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VMware ESX and ESXi in the Enterprise: Planning Deployment of Virtualization Servers

VMware ESX and ESXi in the Enterprise: Planning Deployment of Virtualization Servers

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  • Copyright 2011
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/8"
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-273485-0
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-273485-1

Edward L. Haletky’s Complete, Solutions-Focused Guide to Running ESX Server 3.5, vSphere, and VMware 4.x

Extensively updated and revised, this is the definitive real-world guide to planning, deploying, and managing VMware ESX Server 3.5, VMware vSphere Hypervisor (ESXi), or VMware vSphere 4.x cloud computing in mission-critical environments.

Drawing on his extensive experience consulting on enterprise VMware implementations, renowned expert Edward L.
Haletky offers a “soup-to-nuts” collection of field-tested best practices and solutions. He illuminates the real benefits, issues, tradeoffs, and pitfalls associated with VMware’s newest platforms, using real-world examples that draw upon both VMware and third-party products.

This edition features detailed coverage of new vSphere features such as Storage IO Control, Network IO Control, Load-Based Teaming, Distributed Virtual Switches, ESXi, hardware and processors, and a significantly expanded discussion of auditing and monitoring. Haletky offers new or enhanced coverage of VM Hardware, virtual networking, VMsafe, and more.

All new coverage is thoroughly integrated into Haletky’s insightful discussion of the entire lifecycle: planning, installation, templates, monitoring, tuning, clustering, security, disaster recovery, and more. Haletky consistently presents the most efficient procedures, whether they use graphical tools or the command line.

You’ll learn how to:

•    Assess VMware datacenter and infrastructure hardware requirements

•    Understand technical, licensing, and management differences between ESX/ESXi 3.5 and 4.x

•    Plan installation for your environment and identify potential “gotchas”

•    Select, configure, utilize, and support storage cost-effectively

•    Manage key operational issues associated with virtual infrastructure

•    Adapt existing network and security infrastructure to virtualization

•    Configure ESX from host connections

•    Configure ESX Server from Virtual Centers or hosts

•    Create, modify, and manage VMs (with detailed Windows, Linux, and NetWare examples)

•    Troubleshoot VM issues with eDirectory, private labs, firewalls, and clusters

•    Utilize vSphere 4.1’s improved Dynamic Resource Load Balancing (DRLB)

•    Implement disaster recovery, business continuity, and backup

•    Plan for vApps and the future of virtualization

VMware ESX and ESXi in the Enterprise has long been the definitive single-source guide to VMware planning, deployment, and management. For today’s VMware architects, administrators, and managers, this edition will be even more valuable.

Sample Content

Table of Contents


Basic Hardware Considerations     2

  Feature Considerations     3

  Processor Considerations     6

  Cache Considerations     8

  Memory Considerations    11

  I/O Card Considerations     13

  10Gb Ethernet     16

  Converged Network Adapters     16

  Disk Drive Space Considerations     16

  Basic Hardware Considerations Summary    17

Specific Hardware Considerations     19

Blade Server Systems     19

  1U Server Systems     20

  2U Server Systems     21

  Large Server-Class Systems     22

  The Effects of External Storage     23

Examples     27

  Example 1: Using Motherboard X and ESXi Will Not Install     27

  Example 2: Installing ESX and Expecting a Graphical Console     27

  Example 3: Existing Datacenter     28

  Example 4: Office in a Box     29

  Example 5: The Latest and Greatest     30

  Example 6: The SAN     31

  Example 7: Secure Environment     32

  Example 8: Disaster Recovery     33

Hardware Checklist     34

Conclusion     35


VMware ESX/ESXi Architecture Overview    38

vmkernel Differences     40

  ESX Boot Differences     44

  Tool Differences     51

Virtual Networking     52

  vNetwork Distributed Switch     53

  Third-Party Virtual Switches     53

  Fault Tolerance (FT) Logging     54

  iSCSI Participation     54

  IPv6 Support     54

  VMsafe-Net     54

  Summary     54

Storage     56

  Grow a VMFS Volume     57

  Storage IO Control (SIOC)     57

  Multipath Plug-in (MPP)     57

  iSCSI and NFS Improvements     57

  FCoE     58

  Storage Summary     58

Availability     60

  Host Profiles     60

  Fault Tolerance     60

  Dynamic Power Management     62

  High Availability (HA) Improvements     62

  vMotion     62

  Storage vMotion     62

  Availability Summary     63

Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Differences     64

Virtual Hardware     66

Virtual Machine and Server Management     68

Security Differences     69

Installation Differences     70

Licensing Differences     71

VMware Certification     74

Conclusion     75


Preinstallation Checklist     77

Preinstallation/Upgrade Steps     80

  Step 1: Back Up ESX     81

  Step 2: Read the Release Notes     82

  Step 3: Perform a Pre-Upgrade Test     82

  Step 4: Prepare Your ESX Host     84

  Installation/Upgrade Steps     85

  Step 1: Read the Release Notes     85

  Step 2: Read All Relevant Documentation     85

  Step 3: Is Support Available for the Hardware Configuration?     85

  Step 4: Verify the Hardware     85

  Step 5: Are the Firmware Levels at Least Minimally Supported?     86

  Step 6: Is the System and Peripheral BIOS Correctly Set?     87

  Step 7: Where Do You Want the Boot Disk Located?     88

  Step 8: VMware ESX Host License     89

  Step 9: Guest OS License and Installation Materials     89

  Step 10: Service Console Network Information     89

  Step 11: Memory Allocated to the Service Console     89

  Step 12: vmkernel Network Information     90

  Step 13: Number of Virtual Network Switches     90

  Step 14: Virtual Network Switch Label Name(s)     91

  Step 15: File System Layouts     91

  Step 16: Configure the Server and the FC HBA to Boot from SAN or Boot from iSCSI     93

  Step 17: Start ESX/ESXi Host Installations     102

  Step 18: Connecting to the Management User Interface for the First Time     112

  Step 19: Third-Party Tools to Install     116

  Step 20: Additional Software Packages to Install     117

  Step 21: Patch ESX or ESXi     117

  Step 22: Guest Operating System Software     117

  Step 23: Guest Operating System Licenses     117

  Step 24: Network Information for Each Guest Operating System     118

  Step 25: Guest Upgrades     118

Automating Installation     118

  EXi 4.1     118

  ESX 4     118

  Kickstart Directives     119

Conclusion     121


Auditing Recipe     124

  ESX and ESXi     124

  ESX     128

  ESXi     134

  Auditing Conclusion     134

Monitoring Recipe     135

  Host Hardware Monitoring     135

  Virtual Machine State Monitoring     136

  Network Monitoring     136

  Performance Monitoring     137

  Application Monitoring     137

  Security Monitoring     137

ESX-Specific Auditing and Monitoring Concerns     138

  vmkernel Considerations     139

  vMotion and Fault Tolerance Considerations     139

  Other ESX Considerations     139

What to Do If There Is a Break-In     141

Conclusion     142


Overview of Storage Technology with ESX     144

  FC Versus SCSI Versus SAS Versus ATA Versus SATA, and So On     145

  FCoE and Converged Network Adapters (CNAs)     147

  iSCSI (SCSI over IP)     147

  NAS (Network-Attached Storage)     149

  SANs (Storage Area Networks)     149

Storage Best Practices for ESX     160

  SAN/iSCSI Best Practices     160

  iSCSI/NFS Best Practices     161

Virtual Machine File System     161

  VMDK and VMFS Manipulation     163

  VMFS Types     164

  Structure of VMFS     164

Storage Checklist     169

Assessing Storage and Space Requirements     171

  LUN Sizes     172

  Example of LUN Sizing     175

Storage-Specific Issues     176

  Increasing the Size of a VMDK     177

  Increasing the Size of a VMFS     178

  Searching for New LUNs     178

  VMFS Created on One ESX Host Not Appearing on Another     179

  How to Unlock a LUN     179

  Boot from SAN or iSCSI     180

Conclusion     180


SCSI-2 Reservation Issues     182

Performance-Gathering and Hardware Agents Within a VM     189

  Network Utilization     191

  Virtual Machine Mobility     192

Data Store Performance or Bandwidth Issues     193

Other Operational Issues     194

  Life-Cycle Management     195

Conclusion     197


Basic Building Blocks     199

  Details of the Building Blocks     202

  vNetwork Functionality     215

Network Definitions     237

  Virtual Environment Management Network     240

  Out-of-Band Management Network     242

  vMotion Network     242

  Fault Tolerance Logging Network     243

  NFS Network     243

  iSCSI Network     244

  VM Network     244

Checklist     246

  pSwitch Settings Checklist     250

vNetworking     252

  vNetworks: The Great VLAN Debate     252

  vNetworks: Network Splits     253

  vNetworks: Simple Network     256

  vNetworks: Adding More to the Virtualization Network     257

  vNetwork: DMZ     260

pNIC Determination     262

Conclusion     263


Configuration Tasks     266

Server-Specific Tasks     266

  ESXi Root Password     268

  ESXi Management Network     269

  Create Administrative Users     270

  Security Configuration     278

  Network Time Protocol (NTP)     280

Service Console Memory     284

  Command Line (ESX v3)     286

  vSC (ESX v3)     287

Patching ESX and ESXi    287

  Patching VIA vSphere Host Update Utility     287

  Patching VIA VMware Update Manager     289

Conclusion     292


Configuration Tasks     296

Join Host to vCenter     296

Licensing     297

  ESX v4     298

Virtual Swap     305

VMFS Manipulation     306

  Rename Local VMFS via Command Line     307

  Connect to Storage Device     307

  VMFS Manipulation with the vSphere Client     319

  Growing a VMFS     333

  Upgrading from VMFS v3.xx to v3.33 or v3.34     334

  Masking and Max LUN Manipulations     335

Virtual Networking     337

  Configuring the Service Console or ESXi Management Appliance     337

  Creating a VM Network vSwitch     340

  Creating a vNetwork Distributed Virtual Switch     344

  vSC     344

  Setting Up PVLANs Within a Distributed Virtual Switch     347

  Creating a vMotion vSwitch     348

  Creating a FT Network     352

  Command Line     353

  Adding an iSCSI Network     356

  Adding a NAS vSwitch for Use by NFS     357

  Adding a Private vSwitch     358

  Adding Additional pNICs to a vSwitch     359

  Adding vSwitch Portgroups     360

  Removing vSwitch Portgroups     360

  Distributed vSwitch Portgroup     361

  vSwitch Removal     361

  Distributed vSwitch Removal     362

  vSwitch Security     362

  vSwitch Properties     364

  Changing vmkernel Gateways     367

  Changing pNIC Settings     369

  Changing Traffic-Shaping Settings     370

iSCSI VMFS      372

  Command Line     372

  vSC     373

Network-Attached Storage     375

  Command Line     375

  vSC     376

Mapping Information     378

Secure Access to Management Interfaces     379

Advanced Settings     380

Conclusion     380


Overview of Virtual Hardware     383

Creating VMs     389

  VM Creation from vSC     393

  VM Creation from Command Line     435

Installing Guest Operating Systems     442

  Using Local to the ESX Host CD-ROMs     443

  Using a Local or Shared ESX Host ISO Image     444

  Using Client Device or ISO     445

  Importance of DVD/CD-ROM Devices     447

  Other Installation Options     447

Special Situations     447

  Using CD/RW and DVD/RW/R+/R- Devices     447

  Virtual Guest Tagging Driver     448

  Virtual Hardware for Non-Disk SCSI Devices     448

  Virtual Hardware for Raw Disk Map Access to Remote SCSI     450

  Virtual Hardware for RDM-Like Access to Local SCSI     450

  VM Disk Modes and Snapshots     452

  OS Installation Peculiarities     456

  Cloning, Templates, and Deploying VMs     457

VM Solutions     458

  Private Lab     458

  Firewalled Private Lab     458

  Firewalled Lab Bench     460

  Cluster in a Box     462

  Cluster Between ESX Hosts     462

  Cluster Between Virtual and Physical Servers     463

  vCenter as a VM     463

  Virtual Appliances     464

VMware Tools     465

VMX Changes     466

Conclusion     467


Defining DRLB     469

The Basics     470

The Advanced Features     473

  Shares     486

  Resource Pool Addendum     488

  Network Resources     489

  Disk Resources     490

  CPU Resources     491

  Memory Resources     491

  vApps     492

Monitoring     494

  Alarms     495

  Performance Analysis     504

Putting It All Together     511

Conclusion     512


Disaster Types     514

Recovery Methods     517

Best Practices     521

Backup and Business Continuity     522

  Backup     523

  Business Continuity     529

The Tools     531

  Local Tape Devices     534

  VMware Data Recovery     534

  Third-Party Tools     538

Conclusion     538



INDEX     545


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