Quarterly Planning: Timing Considerations 325
11.10 Preparing for the Planning Event 325
11.11 Planning Topics (Agenda) 328
11.12 Reviewing the Quarterly Plan, Once the Quarter Is Underway 351
11.13 Chapter Summary 352
11.14 What’s Next? 352

Chapter 12: MVPs and Story Maps 353
12.1 Objectives 353
12.2 This Chapter on the Map 356
12.3 MVPs and Story Mapping: How the Tools Complement Each Other 356
12.4 MVP Planning 356
12.5 Story Mapping 366
12.6 Chapter Summary 388
12.7 What’s Next? 388

Chapter 13: Story Preparation 391
13.1 Objectives 391
13.2 This Chapter on the Map 394
13.3 Overview of Story Preparation 394
13.4 Story Fundamentals 394
13.5 The Three Cs of Stories 397
13.6 Who Is Responsible for User Stories? 398
13.7 Physical versus Electronic Stories 403
13.8 Specifying Values for Story Attributes 404
13.9 Writing the Story Description 404
13.10 Specifying Story Acceptance Criteria 407
13.11 Stories That Aren’t User Stories 414
13.12 Guidelines for Writing High-Quality Stories 420
13.13 Patterns for Splitting Stories 422
13.14 Analyzing Business Rules and AC with Decision Tables 433
13.15 Chapter Summary 440
13.16 What’s Next? 440

Chapter 14: Iteration and Story Planning 441
14.1 Objectives 441
14.2 This Chapter on the Map 444
14.3 Overview of Iteration and Story Planning 444
14.4 Attendees 445
14.5 Duration 445
14.6 Inputs for Iteration Planning 445
14.7 Deliverables of Iteration Planning 446
14.8 Planning Rules 447
14.9 Part 1: Forecast What Will Be Accomplished 447
14.10 Part 2: Plan the Implementation 451
14.11 Setting Up the Kanban Board 458
14.12 Scaling Iteration Planning 462
14.13 Feature Preview Meeting 462
14.14 Chapter Summary 463
14.15 What’s Next? 463

Chapter 15: Rolling Analysis and Preparation—Day-to-Day Activities 465
15.1 Objectives 465
15.2 This Chapter on the Map 468
15.3 Overview of Rolling Analysis 468
15.4 Updating Task Progress 470
15.5 Triad Guideline 470
15.6 Actions That May Be Taken against a Developer Task 471
15.7 Monitoring Progress 471
15.8 Story Testing and Inspection (Analyze-Code-Build-Test) 490
15.9 Managing Scope Change during the Iteration 495
15.10 Updating Business Analysis Documentation 496
15.11 Ongoing Analysis of Upcoming Epics, Features, and Stories 509
15.12 Accounting for Progress at the End of the Iteration 513
15.13 The Iteration Review 514
15.14 The Iteration Retrospective 517
15.15 Chapter Summary 524
15.16 What’s Next? 525

Chapter 16: Releasing the Product 527
16.1 Objectives 527
16.2 This Chapter on the Map 530
16.3 Getting Stories to Done 530
16.4 Releasing to the Market: Timing Considerations 530
16.5 Staging the Release 532
16.6 Quarterly (Release) Retrospective 539
16.7 Pivot-or-Persevere Meeting 544
16.8 Chapter Summary 547
16.9 What’s Next? 548

Chapter 17: Scaling Agility 549
17.1 Objectives 552
17.2 This Chapter on the Map 552
17.3 Why Do We Need a Scaled Agile Approach? 552
17.4 Planning: Choosing an Approach That Supports Inter-team Collaboration 554
17.5 Continuous Delivery: Delivering Software Continuously, Safely, and Sustainably at Scale 558
17.6 Scaled Agile Culture: Creating a Culture That Supports Innovation at Scale 564
17.7 Scaling the Backlog 566
17.8 Scaling the Agile Organization 570
17.9 Scaling the Agile Process 581
17.10 Agile Requirements Management Software Tools 615
17.11 Lightweight Tools for Supporting Inter-team Collaboration 615
17.12 Potential Issues and Challenges in Scaling Agility 617
17.13 Chapter Summary 622
17.14 What’s Next? 622

Chapter 18: Achieving Enterprise Agility 623
18.1 Objectives 623
18.2 This Chapter on the Map 626
18.3 Overview of Enterprise Agility 627
18.4 Foundational Practices 629
18.5 Overview of the Agile Process for Developing Innovative Products 631
18.6 Agile Corporate Culture 632
18.7 Overview of Principles and Practices for an Agile Corporate Culture 634
18.8 Three Principles for Applying Agile Practices 635
18.9 The Thirteen Practices for an Agile Corporate Culture 650
18.10 Agile Financial Planning 675
18.11 Chapter Summary 676

Appendix A: Additional Resources and Checklists 677
A.1 Mapping of Book Chapters to IIBA and PMI Guides 677
A.2 Rules of Thumb in Agile Analysis and Planning 682
A.3 Facilitation Tips 684
A.4 Visioning Checklist 686
A.5 Stakeholder Checklist 687
A.6 NFRs and Constraints Checklist 689
A.7 Readiness Checklist for Quarterly Planning 690
A.8 Checklist of Invitees for Quarterly Planning 692
A.9 Checklist of Quarterly and Feature Planning Inputs 693
A.10 Checklist of Quarterly and Feature Planning Deliverables 694
A.11 Checklist of Quarterly (Release) Retrospective Questions 695
A.12 Checklist of Invitees for Scaled Quarterly and Feature Planning 698
A.13 Overview of Agile Requirements Management Tools 699

Appendix B: Discovery-Driven Planning Case Study: BestBots 701
B.1 Background: BestBots Case Study 701
B.2 Initial Market Analysis 702
B.3 Determine Constraints (Required Outcomes) 703
B.4 Create Draft of Reverse Income Statement 705
B.5 Create Pro Forma Operations Specifications 706
B.6 Create Assumptions Checklist 708
B.7 Revise Reverse Income Statement 709
B.8 Create Milestone Planning Chart 710

Bibliography 713
Index 715

Updates

Submit Errata

More Information

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020