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Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 22nd Edition

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Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 22nd Edition

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  • Copyright 2016
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/8"
  • Edition: 22nd
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-405774-0
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-405774-3

DVD-ROM Includes 3 hours of new how-to video

For more than 25 years, Upgrading and Repairing PCs has been the world’s #1 guide to PC hardware: The single source for reliable information on how PCs work, troubleshooting and fixing problems, adding hardware, optimizing performance, and building new PCs. This 22nd edition offers beefed-up coverage of the newest hardware innovations and maintenance techniques, plus more than two hours of new video.

Scott Mueller delivers practical answers about PC processors, mother-boards, buses, BIOSes, memory, SSD and HDD storage, video, audio, networks, Internet connectivity, power, and much more. You’ll find the industry’s best coverage of diagnostics, testing, and repair—plus cutting-edge discussions of improving PC performance via overclocking and other techniques.

Mueller has taught thousands of professionals in person and millions more through his books and videos—nobody knows more about keeping PCs running perfectly. Whether you’re a professional technician, a small business owner trying to save money, or a home PC enthusiast, this is the only PC hardware book you need!


  • The newest processors, including Intel’s latest Core i Haswell processors and AMD’s Kaveri core processors.
  • Everything you need to know about the latest GPU technology from NVIDIA and AMD, including developments in OpenGL, DirectX, and Mantle.
  • New firmware innovations like the InSyde BIOS, Back to BIOS buttons, and all the updated settings available for the newest processors and chipsets.
  • The latest in updated home networking standards, from blazing fast 802.11ac Wi-Fi to HomeGrid and G.hn powerline networking.
  • Ever larger storage, thanks to new technologies like helium-filled hard disks, shingled magnetic recording, and Cfast and XQD for flash memory.
  • Emerging interfaces such as mSATA, USB 3.1, and M.2
  • Updated coverage of building PCs from scratch—from choosing and assembling hardware through BIOS setup and troubleshooting


Get 3 hours of up-to-the minute, studio-quality how-to videos—all playable on your DVD player or computer! In this edition, Scott Mueller delivers a complete seminar on PC troubleshooting, teaching you how to identify and resolve an array of common and not-so-common PC problems.

From detailed explanations on all the tools that should be a basic part of any PC toolkit, to all the critical rules you should follow to safely operate on your PC’s internal components, in these videos Scott Mueller ensures you are equipped with everything you need to know to successfully resolve your PC’s problems.

From there, Scott takes you through a complete disassembly of an All-in-One (AiO) system, showing just what you can do to keep these specialized systems running smoothly. Finally, there is a detailed look at today’s ultra-fast solid state disk drives (SSD) and the benefits they bring to modern systems.

This DVD also contains the complete 19th and 20th editions of this book in printable form, plus extensive technical reference material, a comprehensive glossary, and more!

“…continually revised and updated to reflect the ever-changing PC landscape. A resource from my PC repair days, Scott Mueller’s tome is one of the books that has stayed on my bookshelf
throughout the years.”

—Adam Overa, Managing Editor, Tom’s Hardware

Sample Content

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Chapter 1 Development of the PC 5

    Computer History: Before Personal Computers 5

        Timeline 5

        Electronic Computers 10

    Modern Computers 11

        From Tubes to Transistors 11

        Integrated Circuits 14

    History of the PC 15

        Birth of the Personal Computer 15

        The IBM Personal Computer 16

        The PC Industry 34 Years Later 17

Chapter 2 PC Components, Features, and System Design 21

    What Is a PC? 21

        Who Controls PC Software? 23

        Who Controls PC Hardware? 26

        White-Box Systems 28

    System Types 29

    System Components 30

Chapter 3 Processor Types and Specifications 33

    Microprocessor History 33

        The First Microprocessor 33

        PC Processor Evolution 36

        16-Bit to 64-Bit Architecture Evolution 39

    Processor Specifications 40

        Data I/O Bus 48

        Address Bus 48

        Internal Registers (Internal Data Bus) 49

        Processor Modes 49

        Processor Benchmarks 54

        Comparing Processor Performance 55

        Cache Memory 58

    Processor Features 65

        System Management Mode 65

        Superscalar Execution 66

        MMX Technology 67

        Dynamic Execution 69

        Dual Independent Bus Architecture 70

        HT Technology (Hyperthreading) 70

        Multicore Technology 72

        Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Support 73

    Processor Manufacturing 74

        PGA Chip Packaging 78

        Single Edge Contact and Single Edge Processor Packaging 80

    Processor Socket and Slot Types 81

        Socket LGA775 84

        Socket LGA1156 85

        Socket LGA1366 86

        Socket LGA1155 87

        Socket LGA2011 87

        Socket LGA1150 89

        Socket AM2/AM2+/AM3/AM3+ 89

        Socket F (1207FX) 91

        Socket FM1 92

        Socket FM2 92

        Socket FM2+ 92

        Socket AM1 (Socket FS1B) 92

    CPU Operating Voltages 93

    Math Coprocessors (Floating-Point Units) 94

    Processor Bugs and Steppings 94

    Processor Code Names 95

    P1 (086) Processors 95

    P2 (286) Processors 97

    P3 (386) Processors 98

    P4 (486) Processors 99

    P5 (586) Processors 100

        AMD-K5 102

    Intel P6 (686) Processors 103

        Pentium Pro Processors 103

        Pentium II Processors 104

        Pentium III 106

        Celeron 107

    Intel Pentium 4 and Extreme Edition Processors 108

        Intel Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition 110

    Intel Core Processors 112

        Intel Core 2 Family 112

        Intel (Nehalem) Core i Processors 116

    AMD K6 Processors 121

    AMD K7 Processors 122

        AMD Athlon 122

        AMD Duron 123

        AMD Athlon XP 124

        Athlon MP 124

    AMD K8 Processors 124

        AMD Athlon 64 and 64 FX 124

        AMD Sempron 128

        AMD Athlon X2, 64 X2, and 64 FX 128

    AMD K10 Processors (Phenom, Phenom II, Athlon II, Athlon X2, Sempron) 130

        AMD Bulldozer, Piledriver, Steamroller, and Excavator FX Processors 134

    AMD Fusion/HSA APUs 137

    Processor Upgrades  139

    Overclocking 142

        Quartz Crystals 142

        Modern PC Clocks 145

        Overclocking Tips 147

        Unlocking Cores 148

        Bus Speeds and Multipliers 149

    Processor Cooling 152

        Heatsinks 152

        Liquid Cooling 158

        Thermally Advantaged Chassis 159

    Processor Troubleshooting Techniques 161

Chapter 4 Motherboards and Buses 165

    Motherboard Form Factors 165

        Obsolete Form Factors 166

        ATX and Other Modern Form Factors 177

    Processor Sockets/Slots 189

    Chipsets 192

        Chipset Evolution 193

        Intel Chipsets 195

        Intel Chipset Model Numbers 195

        Intel Integrated Graphics Architecture 197

        AMD Integrated Graphics Architecture 197

        Traditional North/southbridge Architecture 197

        Hub Architecture 199

        HyperTransport and Other Processor/Chipset Interconnects 201

    Intel’s Early 386/486 Chipsets 201

    Fifth-Generation (P5 Pentium Class) Chipsets 202

    Sixth-Generation (P6 Pentium Pro/II/III Class) Chipsets 203

    Seventh/Eighth-Generation (Pentium 4/D, Core2, and Core i) Chipsets 207

        Intel 915 Family 215

        Intel 925X Family 215

        Intel 945 Express Family 216

        Intel 955X and 975X Family 217

        Intel 96x Series 217

        Intel 3x and 4x Series Chipsets 218

        Intel 5x Series Chipsets 220

        Intel 6x Series Chipsets 224

        Intel 7x Series Chipsets 225

        Intel 8x Series Chipsets 227

        Intel 9x Series Chipsets 229

    Third-Party Chipsets for Intel Processors 231

        SiS Chipsets 231

        ULi Electronics Chipsets 231

        ATI Chipsets 231

        VIA Chipsets 232

        NVIDIA Chipsets for Intel Processors 232

    Chipsets for AMD Processors 232

    AMD Athlon Chipsets 233

    AMD Athlon 64 Chipsets 234

        AMD 8000 (8151) Chipset 234

        AMD (Formerly ATI) Chipsets for Athlon 64, Sempron, Phenom 235

        Third-Party Chipsets for AMD Processors 242

        VIA Chipsets 242

        SiS Chipsets 242

        NVIDIA Chipsets 243

    Super I/O Chips 244

    Motherboard Connectors 244

    System Bus Types, Functions, and Features 255

        The Processor Bus (FSB) 261

    Types of I/O Buses 262

        The ISA Bus 262

        The Micro Channel Bus 262

        The EISA Bus 263

        Local Buses (VESA, PCI, PCI Express, AGP) 263

    System Resources 270

        Interrupts 271

        DMA Channels 276

        I/O Port Addresses 276

    Motherboard Selection Criteria (Knowing What to Look For) 278

        Chipset Documentation 279

Chapter 5 BIOS 281

    BIOS Basics 281

    Motherboard ROM BIOS 285

        ROM Hardware 285

        ROM Shadowing 287

        ROM Chip Types 287

        ROM BIOS Manufacturers 291

        BIOS Hardware/Software 292

    Upgrading the BIOS 292

        Where to Get Your BIOS Update 293

        Determining Your BIOS Version 293

        Backing Up Your BIOS 293

        Backing Up Your BIOS Setup (CMOS RAM) Settings 294

        Upgrading a Flash BIOS 295

        Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses 303

    Preboot Environment 305

    Unified Extensible Firmware Interface 307

        UEFI and BIOS Limitations 307

        UEFI Support 309

    BIOS Setup 309

        Running or Accessing the BIOS Setup Program 310

        BIOS Setup Menus 310

        Maintenance Menu 311

        Main Menu 313

        Exit Menu 345

        AMD-Specific BIOS Settings 346

    PnP BIOS 347

        PnP Device IDs 347

        ACPI 347

    BIOS/MBR Error Messages 348

        BIOS Boot Error Messages 349

        MBR Boot Error Messages 352

Chapter 6 Memory 355

    Memory Basics 355

        ROM 357

        DRAM 357

        Cache Memory: SRAM 359

    Memory Standards 361

    Speed and Performance 362

        Fast Page Mode DRAM 365

        Extended Data Out RAM 366

        SDRAM 367

        DDR SDRAM 368

        DDR2 SDRAM 370

        DDR3 SDRAM 372

        DDR4 SDRAM 374

        RDRAM 375

    Memory Modules 375

        Registered Modules 382

        SDR DIMM Details 383

        DDR DIMM Details 384

        DDR2 DIMM Details 384

        DDR3 DIMM Details 384

        DDR4 DIMM Details 384

    Determining a Memory Module’s Size and Features 385

    Memory Banks 387

    Memory Module Speed 388

    Parity and ECC 388

        Parity Checking 390

        How Parity Checking Works 391

        ECC 391

    RAM Upgrades 392

        Upgrade Options and Strategies 393

        Purchasing Memory 395

        Replacing Modules with Higher-Capacity Versions 397

        Installing Memory Modules 397

    Troubleshooting Memory 399

    Memory Defect Isolation Procedures 403

    The System Logical Memory Layout 405

Chapter 7 The ATA/IDE Interface 409

    An Overview of the IDE Interface 409

        Precursors to IDE 409

        IDE Origins 410

        Origins of ATA 411

    ATA Standards 412

        ATA-1 (ATA Interface for Disk Drives) 414

        ATA-2 (ATA Interface with Extensions-2) 415

        ATA-3 (ATA Interface-3) 415

        ATA/ATAPI-4 (ATA with Packet Interface Extension-4) 416

        ATA/ATAPI-5 (ATA with Packet Interface-5) 417

        ATA/ATAPI-6 (ATA with Packet Interface-6) 417

        ATA/ATAPI-7 (ATA with Packet Interface-7) 418

        ATA/ATAPI-8 419

    PATA 419

        PATA I/O Connector 419

        PATA I/O Cable 423

        Longer or Rounded Cables 425

        PATA Signals 425

        PATA Dual-Drive Configurations 426

        PATA PIO Transfer Modes 429

        PATA DMA Transfer Modes 429

    SATA 431

        SATA Standards and Performance 431

        SATA Express 432

        SATA Cables and Connectors 434

        eSATA 439

        SATA Configuration 443

        Advanced Host Controller Interface 444

        Non-Volatile Memory Express 445

        SATA Transfer Modes 445

    ATA Features 446

        ATA Commands 446

        ATA Security Mode 447

        Host Protected Area 448

        ATAPI 449

    ATA Drive Capacity Limitations 450

        Prefixes for Decimal and Binary Multiples 451

        BIOS Limitations 451

        CHS Versus LBA 452

        CHS/LBA and LBA/CHS Conversions 453

        BIOS Commands Versus ATA Commands 454

        CHS Limitations (the 528MB Barrier) 455

        CHS Translation (Breaking the 528MB Barrier) 457

        The 2.1GB and 4.2GB Barriers 459

        LBA-Assist Translation 462

        The 8.4GB Barrier 465

        The 137GB Barrier and Beyond 466

        Operating System and Other Software Limitations 468

    GPT and the 2.2TB Barrier 470


        Software RAID 474

Chapter 8 Magnetic Storage 475

    Magnetic Storage 475

    History of Magnetic Storage 475

    How Magnetic Fields Are Used to Store Data 476

    Read/Write Head Designs 479

        Ferrite 480

        Metal-In-Gap 480

        Thin-Film 480

        Magneto-Resistive Heads 481

        Giant Magneto-Resistive Heads 482

    Head Sliders 483

    Data-Encoding Schemes 486

        Frequency Modulation Encoding 487

        Modified FM Encoding 487

        Run Length Limited Encoding 488

        Encoding Scheme Comparisons 489

        Partial-Response, Maximum-Likelihood Decoders 490

    Capacity Measurements 491

    Areal Density 492

        Perpendicular Magnetic Recording 495

        Helium-Filled Drives 497

        Shingled Magnetic Recording 497

    Definition of a Hard Disk 498

    Hard Drive Advancements 499

    Form Factors 500

        5 1/4-Inch Drive 502

        3 1/2-Inch Drive 502

        2 1/2-Inch Drive 502

        1.8-Inch Drive 503

        1-Inch Drives 503

    HDD Operation 503

        Data Recovery Options 505

        The Ultimate HDD Analogy 506

        Tracks and Sectors 507

        ECC 510

        Disk Formatting 515

    Basic HDD Components 521

        Hard Disk Platters (Disks) 522

        Recording Media 522

        Read/Write Heads 524

        Head Actuator Mechanisms 526

        Air Filters 532

        Hard Disk Temperature Acclimation 534

        Spindle Motors 534

        Logic Boards 535

        Cables and Connectors 536

        Configuration Items 536

    Hard Disk Features 536

        Capacity 537

        Performance 538

        Reliability 543

Chapter 9 Flash and Removable Storage 547

    Alternative Storage Devices 547

    Flash Memory Devices 547

        CompactFlash, XQD, and CFast 549

        SmartMedia 551

        MultiMediaCard 551

        SecureDigital 552

        Sony Memory Stick 552

        ATA Flash PC Card 553

        Card-Picture Card 553

    Solid-State Drives 553

        Virtual SSD (RAMdisk) 554

        Flash-Based SSDs 554

    USB Flash Drives 558

        Comparing Flash Memory Devices 559

        SD Cards Speed Class and UHS Speed Class Markings 561

        File Systems Used by Flash Memory 563

        Flash Card Readers 563

        Card Readers 563

        ReadyBoost Support 564

    Cloud-Based Storage 565

    Floppy Disk Drives 566

    Tape Drives 567

Chapter 10 Optical Storage 569

    Optical Technology 569

    CD-Based Optical Technology 570

        CDs: A Brief History 570

        CD Construction and Technology 571

        Mass-Producing CDs 571

        Writable CDs 583

        MultiRead Specifications 590

        MultiPlay and MultiAudio 592

    DVD 592

        DVD History 593

        DVD Construction and Technology 593

        DVD Tracks and Sectors 595

        Handling DVD Errors 599

        DVD Capacity (Sides and Layers) 601

        Data Encoding on the DVD Disc 604

        Recordable DVD Standards 604

        Multiformat Rewritable DVD Drives 612

    BD 613

    HD-DVD 616

    Optical Disc Formats 616

        CD Formats 616

        DVD Formats and Standards 625

        Optical Disc File Systems 628

    Ripping/Copying Discs 634

        ”For Music Use Only” CD-R/RW Discs 635

        CD Copy Protection 635

        CD Digital Rights Management 636

        DVD and Blu-ray Copy Protection 636

    Optical Drive Performance Specifications 640

        CD Data Transfer Rate 640

        CD Drive Speed 640

        DVD Drive Speed 641

        BD Drive Speed 644

        Access Time 645

        Buffer/Cache 646

        Direct Memory Access and Ultra-DMA 646

        Interface 646

        Loading Mechanism 647

        Other Drive Features 648

    How to Reliably Record Optical Discs 648

        Bootable Optical Discs—El Torito 649

        LightScribe and LabelFlash 649

    Troubleshooting Optical Drives 649

        Caring for Optical Media 653

        Updating the Firmware in an Optical Drive 654

Chapter 11 Video Hardware 657

    Display Adapters and Monitors 657

    Video Display Adapters 658

        Video Adapter Types 658

        Integrated Video/Motherboard Chipsets 659

        CPUs with Integrated Video 663

        Intel Processors with Integrated Graphics 664

        AMD Desktop APUs 667

        Video Adapter Components 671

        Identifying the Video and System Chipsets 673

        Video RAM 674

        The DAC 678

    Video Display Interfaces 678

        The System Interface 678

        The Display Interface 679

        TV Display Interfaces 695

    3D Graphics Accelerators 696

        How 3D Accelerators Work 697

        APIs 700

        Dual-GPU Scene Rendering 704

    Monitors 707

        Display Specifications 707

        LCD and LED Technology 716

        Touchscreens 719

        Plasma Display Technology 720

        LCD and DLP Projectors 721

    Using Multiple Monitors 722

        Dualview 722

        Homogeneous Adapters 723

        Heterogeneous Adapters 723

    Choosing the Best Display Hardware for a Particular Task 723

    Video Troubleshooting and Maintenance 724

        Troubleshooting Video Cards and Drivers 725

        Video Drivers 727

        Maintaining Monitors 728

        Testing Monitors 728

        Adjusting Monitors 729

        Bad Pixels 730

        Troubleshooting Monitors 730

        Repairing Monitors 731

Chapter 12 Audio Hardware 733

    Audio Hardware Concepts and Terms 734

        The Nature of Sound 734

        Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Hardware 734

        Sampling 735

    Early PC Sound Cards 736

        Limitations of Sound Blaster Pro Compatibility 736

        Microsoft Windows and Audio Support 736

        DirectX and Audio Support Hardware 737

        Core Audio APIs for Windows 737

        3D Gaming Audio Standards 738

        Legacy Audio Support Through Virtualization 740

    Audio Hardware Features 740

        Basic Connectors 740

        Audio Signal Processing Methods 743

        Advanced Audio Features 743

        Volume Control 745

        MIDI Support Features 745

        Data Compression 746

        Sound Drivers 747

        Sound Cards for Sound Producers 748

    Motherboard Chipsets with Integrated Audio 748

        Intel “Azalia” HD Audio 749

    Troubleshooting PC Audio Problems 749

        Sound Card and Onboard Audio Problems 749

    Speakers 753

        Speaker Selection Criteria 753

        Theater and Surround Sound Considerations 754

    Microphones 755

Chapter 13 External I/O Interfaces 757

    Introduction to Input/Output Ports 757

        Serial Versus Parallel 757

        Universal Serial Bus 758

        IEEE 1394 (FireWire or i.LINK) 775

        Hot-Plugging (and Unplugging) 779

    Thunderbolt Technology 782

    Low-Speed External Connections 784

        Serial Ports 784

        Parallel Ports 789

Chapter 14 Input Devices 795

    Keyboards 795

        Enhanced 101-Key Keyboard 795

        103/104-Key Windows Keyboard 796

    Keyboard Technology 798

        Keyswitch Design 798

        The Keyboard Interface 804

        Typematic Functions 805

        Keyboard Scan Codes 806

        International Keyboard Layouts 807

        Keyboard/Mouse Interface Connectors 808

        USB Keyboards 810

        Keyboards with Special Features 811

    Keyboard Troubleshooting and Repair 811

        Cleaning a Keyboard 812

    Keyboard Recommendations 813

    Pointing Devices 814

        Mouse Sensitivity 815

        Ball-Type Mice 815

        Optical Mice 815

        Pointing Device Interface Types 817

        Scroll Wheels 819

        Mouse Troubleshooting 821

        Cleaning Your Mouse 821

        Alternative Pointing Devices 821

    Touchscreen Technology 826

    Wireless Input Devices 827

        Power Management Features of Wireless Input Devices 828

        Supporting Multiple Devices with a Single Transceiver 829

        Troubleshooting Wireless Input Devices 829

Chapter 15 Internet Connectivity 831

    Internet Connectivity Trends 831

    Broadband Internet Access Types 832

        Cable Internet 832

        Digital Subscriber Line 836

        Wireless Broadband 840

        Cellular Broadband 3G and 4G Services 840

        Satellite Broadband 841

        ISDN 844

        Leased Lines 845

        Comparing High-Speed Internet Access 846

    Dial-Up Modems 847

    Internet Connection Security 848

        Having a Backup Plan in Case of Service Interruptions 849

        Sharing Your Internet Connection 850

        Routers for Internet Sharing 850

        Modem/Router Status LEDs 851

Chapter 16 Local Area Networking 853

    Defining a Network 853

        Types of Networks 854

        Requirements for a Network 855

    Client/Server Versus Peer Networks 855

        Client/Server Networks 856

        Peer-to-Peer Networks 857

        Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks 857

    Network Architecture Overview 858

        Wired Ethernet 860

        Wireless Ethernet 862

        Bluetooth 868

    Hardware Elements of Your Network 869

        NICs for Wired Ethernet Networks 869

        Network Cables for Wired Ethernet 871

        Wired Network Topologies 880

        Switches for Ethernet Networks 883

        Wireless Ethernet Hardware 887

    Network Protocols 892

        IP and TCP/IP 892

        IPX and NetBEUI 893

    Other Home Networking Solutions 894

        HomePNA 894

        HomeGrid Forum and G.hn Networking 895

        Power Line Networking 895

    Putting Your Network Together 897

        Network Adapters 898

        Cables and Connections Between Computers 899

        Switch/Access Point 899

Chapter 17 Power Supplies 903

    The Power Supply 903

    Primary Function and Operation 903

        Voltage Rails 904

        The Power Good Signal 906

    Power Supply Form Factors 907

        Modern Form Factors 910

    Power Switches 925

        ATX and Newer 925

        PC/XT/AT and LPX Power Switches 927

    Motherboard Power Connectors 928

        AT/LPX Power Supply Connectors 929

        ATX and ATX12V Motherboard Power Connectors 931

        Backward and Forward Compatibility 944

        Dell Proprietary (Nonstandard) ATX Design 946

    Additional Power Connectors 946

        Peripheral Power Connectors 946

        Floppy (Berg) Power Connectors 947

        Serial ATA Power Connectors 948

        PCI Express Auxiliary Graphics Power Connectors 949

    Power Supply Specifications 953

        Power Supply Loading 953

        Power Supply Ratings 955

        Other Power Supply Specifications 956

        Power Factor Correction 958

        SLI-Ready and CrossFire/CrossFireX Certifications 960

        Safety Certifications 960

    Power-Use Calculations 961

    Power Savings 963

        80 Plus 963

        ENERGY STAR 965

        Advanced Configuration and Power Interface 966

    Power Cycling 968

    Power Supply Troubleshooting 972

        Overloaded Power Supplies 973

        Inadequate Cooling 973

        Using Digital Multimeters 974

        Specialized Test Equipment 977

    Power Supply Recommendations 980

        Modular Cables 981

        Sources for Replacement Power Supplies 982

    Power-Protection Systems 982

        Surge Suppressors (Protectors) 984

        Network and Phone Line Surge Protectors 984

        Line Conditioners 985

        Backup Power 985

    Real-Time Clock/Nonvolatile RAM (CMOS RAM) Batteries 988

        Modern CMOS Batteries 989

        Obsolete or Unique CMOS Batteries 990

        CMOS Battery Troubleshooting 991

Chapter 18 Building or Upgrading Systems 993

    System Components 993

        Before You Start: How to Decide What to Build 995

        Case and Power Supply 997

        Processor 998

        Motherboard 999

        Memory 1001

        I/O Ports 1001

        Hard Disk/Solid-State Drives 1003

        Removable Storage 1003

        Input Devices 1004

        Video Card and Display 1004

        Audio Hardware 1005

        Accessories 1005

    Hardware and Software Resources 1006

    System Assembly and Disassembly 1007

        Assembly Preparation 1007

        Installing the CPU and Heatsink 1011

        Installing Memory Modules 1017

        Mounting the New Motherboard in the Case 1018

        Preparing a Modular Power Supply 1023

        Connecting the Power Supply 1023

        Connecting I/O and Other Cables to the Motherboard 1026

        Installing the Drives 1027

        Installing a Video Card 1031

        Installing Additional Expansion Cards 1033

        Replacing the Cover and Connecting External Cables 1033

    System Startup 1033

    Installing the OS 1035

    Troubleshooting New Installations 1037

Chapter 19     PC Diagnostics, Testing, and Maintenance 1039

    PC Diagnostics 1039

    Diagnostics Software 1039

        The POST 1040

        Insyde BIOS Diagnostic and Beep Codes 1053

        Peripheral Diagnostics 1053

        Operating System Diagnostics 1053

        Commercial Diagnostics Software 1054

        Free/User-Supported Diagnostics 1055

    The Boot Process 1055

        The Hardware Boot Process: Operating System Independent 1056

        The DOS Boot Process 1061

        The Windows 9x/Me Boot Process 1061

        Windows 2000/XP Startup 1061

        Windows Vista/7 Startup 1062

        Windows 8.1/10 Startup 1063

    PC Maintenance Tools 1063

        Hand Tools 1064

        Safety 1068

        Test Equipment 1069

        Special Tools for the Enthusiast 1074

    Preventive Maintenance 1075

        Active Preventive Maintenance Procedures 1076

        Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures 1081

    Troubleshooting Tips and Techniques 1085

        Repair or Replace? 1086

        Basic Troubleshooting Steps 1086

        Troubleshooting by Replacing Parts 1087

        Troubleshooting by the Bootstrap Approach 1087

        Problems During the POST 1089

        Problems Running Software 1089

        Problems with Adapter Cards 1089

        Top Troubleshooting Problems 1090

9780789756107, TOC, 6/8/2015


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Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


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Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020