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Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 12th Edition

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Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 12th Edition


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Solution 2: To play the videos on the CD-ROM, you'll need to have Quicktime 4 installed. If it's not included on the CD, you can download it at http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/

Question 3: What is included on the CD?

Solution 3: 1. How-to Videos-More then 90 minutes of video

2. Electronic Library- Over 5000 pages of previous Upgrading and Repairing PCs knowledge is here for your reading. These are the full books for your learning.

Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 6th Edition
Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 8th Edition
Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 10th Edition
Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 11th Edition

3. Technical Reference-Hundreds of pages of technical information are now here. Blue Planet's hard drive database has specs for almost 4000 hard drives.

General Reference
AMI BOIS Error Codes
Award BOIS Error Codes
IBM BIOS Beep and Error Codes
Phoenix BIOS Error Codes
ROM BIOS Hard drive Parameters
DOS Command Reference
Hardware Reference
Modem Control Codes
Microid Research POST Codes
Keyboard Keys and Codes
General Troubleshooting and Diagnostics

4. Vendor Database-The Vendor Database contains over 300 companies that manufacture everything from SCSI cables to PC Cases. And it is fully searchable!

5. Web Resources-The Web Resources is a fully linked up HTML document. You will find websites of Scott's own choosing. Everything from a database for your FCC ID numbers to factory specs of your equipment.

6. Ultimate Companion-Tired of trying to keep pace with an ever-changing hardware market? Wish you knew more about that new processor of chipset that was just released? Want to know what the world's most renown PC hardware authority has to say about a new technology? If you answered "yes" to any of these questions, then point your browser to: http://www.UpgradingAndRepairingPCs.com

Scott Mueller and Que have assembled this Web site to help you stay on top of an aggressive hardware market that can be confusing to the newbie and the hardware expert alike. Here, you'll find:

In-depth analysis of new technologies
Reviews of key technologies, hardware and industry trends
Frequently asked questions from readers just like you
How-to videos with Scott Mueller
Send your hardware questions directly to Scott
Visit http://www.UpgradingAndRepairingPCs.com today!


  • NEW—


  • Copyright 2000
  • Dimensions: 7.375 X 9.125
  • Pages: 1656
  • Edition: 12th
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-7897-2303-4
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-2303-1

Scott Mueller is the bestselling, most trusted PC hardware author of all-time. His book has sold more than 2 million copies worldwide and is an industry classic. This newest edition contains more than 100 pages of all-new content, illustrations and photos. The information contained in this book has launched and promoted thousands of careers. If you are at all curious about what goes on inside your computer or want to start a new career in PC building, upgrading, repair and troubleshooting, this book will be an indispensable addition to your desk or workbench. If you are a long-time reader of Scott's book, you'll find the additions in this edition to be a vital addition to your arsenal. The CD includes 90 minutes of all new how-to video.

Sample Content

Table of Contents

1. Personal Computer Background.
Computer History—Before Personal Computers.
Timeline. Mechanical Calculators. The First Mechanical Computer. Electronic Computers.

Modern Computers.
From Tubes to Transistors. Integrated Circuits. The First Microprocessor.

Personal Computer History.
Birth of the Personal Computer.

The IBM Personal Computer. The PC Industry 19 Years Later.

2. PC Components, Features, and System Design.
What Is a PC?
Who Controls PC Software? Who Controls PC Hardware? PC 9x Specifications.

System Types. System Components. Sources of Information. Manuals (Documentation).
Basic System Documentation. Component and Peripheral Documentation. Chip and Chipset Documentation. Manufacturer System-Specific Documentation.

Magazines. Online Resources. Seminars. Machines.

3. Microprocessor Types and Specifications.
Microprocessors. Pre-PC Microprocessor History. Processor Specifications.
Processor Speed Ratings. Processor Speeds and Markings Versus Motherboard Speed. Data Bus. Internal Registers (Internal Data Bus). Address Bus. Internal Level 1 (L1) Cache. How Cache Works. Level 2 (L2) Cache. Cache Organization. Processor Modes.

SMM (Power Management). Superscalar Execution. MMX Technology. SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions). 3DNow and Enhanced 3DNow. Dynamic Execution.
Multiple Branch Prediction. Data Flow Analysis. Speculative Execution.

Dual Independent Bus (DIB) Architecture. Processor Manufacturing. PGA Chip Packaging. Single Edge Contact (SEC) and Single Edge Processor (SEP) Packaging. Processor Sockets and Slots.
Socket 1. Socket 2. Socket 3. Socket 4. Socket 5. Socket 6. Socket 7 (and Super7). Socket 8. Socket 370 (PGA-370). Socket A (Socket 462)

Zero Insertion Force (ZIF) Sockets. Processor Slots.
Slot 1 (SC242). Slot 2 (SC330).

CPU Operating Voltages. Heat and Cooling Problems.
Heat Sinks.

Math Coprocessors (Floating-Point Units). Processor Bugs. Processor Update Feature. Processor Codenames. Intel-Compatible Processors (AMD and Cyrix).
AMD Processors. Cyrix. IDT Winchip. P-Ratings.

P1 (086) First-Generation Processors.
8088 and 8086 Processors. 80186 and 80188 Processors. 8087 Coprocessor.

P2 (286) Second-Generation Processors.
286 Processors. 80287 Coprocessor. 286 Processor Problems.

P3 (386) Third-Generation Processors.
386 Processors. 386DX Processors. 386SX Processors. 386SL Processors. 80387 Coprocessor. Weitek Coprocessors. 80386 Bugs.

P4 (486) Fourth-Generation Processors.
486 Processors. 486DX Processors. 486SL. 486SX. 487SX. DX2/OverDrive and DX4 Processors. Pentium OverDrive for 486SX2 and DX2 Systems. “Vacancy” —Secondary OverDrive Sockets. 80487 Upgrade. AMD 486 (5x86). Cyrix/TI 486.

P5 (586) Fifth-Generation Processors.
Pentium Processors. First-Generation Pentium Processor. Second-Generation Pentium Processor. Pentium-MMX Processors. Pentium Defects. Testing for the FPU Bug. Power Management Bugs. Pentium Processor Models and Steppings. AMD-K5.

Pseudo Fifth-Generation Processors.
IDT Centaur C6 Winchip.

Intel P6 (686) Sixth-Generation Processors.
Pentium Pro Processors. Pentium II Processors. Celeron. Pentium III. Pentium II/III Xeon. Pentium III Future.

Other Sixth-Generation Processors.
NexGen Nx586. AMD-K6 Series. AMD Athlon. AMD Duron. Cyrix MediaGX. Cyrix/IBM 6x86 (M1) and 6x86MX (MII).

Itanium (P7/Merced) Seventh-Generation Processors.

Processor Upgrades.
OverDrive Processors. Processor Benchmarks.

Processor Troubleshooting Techniques.

4. Motherboards and Buses.
Motherboard Form Factors.
Baby-AT. Full-Size AT. LPX. ATX. Micro-ATX. Flex-ATX. ATX Riser. NLX. WTX. Proprietary Designs. Backplane Systems.

Motherboard Components. Processor Sockets/Slots. Chipsets. Chipset Evolution. Intel Chipsets.
Intel Chipset Model Numbers.

AMD Athlon/Duron Chipsets. North/South Bridge Architecture.
Hub Architecture. Intel's Early 386/486 Chipsets.

Fifth-Generation (P5 Pentium Class) Chipsets.
Intel 430LX (Mercury). Intel 430NX (Neptune). Intel 430FX (Triton). Intel 430HX (Triton II). Intel 430VX (Triton III). Intel 430TX. Third-Party (Non-Intel) P5 Pentium Class Chipsets.

Sixth-Generation (P6 Pentium Pro/Pentium II/III Class) Chipsets.
Intel 450KX/GX (Orion Workstation/Server). Intel 440FX (Natoma). Intel 440LX. Intel 440EX. Intel 440BX. Intel 440ZX and 440ZX-66. Intel 440GX. Intel 450NX. Intel 810. Intel 820 and 820E. Intel 840. Third-Party (non-Intel) P6-Class Chipsets. Athlon/Duron Chipsets.

Super I/O Chips.
Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses. Motherboard Interface Connectors.

System Bus Functions and Features.
The Processor Bus. The Memory Bus.

The Need for Expansion Slots. Types of I/O Buses.
The ISA Bus. The Micro Channel Bus. The EISA Bus. Local Buses. VESA Local Bus. The PCI Bus. Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP).

System Resources.
Interrupts (IRQs). DMA Channels. I/O Port Addresses.

Resolving Resource Conflicts.
Resolving Conflicts Manually. Using a System-Configuration Template. Heading Off Problems: Special Boards. Plug-and-Play Systems.

Knowing What to Look For (Selection Criteria).
Documentation. Using Correct Speed-Rated Parts.

5. BIOS.
BIOS Basics. BIOS Hardware/Software. Motherboard BIOS.
ROM Hardware. ROM Shadowing. ROM (True or Mask ROM). PROM. EPROM. EEPROM/Flash ROM. ROM BIOS Manufacturers.

Upgrading the BIOS.
Where to Get Your BIOS Update. Determining Your BIOS Version. Backing Up Your BIOS's CMOS Settings. Keyboard-Controller Chips. Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses. Replacing a BIOS ROM.

CMOS Setting Specifications.
Running or Accessing the CMOS Setup Program. BIOS Setup Menus. Maintenance Menu. Main Menu. Advanced Menu. Security Menu. Power Management Menu. Boot Menu (Boot Sequence, Order). Exit Menu. Additional BIOS Setup Features.

Year 2000 BIOS Issues. Plug-and-Play BIOS.
PnP Device IDs. ACPI. Initializing a PnP Device.

BIOS Error Messages.
General BIOS Boot Text Error Messages.

6. Memory.
Memory Basics. ROM. DRAM. Cache Memory: SRAM. RAM Memory Speeds.
Fast Page Mode (FPM) DRAM. EDO (Extended Data Out) RAM. Burst EDO. SDRAM.

New DRAM Memory Technologies.

Physical RAM Memory.
SIMMs and DIMMs. SIMM Pinouts. DIMM Pinouts. Physical RAM Capacity and Organization. Memory Banks. RAM Chip Speed. Gold Versus Tin. Parity and ECC.

Installing RAM Upgrades.
Upgrade Options and Strategies. Selecting and Installing Motherboard Memory with Chips, SIMMs, or. DIMMs. Replacing SIMMs and DIMMs with Higher Capacity. Adding Adapter Boards. Installing Memory.

Troubleshooting Memory.
Memory Defect Isolation Procedures.

The System Logical Memory Layout.
Conventional (Base) Memory. Upper Memory Area (UMA). Extended Memory. Preventing ROM BIOS Memory Conflicts and Overlap. ROM Shadowing. Total Installed Memory Versus Total Usable Memory. Adapter Memory Configuration and Optimization.

7. The IDE Interface.
An Overview of the IDE Interface. Precursors to IDE. The IDE Interface. IDE Origins. IDE Bus Versions. ATA IDE. ATA Standards.
ATA-1 (AT Attachment Interface for Disk Drives). ATA-2 (AT Attachment Interface with Extensions). ATA-3 (AT Attachment 3 Interface). ATA/ATAPI-4 (AT Attachment 4 with Packet Interface Extension). ATA/ATAPI-5 (AT Attachment 5 with Packet Interface).

ATA Features. Drive Capacity Limitations. Breaking the 8.4GB barrier. Faster Data Transfer. DMA Transfer Modes. ATAPI (ATA Packet Interface).

8. The SCSI Interface.
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI). ANSI SCSI Standards. SCSI-1. SCSI-2. SCSI-3.
SPI (SCSI Parallel Interface) or Ultra SCSI. SPI-2 or Ultra2 SCSI. SPI-3 or Ultra3 SCSI (Ultra160). Fiber Channel SCSI.

SCSI Cables and Connectors. SCSI Cable and Connector Pinouts.
Single-Ended SCSI Cables and Connectors. High Voltage Differential SCSI Signals. Expanders. Termination.

SCSI Drive Configuration.
Start On Command (Delayed Start). SCSI Parity. Terminator Power. SCSI Synchronous Negotiation.

Plug-and-Play (PnP) SCSI. SCSI Configuration Troubleshooting. SCSI Versus IDE.
SCSI Hard Disk Evolution and Construction. Performance. SCSI Versus IDE: Advantages and Limitations. Recommended SCSI Host Adapters.

9. Magnetic Storage Principles.
Magnetic Storage. History of Magnetic Storage. How Magnetic Fields Are Used to Store Data. Read/Write Head Designs.
Ferrite. Metal-In-Gap. Thin Film. Magneto-Resistive (MR) Heads. Giant Magneto-Resistive (GMR) Heads.

Head Sliders. Data Encoding Schemes.
FM Encoding. MFM Encoding. RLL Encoding.

Encoding Scheme Comparisons. PRML (Partial-Response, Maximum-Likelihood) Decoders. Capacity Measurements. Areal Density.

10. Hard Disk Storage.
Definition of a Hard Disk. Hard Drive Advancements. Hard Disk Drive Operation.
The Ultimate Hard Disk Drive Analogy. Tracks and Sectors. Disk Formatting.

Basic Hard Disk Drive Components.
Hard Disk Platters (Disks). Recording Media. Read/Write Heads. Read/Write Head Designs. Head Actuator Mechanisms. Air Filters. Hard Disk Temperature Acclimation. Spindle Motors. Logic Boards. Cables and Connectors. Configuration Items. The Faceplate or Bezel.

Hard Disk Features.
Reliability. Performance. Shock Mounting. Cost. Capacity. Specific Recommendations.

11. Floppy Disk Storage.
Floppy Disk Drives.
History of the Floppy.

Drive Components.
Read/Write Heads. The Head Actuator. The Spindle Motor. Circuit Boards. The Controller. The Faceplate. Connectors. The Floppy Disk Drive Cable.

Disk Physical Specifications and Operation.
How the Operating System Uses a Disk. Cylinders. Clusters or Allocation Units. Disk Change.

Types of Floppy Disk Drives.
The 1.44MB 3 1/2-Inch Drive. The 2.88MB 3 1/2-Inch Drive. The 720KB 3 1/2-Inch Drive. The 1.2MB 5 1/4-Inch Drive. The 360KB 5 1/4-Inch Drive.

Analyzing Floppy Disk Construction.
Floppy Disk Media Types and Specifications. Caring for and Handling Floppy Disks and Drives. Airport X-ray Machines and Metal Detectors.

Drive-Installation Procedures. Troubleshooting Floppy Drives.
Common Floppy Drive Error Messages—Causes and Solutions.

Repairing Floppy Disk Drives.
Cleaning Floppy Disk Drives. Aligning Floppy Disk Drives.

12. High-Capacity Removable Storage.
Why Use Removable-Media Drives?
Comparing Disk, Tape, and Flash Memory Technologies. Comparing Removable Media Types.

Types of Removable Media Drives.
Interfaces for Removable-Media Drives.

Overview of Removable Magnetic Storage Devices.
Industry Standards: LS-120 and Zip. High-Capacity Floptical Drives. LS-120 (120MB) SuperDisk Drives.

Other High-Capacity “Beyond Floppy” Drive Options.
Sony HiFD. Caleb it.

Proprietary Removable-Media Drives.
Early Iomega Bernoulli Drives. Zip Drives. Iomega Clik!

Hard-Disk Sized Removable Media Drives.
Jaz Drives. Castlewood Orb.

“Orphan” Removable-Media Drives.
SyQuest Drives. Avatar Shark Parts and Drivers. “Orphan” or Out-of-Production Drives.

Removable Drive Letter Assignments. Comparing Price and Performance. Magneto-Optical Drives.
Magneto-Optical Technology. Prices and Performance. Comparing MO to “Pure” Magnetic Media.

Flash Card and Digital “Film” .
How Flash Memory Works. Types of Flash Memory Devices. Moving Flash Memory Devices from Camera to Computer. Alternatives to Flash Memory.

Tape Drives.
Benefits of Using Backup Drives. Disadvantages of Tape Backup Drives. Advantages to Tape Backup Drives. Common Tape Backup Standards. QIC and Its Variants (QIC-Wide and Travan). QIC Tapes and Head Recording Technologies. Increased QIC and Travan Performance. The Travan NS (Network Series). Proprietary Versions of Travan Technology. OnStream ADR Technology. Other High-Capacity Tape Drive Standards.

Choosing the Best High-Performance Backup Technology.
Choosing a Tape Backup Drive.

Tape Drive Installation. Tape Drive Backup Software. Tape Drive Troubleshooting.
Can't Detect the Drive. Backup or Restore Operation Failure. Bad Block or Other Tape Media Errors. System Lockup or System Freezing When Running a Tape Backup. Other Tape Drive Problems.

Tape Retensioning.

13. Optical Storage.
What Is a CD-ROM?
CDs: A Brief History. CD-ROM Technology. Inside Data CDs.

What Types of Drives Are Available?
CD-ROM Drive Specifications. Interface. Loading Mechanism. Other Drive Features.

CD-ROM Disc and Drive Formats.
Data Standard: ISO 9660. High Sierra Format. CD-DA (Digital Audio). CD-ROM XA or Extended Architecture. Mixed-Mode CDs. PhotoCD.

Writable CD-ROM Drives.
CD-R. How to Reliably Make CD-Rs. CD-R Software. Creating Music CDs. Creating Digital Photo Albums. Creating a Rescue CD. Multiple Session CD-R Drives. CD-RW.

DVD (Digital Versatile Disc).
DVD History. DVD Specifications. DVD Formats and Standards. Recordable DVD Standards.

DVD Speed. Drive Compatibility—The MultiRead Specifications. Adding a DVD Drive to Your System. CD-ROM Software on Your PC.
DOS SCSI Adapter Driver. DOS CD-ROM Device Driver. MSCDEX: Adding CDs to DOS.

Loading CD-ROM Drivers.
CD-ROM in Microsoft Windows 3.x. Optical Drives in Windows 9x and Windows NT 4.0. MS-DOS Drivers and Windows 9x.

Creating a Bootable Disk with CD-ROM Support. Making a Bootable CD-ROM for Emergencies.
Files Needed for a Bootable CD.

Caring for Optical Media. Troubleshooting Optical Drives.
Failure Reading a CD. Failure to Read CD-R, CD-RW Discs in CD-ROM or DVD Drive. IDE/ATAPI CD-ROM Drive Runs Slowly. Poor Results When Writing to CD-R Media. Trouble Reading CD-RW Discs on CD-ROM. Trouble Reading CD-R Discs on DVD Drive. Trouble Making Bootable CDs.

14. Physical Drive Installation and Configuration.
Hard Disk Installation Procedures.
Drive Configuration. Host Adapter Configuration. Physical Installation.

Hard Drive Physical Installation—Step by Step.
System Configuration. Formatting. Drive Partitioning with FDISK. Drive Partitioning with PartitionMagic. High-Level (Operating System) Formatting. FDISK and FORMAT Limitations.

Replacing an Existing Drive.
Drive Migration for MS-DOS Users. Drive Migration for Windows 9x/Me Users. Interfacing to Disk Drives.

Hard Disk Drive Troubleshooting and Repair.
Testing a Drive.

Installing an Optical Drive.
Avoiding Conflict: Get Your Cards in Order. Drive Configuration. External (SCSI) Drive Hook-Up. Internal Drive Installation. Ribbon Cable and Card Edge Connector. SCSI Chains: Internal, External, or Both.

Floppy Drive Installation Procedures.

15. Video Hardware.
Video Display Technologies.
How CRT Display Technology Works. Multiple Frequency Monitors. Curved Versus Flat Picture Tubes. DVI—Digital Signals for CRT Monitors.

CRT Monitors. LCD Displays. Flat-Panel LCD Displays. All-in-One Desktop PCs. Monitor Selection Criteria.
The Right Size. Monitor Resolution. Dot Pitch. Image Brightness and Contrast (LCD Panels). Interlaced Versus Noninterlaced. Energy and Safety. Emissions. Frequencies. Refresh Rates. Horizontal Frequency. Controls. Environment. Testing a Display.

Caring for Your Monitor. Video Display Adapters.
Obsolete Display Adapters. VGA Adapters and Displays. Super VGA (SVGA). VESA SVGA Standards. Video Adapter Components.

The Video BIOS.
High-Speed Video RAM Solutions—Older Types. Current High-Speed Video RAM Solutions. Emerging High-Speed Video RAM Solutions. The Digital-to-Analog Converter (RAMDAC). The Bus. AGP Speeds. The Video Driver.

Video Cards for Multimedia.
Video Feature Connectors (VFC). VESA Video Interface Port (VESA VIP). Video Output Devices. Still-Image Video Capture Cards. Multiple Monitors. Desktop Video (DTV) Boards.

3D Graphics Accelerators.
Common 3D Techniques. Advanced 3D Techniques. APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). Microsoft DirectX. Troubleshooting DirectX. 3D Chipsets.

Upgrading or Replacing Your Video Card.
Video Card Memory. TV Tuner and Video Capture Upgrades. Warranty and Support. Video Card Benchmarks. Comparing Video Cards with the Same Chipset.

Adapter and Display Troubleshooting.
Troubleshooting Monitors. Troubleshooting Video Cards and Drivers.

16. Serial, Parallel, and Other I/O Interfaces.
Introduction to Input/Output Ports.
Serial Ports. UARTs.

High-Speed Serial Ports (ESP and Super ESP). Serial Port Configuration. Testing Serial Ports.
Microsoft Diagnostics (MSD). Troubleshooting I/O Ports in Windows. Advanced Diagnostics Using Loopback Testing.

Parallel Ports. IEEE 1284 Parallel Port Standard.
Standard Parallel Ports (SPP). Bidirectional (8-bit) Parallel Ports. Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP). Enhanced Capabilities Port (ECP).

Upgrading to EPP/ECP Parallel Ports. Parallel Port Configuration. Linking Systems with Parallel Ports. Parallel to SCSI Converters. Testing Parallel Ports. USB and 1394 (i.Link) FireWire—Serial and Parallel Port Replacements.
USB (Universal Serial Bus). USB 2.0. IEEE-1394 (Also Called i.Link or FireWire).

17. Input Devices.
Enhanced 101-Key (or 102-Key) Keyboard. 104-Key (Windows 95/98 Keyboard). Portable Keyboards. Num Lock.

Keyboard Technology.
Keyswitch Design. The Keyboard Interface. Typematic Functions. Keyboard Key Numbers and Scan Codes. International Keyboard Layouts. Keyboard/Mouse Interface Connectors. USB Keyboards and Mice. Keyboards with Special Features.

Keyboard Troubleshooting and Repair.
Keyboard Disassembly. Cleaning a Keyboard.

Keyboard Recommendation. Pointing Devices.
Pointing Device Interface Types. Mouse Troubleshooting. Microsoft IntelliMouse/IBM Scrollpoint. TrackPoint II/III. Glidepoint/Track Pads.

Running Windows Without a Mouse.

18. Internet Connectivity.
Relating Internet and LAN Connectivity. Asynchronous Modems. Modem Standards.
Modulation Standards. Error-Correction Protocols. Data-Compression Standards. Proprietary Standards. Fax Modem Standards. 56Kbps Modems. 56Kbps Limitations. Modem Recommendations.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).
What Does ISDN Really Mean for Computer Users? How Standard ISDN Works. Benefits of ISDN for Internet Access. Always on with Dynamic ISDN. ISDN Hardware.

Leased Lines.
T-1 and T-3 Connections. Comparing Conventional High-Speed Services. High Speed = Less Freedom.

CATV Networks.
Connecting to the Internet with a “Cable Modem” . The Cable Modem and the CATV Network. CATV Bandwidth. CATV Security. CATV Performance. CATV Internet Connection Security.

DirecPC—Internet Connectivity via Satellite.
How DirecPC/DirecDuo Works. DirecPC Requirements. Installing DirecPC. Purchasing DirecPC. DirecPC's FAP—Brakes on High-Speed Downloading? Real-World Performance.

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line).
Who Can Use DSL—and Who Can't. Major Types of DSL. DSL Pricing. Time Versus Access. Technical Problems with DSL.

Comparing High-Speed Internet Access.
Having a Backup Plan in Case of Service Interruptions.

Sharing Your Modem Connection.
Gateways Versus Proxy Servers. Windows 98 SE, Windows 2000, and ICS.

Modem Troubleshooting.
Modem Fails to Dial. Computer Locks Up After Installing Internal Modem. Computer Can't Detect External Modem. Using Your Modem Sound to Diagnose Your V.90 Modem. Diagnosing Problems with High-Speed Internet Access. Diagnosing Problems with a Shared Internet Connection.

19. Local Area Networking.
What Is a Network?
Shared Hardware Components. Benefits of Sharing Information via Networks.

Focus of This Chapter. Types of Networks. Client/Server Versus Peer Networks.
Client/Server Networks. Peer-to-Peer Network. Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks.

Requirements for a Network. Ethernet Versus Token-Ring.

Hardware Elements of Your Network.
Network Interface Cards (NICs). Network Cables. Network Topologies. Hubs for Ethernet Networks.

Network Cable Installations.
Building Your Own Twisted-Pair Cables.

Wireless Ethernet.
The IEEE 802.11b Wireless Ethernet Standard. Wireless Ethernet Technologies. Alternatives to the IEEE 802.11b Standard. Comparing Wireless Standards.

Network Protocols.

Choosing What You Need.
NIC. UTP Cable. Hub.

Other Home Networking Solutions.
HomePNA. Other Solutions. Home Networking Compared to Ethernet UTP Solutions.

Putting Your Network Together.
Installing a NIC. Testing Your Connections. Installing Networking Software. Configuring Users, Groups, and Resources.

Tips and Tricks.
Installation. Sharing Resources. Setting Up Security. Sharing Internet Connections.

Direct Cable Connections.
Null Modem Cables. Direct Connect Software. Wireless Direct Cable Connection. Direct Cable Connection (and Interlink) Tricks. Faster Direct Cable Connections.

Troubleshooting Network Software Setup. Troubleshooting Networks in Use. Troubleshooting TCP/IP. Troubleshooting Direct Cable Connections.

20. Audio Hardware.
Development of PC Audio Adapters.
The First De Facto Standard—Sound Blaster. Changing Standards in a World of Windows Gaming.

Current Uses for Audio Adapters.
Games. Multimedia.

Digitized Sound Files.
MP3s and Audio Compression. MIDI Files. Presentations. Recording. Voice Annotation. Voice Recognition. Conferencing. Proofreading. Audio CDs. Sound Mixer. Is an Audio Adapter Necessary?

Audio Adapter Concepts and Terms.
The Nature of Sound. Game Standards. Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Adapter. Sampling. 8-Bit Versus 16-Bit.

Audio Adapter Features.
Connectors. Connectors for Advanced Features. Volume Control. MIDI Support Features. Data Compression. Multipurpose Digital Signal Processors. CD-ROM Connectors. Sound Drivers.

Choosing an Audio Adapter.
Consumer or Producer? Compatibility. Bundled Software.

Audio Adapter Installation (Overview).
Installing the Sound Card (Detailed Procedure). Using Your Stereo Instead of Speakers.

Troubleshooting Sound Card Problems.
Hardware (Resource) Conflicts. Other Sound Card Problems.

Speakers. Microphones.

21. Power Supply and Chassis/Case.
Considering the Importance of the Power Supply. Power Supply Function and Operation.
Signal Functions.

Power Supply Form Factors.
PC/XT Style. AT/Desk Style. AT/Tower Style. Baby-AT Style. LPX Style. ATX Style. NLX Style. SFX Style (Micro-ATX Motherboards).

Power Supply Connectors.
ATX Auxiliary and Optional Power Connector. Power Switch Connectors. Disk Drive Power Connectors. Physical Connector Part Numbers. The Power_Good Signal.

Power Supply Loading. Power Supply Ratings. Power Supply Specifications. Power Supply Certifications. Power-Use Calculations. Power Off When Not in Use. Power Management.
Energy Star Systems. Advanced Power Management. Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI).

Power Supply Troubleshooting.
Overloaded Power Supplies. Inadequate Cooling. Using Digital Multi-Meters. Specialized Test Equipment.

Repairing the Power Supply. Obtaining Replacement Units.
Deciding on a Power Supply. Sources for Replacement Power Supplies.

Custom Cases. Using Power-Protection Systems.
Surge Suppressors (Protectors). Phone Line Surge Protectors. Line Conditioners. Backup Power.

RTC/NVRAM Batteries (CMOS Chips).

22. Printers and Scanners.
The Evolution of Printing and Scanning Technology. Printer Technology.
Print Resolution. Page Description Languages (PDL). Escape Codes. Host-Based/GDI. Printer Memory. Fonts. Printer Drivers.

How Printers Operate.
Laser Printers. LED Page Printers. Inkjet Printers. Portable Printers. Dot-Matrix Printers.

Color Printing.
Color Inkjet Printers. Color Laser Printers. Solid-Ink Printers. Dye-Sublimation Printers. Thermal Wax-Transfer Printers. Thermal-Fusion Printers.

Choosing a Printer Type.
SOHO Users. Network Users. Mobile Users.

Installing Printer Support.
DOS Drivers. Windows Drivers. Using the Printers Icon in the Control Panel. Printer Sharing via a Network. Print Sharing via Switchboxes. Other Options for Sharing Printers. Support for Other Operating Systems.

Preventative Maintenance.
Laser and Inkjet Printers. Dot-Matrix Printers. Choosing the Best Paper.

Common Printing Problems.
Printer Hardware Problems. Connection Problems. Driver Problems. Application Problems. Network Printing Problems.

Older Scanner Types. Flatbed Scanners. Interfacing the Flatbed Scanner. Other Types of Scanners. Getting the Most from Your Scanner's Hardware Configuration.

Scanner Troubleshooting.
Scanner Fails to Scan. Can't Detect Scanner (SCSI or Parallel). Can't Use “Acquire” from Software to Start Scanning. Graphic Looks Clear on Screen, but Prints Poorly. OCR Text Is Garbled.

23. Portable PCs.
Evolution of the Portable Computer. Portable System Designs. Form Factors.
Laptops. Notebooks. Subnotebooks. Palmtop (Handheld Mini-Notebooks).

Upgrading and Repairing Portables. Portable System Hardware.
Displays. Processors. Mobile Processor Packaging. Chipsets. Memory. Hard Disk Drives. Removable Media. PC Cards (PCMCIA). Keyboards. Pointing Devices. Batteries.

External Displays. Docking Stations. Connectivity.

The Traveler's Survival Kit. Portable Security.

24. Building or Upgrading Systems.
System Components. Case and Power Supply. Motherboard.
Processor. Chipsets. BIOS. Memory. I/O Ports.

Floppy Disk and Removable Drives. Hard Disk Drive. CD/DVD-ROM Drive.

Keyboard and Pointing Device (Mouse). Video Card and Display. Sound Card and Speakers. USB Peripherals. Accessories.
Heat Sinks/Cooling Fans. Cables. Hardware.

Hardware and Software Resources. System Assembly and Disassembly. Assembly Preparation.
ESD Protection. Recording Physical Configuration.

Motherboard Installation.
Prepare the New Motherboard. Install Memory Modules. Mount the New Motherboard in the Case. Connect the Power Supply. Connect I/O and Other Cables to the Motherboard. Install the Drives 1365. Install Bus Expansion Cards. Replace the Cover and Connect External Cables. Run the Motherboard BIOS Setup Program (CMOS Setup).

Troubleshooting New Installations. Installing the Operating System.
Partitioning the Drive. Format the Drive. Loading the CD-ROM Driver.

Disassembly/Upgrading Preparation.

25. PC Diagnostics, Testing, and Maintenance.
PC Diagnostics. Diagnostics Software.
The Power On Self Test (POST). Hardware Diagnostics. General-Purpose Diagnostics Programs. Operating System Diagnostics. DOS Versions and Utilities.

The Hardware Boot Process.
The Boot Process: Operating System Independent. The DOS Boot Process. The Windows 9x/Me Boot Process. Windows NT and Windows 2000 Startup.

PC Maintenance Tools.
Hand Tools. A Word About Hardware. Soldering and Desoldering Tools. Test Equipment. Special Tools for the Enthusiast.

Preventive Maintenance.
Active Preventive Maintenance Procedures. Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures.

Basic Troubleshooting Guidelines.
Problems During the POST. Hardware Problems After Booting. Problems Running Software. Problems with Adapter Cards.

26. File Systems and Data Recovery.
FAT Disk Structures.
Master Partition Boot Record. Primary and Extended FAT Partitions. Volume Boot Records. Root Directory. File Allocation Tables (FATs). Clusters (Allocation Units). The Data Area. Diagnostic Read-and-Write Cylinder.

VFAT and Long Filenames. FAT32.
FAT32 Cluster Sizes. FAT Mirroring. Creating FAT32 Partitions. Converting FAT16 to FAT32.

FAT File System Errors.
Lost Clusters. Cross-Linked Files. Invalid Files or Directories. FAT Errors.

FAT File System Utilities.
The CHKDSK Command. CHKDSK Operation. The RECOVER Command. SCANDISK. Disk Defragmentation. Third-Party Programs.

NTFS Architecture. NTFS 5.0. NTFS Compatibility. Creating NTFS Drives. NTFS Tools.

Common Drive Error Messages and Solutions.
Missing Operating System. NO ROM BASIC. SYSTEM HALTED. Boot Error Press F1 to Retry. Invalid Drive Specification. Invalid Media Type. Hard Disk Controller Failure.

General File System Troubleshooting.

List of Acronyms.


Submit Errata

More Information

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020