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Telecommunications Essentials: The Complete Global Source for Communications Fundamentals, Data Networking and the Internet, and Next-Generation Networks

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Telecommunications Essentials: The Complete Global Source for Communications Fundamentals, Data Networking and the Internet, and Next-Generation Networks


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  • Copyright 2002
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/4"
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-76032-0
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-76032-3

Praise for Telecommunications Essentials

“In Telecommunications Essentials, Goleniewski guides us through the ever-changing world of telecommunications with much sense and a great deal of style. Her wide ranging and in-depth study into this complex field is superbly researched and written. Its emphasis on learning and technology is thought-provoking and never fails to be relevant to the field today. It is essential reading.”

Chris Barclay, Director, Strategy & Planning, Retail, Telstra

“Lillian Goleniewski has a gift in presenting the complexity of telecommunications to her audiences. The careers of countless people in Australia have benefited from their contact with her. Her material is now captured in this book, which should rightfully grace any self-respecting technical collection.”

Dr. Bob Horton, Deputy Chairman, Australian Communications Authority

“If you need one good reference book on telecom, this is it. It’s comprehensive, easy to understand, and up-to-date on latest technology—definitely a must-have for both beginners and professionals.”

To Chee Eng, Principal Anaylst, Telecoms and Internet, Gartner Group

“Lili Goleniewski is a gifted communicator and educator who combines clear explanation of complex technologies with a firm grasp of the dynamic commercial environment in which those technologies are being deployed. The author’s extensive international experience in communicating to an audience drawn from diverse cultures and differing levels of familiarity with technical concepts and the English language enables her to enliven subject matter that otherwise can be dauntingly unapproachable. I commend this book to anyone seeking to develop their understanding of developing communications technologies, regardless of their technical background.”

Peter Leonard, Managing Partner, Technology and Communications, Gilbert & Tobin Lawyers

Telecommunications Essentials provides a thorough overview of all aspects of the telecommunications network. Whether you are new to telecom or have years of experience, this well-organized and detailed reference will help you learn what you need to know or remember what you have forgotten.”

David West, Vice President, Equinox Information Systems

“Here is a book that demystifies a technical world. Lili applies a matter-of-fact style and laces this with humor and the occasional wonder to weave all the complex building blocks of the telecommunications industry into a readable book. The book will be a permanent fixture on my ‘go to find an answer’ reference list.”

Kiron Chatterjee, Koshen Holdings and Former CEO of Asia Online

Telecommunication Essentials is an excellent high-level view of telecom. It provides interesting examples of actual and potential applications in telecom. This is an extraordinarily useful and timely book.”

Natasha K. Zaslove, Lawyer

“Reviewing Lili’s book was a joy. Telecommunications Essentials approaches the subject unlike typical academic or reference texts—instead, it tells stories, effectively and engagingly explaining the new culture evolving around telecommunications, with just the right amount of relevant technical details. Telecommunications Essentials traces the evolution of public networks from simple voice conduits to the life-changing multiservice information universe of the near future, intriguingly and provocatively predicting how we, as humans, might radically change our interactions—with each other and with machines—as a result. I recommend Lili’s book to anyone seeking an informative, enjoyable ride through today's telecommunications landscape.”

Steven Riley, Microsoft Telecommunications Consulting

Telecommunications Essentials is an in-depth introduction to the rapidly growing world of telecommunications. The book provides a global perspective, which ensures a complete understanding of telecommunications technologies and standards worldwide. Providing a comprehensive, one-stop reference for anybody wanting to get up to speed on the $2.5 trillion telecommunications industry, this book not only covers the basic building blocks but also introduces the most current information on new technologies like wireless, broadband, and optical networking.

Topics include:
  • Technology Basics
  • PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Networks)
  • Switching and Routing
  • Data Communications
  • Frame Relay, ATM
  • Internet Infrastructure
  • VPNs, VoIP, Streaming Media
  • Broadband Architectures
  • Security
  • Optical Networking
  • Cable
  • Wireless
  • Fiber
  • xDSLs
  • The broadband home

    Goleniewski's clear approach to current and emerging technologies - starting with important terms and definitions, and moving to systems, networks, and the latest applications, products, and services - is based on the very successful worldwide LIDO Telecommunications Essentials seminar and e-Learning series. This approach makes Telecommunications Essentials a must-have resource for any reader, whether new to the field of telecommunications or a seasoned professional.

    And as an added bonus, Telecommunications Essentials is augmented by a dynamic online telecom learning center, www.telecomessentials.com/learningcenter, designed to enhance and further your learning experience. The Telecom Essentials Learning Center includes access to:

  • Self-tests and quizzes to put your new found knowledge to the test.
  • Discussion forums for student interactions and Q&A.
  • Recommended books and magazines that will allow you to build your telecommunications knowledge.
  • Recommended websites, selected according to their relevance to the topics in each chapter.

    The LIDO Organization, Inc.'s Telecommunications Essentials educational products are further supported by a unique telecommunications knowledge portal, LIDO Telecom WebCentral, www.telecomwebcentral.com. This portal brings you access to:

  • More than 6,000 learning resources and video tutorials featured on the site.
  • Brand new information on financial and legal news.
  • Up-to-the-moment information on the latest applications.
  • Connections to telecom career groups and newsgroups.

  • Extras

    Related Article

    Telecommunications: In War and Peace

    Web Resources

    Click below for Web Resources related to this title:
    Supporting Web Page

    Sample Content

    Online Sample Chapters

    Telecommunications Technology Fundamentals

    Understanding the Telecommunications Revolution

    Table of Contents


    About the Author.



    1. Understanding the Telecommunications Revolution.

    Changes in Telecommunications.

    Incorporating Human Senses in Telecommunications.

    The Emergence of Wearables.

    Moving Toward Pervasive Computing.

    Moving Toward Machine-to-Machine Communications.

    Adapting to New Traffic Patterns.

    Handling New Types of Applications.

    Increasing Backbone Bandwidth.

    Responding to Political and Regulatory Forces.

    The New Public Network.


    2. Telecommunications Technology Fundamentals.

    Transmission Lines.



    Lines and Trunks.

    Virtual Circuits.

    Types of Network Connections.

    The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Bandwidth.

    The Electromagnetic Spectrum.


    Analog and Digital Transmission.

    Analog Transmission.

    Digital Transmission.

    Analog Versus Digital Transmission.

    Conversion: Codecs and Modems.





    Intelligent Multiplexing.

    Inverse Multiplexing.


    Standards Organizations.

    3. Transmission Media: Characteristics and Applications.


    Categories of Twisted-pair.

    Applications of Twisted-pair.

    Analog and Digital Twisted-pair.

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Twisted-pair.

    Coaxial Cable.

    Characteristics of Coaxial.

    Applications of Coaxial.

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Coaxial.


    Characteristics of Microwave.

    Applications of Microwave.

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Microwave.

    Emerging Applications and Developments in Microwave.


    Frequency Allocations of Satellite.

    Satellite Network Segments.

    Satellite Orbits.

    Applications of Satellite.

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Satellite.

    Emerging Applications and Innovations in Satellite.

    Fiber Optics.

    Characteristics of Fiber Optics.

    Components of Fiber Optics.

    How Fiber-Optic Transmission Works.

    Innovations in Fiber Optics: EDFAs, WDM, and DWDM.

    Applications of Fiber Optics.

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Fiber Optics.

    Wiring for Tomorrow: Undersea Fiber Cables.

    4. Establishing Communications Channels.

    Establishing Connections: Switching Modes and Networking Modes.

    Networking Modes.

    Switching Modes.

    The PSTN Versus the Internet.

    PSTN Characteristics.

    Internet Characteristics.

    Converging Networks: The Next Generation.

    5. The PSTN.

    The PSTN Infrastructure.

    Service Providers.

    Network Access.

    Access Services.

    Transport Services.

    PSTN Architecture.

    The Transport Network Infrastructure.

    The PDH Infrastructure.

    The SDH/SONET Infrastructure.

    Signaling Systems.

    SS7 Architecture.

    SS7 and the Internet.

    Intelligent Networks.


    Next-Generation Networks.


    6. Data Communications Basics.

    The Evolution of Data Communication.

    Data Communication Architectures.

    Data Communication Traffic.

    Data Flow.

    The DTE, the DCE, the Transmission Channel, and the Physical Interface.

    Modems and Modulation.

    Simplex, Half-Duplex, and Full-Duplex Data Transmission.

    Coding Schemes: ASCII, EBCDIC, Unicode, and Beyond.

    Transmission Modes: Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission.

    Error Control.

    The OSI Reference Model and Protocols.

    The OSI Reference Model.

    Protocols and Protocol Stacks.

    7. Wide Area Networking.

    Circuit-Switched Networks.

    Leased Lines.


    Packet-Switched Networks.


    Frame Relay.


    8. Local Area Networking.

    LAN Basics.

    LAN Concepts and Benefits.

    LAN Components.

    LAN Characteristics.

    LAN Transmission Media.

    LAN Transport Techniques.

    LAN Access Methods.

    LAN Topologies.

    LAN Interconnection and Internetworking.


    LAN Switches.




    IP Switches.

    Enterprise Network Trends.

    9. The Internet: Infrastructure and Service Providers.

    Internet Basics.

    A Brief History of the Internet.

    What the Internet Is and How It Works.

    Internet Protocols.

    Internet Addressing.

    The Domain Name System.

    The Organization of the Internet.

    The Evolution of the POP Architecture.

    Internet Challenges and Changes.

    Service Providers.

    Evaluating Service Providers.

    The Service Provider Value Chain.

    Internet Interconnection and Exchange.


    Peering Agreements.

    Private NAPs.


    10. Next-Generation Networks.

    The Broadband Evolution.

    Communications Traffic Trends.

    Communications Backbone Trends.

    Communications Bandwidth Trends.

    Communications Application Trends.

    Multimedia Networking Requirements.

    Digital Video.

    Television Standards.

    The Broadband Infrastructure.

    Converging Public Infrastructures.

    Broadband Service Requirements.

    Characteristics of Next-Generation Networks.

    IP and ATM.

    The Broadband Architecture: Multiservice Networks.

    The Three-Tiered Architecture.

    The Next-Generation Switching Architecture.


    11. Next-Generation Network Services.

    Traditional Internet Applications.


    VPN Frameworks.

    VPN Applications.

    VPN Gateway Functions.

    Benefits and Evolution of VPNs.





    Digital Certificates.


    VoIP Trends and Economics.

    Advantages of VoIP.

    VoIP Applications.

    VoIP Service Categories.

    VoIP Network Elements.

    Next-Generation Standards and Interoperability.

    IP PBXs.

    The Future of VoIP.

    Multimedia on the Internet: Streaming Media.

    Streaming Media Trends.

    Streaming Media Applications.

    Streaming Media on the Internet.

    12. Optical Networking.

    Optical Networking Drivers.

    Components of an End-to-End Optical Network.


    WDM and DWDM.

    Optical OADMs.

    Optical Switches.

    Other Optical Components.

    IP over Optical Standards.

    Managing Optical Networks.

    13. Broadband Access Solutions.









    HFC 401

    HFC Architectures 402

    Cable Modems.

    Digital Cable TV Devices.





    Wireless Broadband Access Media.




    Free Space Optics.

    Unlicensed Bands.

    Emerging Media.




    14. Wireless Communications.

    Spectrum Reuse.

    Space Division.

    Multiple Access Techniques.

    Spread Spectrum Techniques.

    Duplexing Techniques.

    Compression Techniques.

    Wireless WANs: Cellular Radio and PCS Networks.

    Analog Cellular Networks.

    Digital Cellular Networks.

    Wireless Data Networks.

    Cellular and PCS Standards.

    3G Mobile Systems and Beyond.

    Mobile Internet.

    Wireless MANs.

    Wireless Local Loop Applications.

    Wireless Local Loop Options.

    Wireless LANs.

    Wireless PANs.




    15. The Broadband Home and HANs.

    The Broadband Home.

    The Smart House.

    Intelligent Appliances.


    The HAN Market, Applications, and Elements.

    Types of HANs.

    HAN Gateways and Servers.

    Planning for the Future.

    Index. 0201760320T04092002


    I love telecommunications. It is powerful, and it empowers, with far reaching consequences. It has demonstrated the potential to transform society and business, and the revolution has only just begun. With the invention of the telephone, human communications and commerce were forever changed: Time and distance began to melt away as a barrier to doing business, keeping in touch with loved ones, and being able to immediately respond to major world events. Through the use of computers and telecommunications networks, humans have been able to extend their powers of thinking, influence, and productivity, just as those in the Industrial Age were able to extend the power of their muscles, or physical self, through the use of heavy machinery. Today, new inventions and developments once again are poising telecommunications as a force to be reckoned with, forever changing human communications and commerce, and introducing machines as members of the networked society. This is an exciting era, in which we face a host of new telecommunications technologies and applications that bring breathtaking new opportunities, particularly in the industries of entertainment, education, health care, government, advertising, lifestyle, and, sadly, warfare.

    I have a favorite quote, from Eric Hoffer's Vanguard Management: "In a time of drastic change, it is the learners who inherit the future. The learned find themselves equipped to live in a world that no longer exists." The fact that you are reading this shows that you are aware of the monumental changes taking place in telecommunications infrastructures and usage, and are eager to learn what those are--as well you should be! This book is designed to provide a thorough foundation for understanding a wide range of telecommunications principles and technologies.

    If you are new to the communications and information industry or simply want an understandable, yet comprehensive overview of telecommunications, this book is for you. Telecommunications Essentials will equip you with a blueprint on which you can build. The telecommunications landscape is vast, and for a newcomer, it is treacherous terrain to navigate. This book provides you with a logical progression in gluing together all the pieces of the telecommunications puzzle. This book will help you to master the basic building blocks of key technologies, from the principles of telecommunications transmission and networking to the current and evolving nature of the Internet, broadband architecture, and optical networking, addressing both wired and wireless alternatives.

    What This Book Covers

    This book provides a concentrated, high-level overview of the terminology and issues that comprise telecommunications, and it discusses the major telecommunications infrastructures, including the PSTN, the Internet, cable TV, and wireless.

    The book is divided into three parts. Part I: Telecommunications Fundamentals explains the basics, the arts and sciences of telecommunications. It begins by explaining the factors that are contributing to the telecommunications revolution and talks about some of the exciting new technologies that are on the horizon. Part I gives you a good grounding in the basics of telecommunications technology and terminology, covering communications fundamentals, and including the characteristics and uses of the various transmission media. Part I also discusses the processes involved in establishing communications channels, examining the differences between circuit-switched and packet-switched networks, and it explores the nature of the PSTN.

    Part II: Data Networking and the Internet introduces the basics of data communications and networking. It discusses today's wide-area and local-area networking alternatives, as well as how the public Internet is structured. It also explores next-generation network services, such as VPNs, Voice over IP, and streaming media.

    Part III: Next-Generation Networks explores the realm of broadband networking and emerging technologies, including the near and distant future of communications and its convergence with related infotech industries. Part III covers next-generation network architectures, optical networking, broadband access alternatives, home area networking, and the realm of wireless communications.

    In almost every aspect of life, it is important to put and keep things in context. A good idea in one situation might be a terrible idea in another situation. This is often the case with telecommunications; there is no one-size-fits-all be-all and end-all telecommunications solution. In assessing telecommunications needs, it is important to think about the prevailing conditions, so that you can choose the best transmission media, the best network architecture, and so on for the situation. It's also important to remember that prevailing conditions change. So, what's right for you today may change six months down the road. As you plan a telecommunications strategy, it is important to look as far into the future as you can, to make your network as adaptable to future innovations as possible.

    Online Tools That Supplement the Book

    As the founder and president of the LIDO Organization (www.telecomessentials.com), I have been involved in providing educational and advisory services to developers, suppliers, regulators, investors, consultants, and users of telecommunications technologies and networks since 1984. I want to share my knowledge of telecommunications with people in the format that best fits their learning styles. Some learn best in a classroom situation, where they can make eye contact with the instructor, view graphics while the instructor is explaining concepts, and ask questions in person. LIDO has been providing seminars for these learners for 17 years. Some people prefer to learn at their own pace, and they like the convenience and ability to track down further information that online learning affords. For these people, LIDO has provided e-learning programs (Web-delivered or via software license) since 1999. Yet other people learn best from books--when they can carry their learning tool with them anywhere and read and reread as time and circumstances allow. Therefore, I decided to write this book, to provide a comprehensive source on telecommunications essentials.

    A 1775 quote from Samuel Johnson summarizes LIDO's approach to knowledge solutions in telecommunications: "Knowledge is of two kinds: We know a subject or we know where we can find information upon it." LIDO presents this book to help you learn, and it offers the Telecom Essentials Learning Center (www.telecomessentials.com/learningcenter) to help you keep learning. The Telecom Essentials Learning Center offers a number of helpful resources to help reinforce your telecommunications knowledge:

    Online quizzes

    The online quizzes allow you to test your knowledge after reading each chapter. The quizzes are designed to reinforce what you have learned and assess those areas where you might wish to review the chapter.

    Online telecommunications glossary

    The telecommunications vocabulary seems to grow daily. You can use the online glossary to search thousands of terms to find definitions quickly.

    Student discussion forums

    These forums are your place to meet other individuals interested in the telecom field. You will find groups where you can discuss course materials and current events in telecom and where you can make valuable connections with individuals around the world to help advance your telecom knowledge and contact bases.

    Links to thousands of related Web sites

    Each chapter is supported with links to recommended books, recommended magazines, and a comprehensive list of key sites to visit. This portal includes more than 6,000 links to important destinations in the world of telecom.

    The Telecom Essentials Learning Center will help you to keep learning long after you have mastered the essentials of telecommunications.

    As a LIDO student, you can also enjoy full access to Telecom WebCentral (www.telecomwebcentral.com). At Telecom WebCentral, you will have at your fingertips up-to-the-moment information on the latest applications and financial and legal news as well as connections to telecom career groups and newsgroups.

    Whether in seminar, book, or e-learning format, LIDO explains telecommunications technologies very clearly and in an entertaining and interesting fashion to a very diverse professional audience. It also supports ongoing learning by providing knowledge exchanges and e-business opportunities in a Web-based knowledge center and community. LIDO seminars are offered worldwide, and the perspectives you gain in this book or by attending LIDO seminars or e-learning programs are not U.S.-centric. They provide knowledge and understanding of telecommunications environments on a global basis.



    2B1Q, 163, 164
    3DES (Triple DES), 344
    3G (third generation) systems, 438
    barriers to, 454-455
    data rates for, 454
    frequencies used by, 450
    future of, 455
    indications for, 449-451
    justification for, 449
    standards for, 451-452


    A (access) links, 143
    Abilene Project, 266
    ABR (available bit rate), 317-318
    to networks, 114-118
    service categories, 117-118
    Access concentrators, 263
    ACR (allowed cell rate), 319
    Add/drop multiplexers (ADMs), 138-139
    for WANs, 185
    Address signals, 138
    Adelman, L. M., 346
    ADPCM (Adaptive Differential PCM), 129, 437
    ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), 45, 391
    advantages of, 398
    applications of, 399
    characteristics of, 393
    illustrated, 398
    Lite and Heavy versions of, 398-399
    modulation schemes for, 397
    types of, 60-61, 396-397
    Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 242
    Agnostic devices, defined, 296
    AIN (advanced intelligent network), 145-146
    Akamai Technologies, 271
    Alerting signals, 139
    American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 15, 50
    defined, 23
    erbium-doped fiber, 47
    in optical systems, 384
    types of, 24
    Amplitude, defined, 31
    Amplitude modulation
    described, 162
    illustrated, 161
    AMPS (Advanced Mobil Phone System), 439
    Analog transmission, 35
    characteristics of, 37-38
    limitations of, 36
    ANSI X.509, 348
    ANSI-136, 447
    Antheil, George, 434
    ANX (Automotive Industry Action Group Automatic Network Exchange), 340
    APNIC (Asia Pacific Network Information Center), 243-244, 251
    AppleTalk Routing Table Management Protocol (RTMP), 250
    computing capabilities in, 7
    in smart house, 468-472
    Application-driven networks, 156
    convergence of, 19
    trends in, 286-287
    application-driven networks, 156
    HANs, 157
    Internet commercialization and, 156
    internetworked LANs, 155-156
    LANs, 155
    networked mainframes, 154-155
    remote access workers, 156-157
    standalone mainframes, 154
    three-tiered, for broadband, 306-311
    time line of, 154
    ARDIS (Advanced Radio Data Information Services), 443
    ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers), 243, 251
    Aromajet, 5
    ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), 250
    ARPANET, 242
    ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), 166
    ASPIC (Application Service Provider Industry Consortium), 273
    ASPs (application service providers), 271-273
    Asymmetric encryption, 345-347
    Asynchronous mode, 167
    ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), 45, 96, 107, 109
    advantages of, 175, 213
    applications for, 205-208
    capacity of, 206
    cell structure in, 212
    described, 205-206, 302
    disadvantages of, 214
    future of, 213, 265
    interfaces for, 208
    vs. IP, 303-304
    layers in, 208-211
    in networks, 212
    in next-generation networks, 302-304
    packet size in, 194
    prevalence of, 205-206, 213
    standards for, 205
    transmission path, 211-212
    ATM adaptation layer (AAL), 209
    options in, 210
    ATM Forum, 211
    ATM layer, 209
    ATM QoS, 317-319, 326
    service classes in, 317-318
    virtual paths for, 319
    ATSC (Advanced Television Systems
    Committee), 293
    HDTV standard of, 293, 294
    Attenuated signals, 23, 392
    real-time, 158
    in telecommunications, 5
    Authentication, 261, 343-344
    of messages, 346
    Authentication center, 441
    Autonomous systems, 251


    B (bridge) links, 143
    B/D links, 143
    bandwidth requirements of, 11-12
    evolution of, 285
    speed of, 268
    Backward explicit congestion notifier (BECN), 199-200
    classes of, 32-34
    defined, 7, 31, 426
    on demand, 296
    illustrated, 8
    increasing, 11-12
    media options for, 389-423
    modern developments in, 34
    required by advanced applications, 12
    reservation of, 296
    size of market, 389
    trends in, 285-286
    wireless, 413-421
    Barker Code, 435
    Base standards, 50
    Base station controller
    for digital cellular, 440
    Baseband, 220
    Basic Rate Interface (BRI, BRA), 58-59, 118, 186
    described, 188
    Beaconing, 222
    Blowfish, 344
    Bluetooth Consortium, 478
    and wireless PANs, 465-466
    Body bus, 7
    Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), 106-107, 250, 251, 268
    BGP-4, 237, 251, 254
    BRANs (Broadband Radio Access Networks), 478
    BRI 0B+D, 189
    functions of, 231-232
    limitations of, 233
    mechanism of, 232-233
    uses of, 233, 234
    Britain, telecom regulation in, 15
    architecture for, 304-327
    vs. baseband, 219
    defined, 33-34
    fiber-based, 407-413
    future of, 18-20, 421-423
    HFC, 401-407
    in the home, 467-481
    infrastructure for, 295-296
    need for, 17
    in next-generation networks, 283-287
    service requirements for, 296-297
    wireless, 413-421
    xDSL, 389-401
    Broadband digital cross-connects, 138
    Broadcast satellite services (BSS), 73
    Bubble switches, 381, 382
    Bursty, defined, 104
    Bus topology, 226
    Bypassing, 68-70


    C (cross) links, 143
    Cable modems
    for HFC applications, 403-404
    speed of, 404
    standards for, 404-405
    Cable transmission, 53
    coaxial, 62-65
    twisted-pair, 56-62
    CAP (Carrierless Amplitude Modulation/Phase Modulation), 163, 164, 397
    C-band frequencies, 74-75
    CBQ (class-based queuing), 323
    CBR (constant bit rate), 317
    CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
    characteristics of, 433
    described, 432-433, 448
    frequency reuse in, 433
    future of, 448
    generations of, 433
    history of, 434
    illustrated, 432
    Cdma2000 interface, 451, 452, 453-454
    CDPD (Cellular Digit Packet Data), 442
    CDV (cell delay variation), 318
    CDVT (cell delay variation tolerance), 318-319
    CEBus, 477
    Cell loss, 210, 318
    Cell switches, 109
    Cells, 194
    Cellular architecture, 428-429
    Cellular networks
    analog, 438-440
    digital, 440-441
    generations of, 437-438
    and MANs, 461
    vs. PCS, 438
    standards for, 444-449
    Central office, 25
    functions of, 121-122
    Centre de transit (CT), 122
    Centre for Electrotechnical Standards
    (CENELEC), 294
    Centrex, 59
    CEPT terminology, 129
    CER (cell error rate), 318
    Certificates, digital, 348
    Channel banks, 126, 182
    Channel service units (CSUs), 160
    Channels, 24-25
    CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol), 261, 343-344
    Chirped-pulse WDM, 373
    CIDR (Classless Interdomain Routing), 251
    addressing in, 253-254
    masking scheme in, 255
    Circuit switching
    advantages and disadvantages of, 99-100
    costs of, 103-104
    described, 99
    generations of, 100-104
    vs. packet switching, 110
    Circuit-switched networks, 98-104, 110
    ISDN-based, 186-189
    leased-line-based, 177-186
    types of, 176
    Circuits, 22
    types of, 22-23
    using, 23-24
    Clarke, Arthur C., 72
    Class 4 offices, 26
    Class 5 office, 25
    functions of, 121-122
    Classes, of IP address, 252-253
    Client, defined, 244
    CLR (cell loss ratio), 318
    CMR (cell misinsertion rate), 318
    CMTS (cable modem termination system), 403
    CO (central office), 25
    functions of, 121-122
    Coaxial-cable transmission
    advantages and disadvantages of, 64-65
    applications of, 65
    for broadband, 390
    characteristics of, 55, 63-64
    described, 62-63
    history of, 62
    Codecs, 38, 39
    Coding schemes, 166-167
    Collision domains, 224
    Committed information rate (CIR), 201
    Common-channel signaling, 140, 141
    Compression, 436-437
    video, 289-291
    voice, 128-129, 352, 437
    Concentrators, 44, 227
    Connection-oriented networking, 96-97, 107-108
    Connectionless networks, 97
    described, 105-107, 192-193
    networking modes, 96-97
    switching modes, 97-110
    Content delivery networks, 270-271
    Control segment, of satellite network, 76
    areas of, 19-20
    and broadband, 284
    and broadcasting, 293
    factors favoring, 18-19
    in industry, 19
    of networks, 112
    COPS (Common Open Policy Services), 326, 342
    CPE switches, 25
    types of, 200
    CPE nodes, 121
    Crossbar switches, 101-102
    Crosstalk, 392
    CSMA/CD (carrier-sense multiple access/collision detect), 223-224
    CSUs (channel service units), 125-126
    for WANs, 182
    CTD (cell transfer delay), 318
    Cyclical redundancy checking (CRC), 170


    D (diagonal) links, 143
    Dark fiber, 89, 186
    Data, bandwidth requirements of, 10
    Data communication
    architectures for, 153-157
    data flow, 159-170
    machine-to-machine, 9
    OSI reference model of, 170-174
    prerequisites for, 21-22
    traffic issues in, 157-158
    traffic trends, 284
    Data service
    defined, 176
    elements of, 176
    units (DSUs), 160, 179
    Datagrams, transmission of, 106
    DBS (Direct Broadcast Satellite), 413, 415-416
    and MANs, 462
    DCE (data communications equipment), 159, 160
    DCLEC (data competitive local exchange carrier), 115
    DDSs, 178-180
    DECT interface, 452
    Dedicated network connections, 28
    Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 242
    causes of, 107, 158
    as QoS issue, 316
    standards for, 291
    tolerance for, 9, 10, 17, 102
    variable. Jitter
    DEN (Directory Enabled Networking), 326
    Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (DWDM), 96
    advantages of, 110, 370
    described, 47-48
    developments in, 89, 374-375
    distinguished from WDM, 373
    IP and, 377
    in network architecture, 375-377
    optical technologies in, 297
    DES (Data Encryption Standard), 344
    DID (direct inward dialing), 117-118
    Diffie, W., 345
    Diffie-Hellman algorithm, 345
    DiffServ (Differentiated Services), 264, 322, 342
    DigiScents, 5
    Digit translation, 144
    Digital cable TV devices, 405-407
    Digital certificates, 348
    Digital cross-connect systems (DCSs), 100
    described, 127-128
    Digital cross-connects
    types of, 138
    for WANs, 185
    Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT), 478
    Digital loop carriers (DLCs), 44-45
    compatibility issues with, 45-46
    evolution of, 126
    uses of, 127
    Digital television (DTV), 288-289
    standards of, 293-295
    Digital transmission, 36-37
    characteristics of, 37-38
    importance of, 16
    steps for, 17
    Dijkstra algorithm, 251
    DirecTV Duo, 462
    Dispersion compensation modules, in optical systems, 384
    Distance-vector routing protocols, 250
    DLCI (Data-Link Connection Identifier), 199, 325
    DLEC (data competitive local exchange carrier), 115
    DMT (Discrete Multitone Technology), 163, 164, 397
    DNS (Domain Name System), 256-258
    DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification), 404
    DOD (direct outward dialing), 118
    Domain name servers, 261
    DS terminology, 129, 130
    DSL (Digital Subscriber Line), 59-61, 118
    characteristics of, 391
    customer base of, 391
    factors affecting, 392-393
    interoperability issues, 45
    types of, 393-400
    DSLAM (DSL access multiplexer), 304
    DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum), 434-436
    DTE (data terminal equipment), 159, 160
    DTMF (dual-tone multifrequency [touch-tone]) dialing, 355
    Duplex transmission, 165-166
    Duplexing, 436
    DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) standard, 294-295, 404, 405
    Dynamic alternative routing, 184-185
    Dynamic routers, 98
    Dynamic routing table, 236


    E (extended) links, 143
    EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code), 166
    E-carrier system, 32-33, 114, 118, 124
    backbone of, 180-185
    signal hierarchy in, 131-132
    signaling channels in, 131
    e-commerce, future of, 11
    EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution), 447
    Edge devices, intelligent, 307-311
    types of, 308
    EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol), 250
    EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol), 254
    ELEC (Ethernet local exchange carrier), 115
    Electromagnetic spectrum, 28-32
    in communication, 30
    Electromagnetic waves, 31
    Electronic common control, 102
    Electronic tandem networking, 119
    characteristics of, 329
    growth of, 157
    servers for, 261
    asymmetric, 345-347
    described, 344
    MPPE, 341
    PGP, 346
    public key, 344
    RSA, 346
    symmetric, 344-345
    Enterprise networks, trends in, 238-239
    Entertainment, bandwidth requirements of, 11
    ENUM services, 357
    Environment, evolution of, 19
    Equipment identity register, 441
    Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), 47, 88, 372-373
    Error control, 21-22
    parity checking in, 169
    in synchronous transmission, 168, 170
    Error detection, 21-22
    parity bits and, 166, 169
    ES terminology, 129
    cabling for, 221
    and LANs, 220
    Ethernet switches, 229-230
    Ethernet-in-the-loop, 390, 422
    EuroDOCSIS, 404
    Europe, telecom regulation in, 15
    European Broadcasting Union (EBU), 295
    European Competitive Telecommunications Association (ECTA), 15
    European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), 15, 294
    Exchange points, Internet, 244
    Exterior routing protocols, 236-237, 251
    Extranets, 246
    VoIP use on, 350
    VPNs for, 340


    F (fully associated) links, 143
    Fading, 427
    Fast Ethernet, 221
    FDD (Frequency Division Duplex), 436
    FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface), 220
    FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access), 430, 431
    Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 15
    FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum), 434, 435
    Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), 90, 276
    Fiber-optic transmission, 54
    advantages and disadvantages of, 90-92
    applications of, 89-90
    for broadband, 390
    cabling for, 85-86
    characteristics of, 55
    compatibility issues, 132-133
    forecasts of capacity, 89
    FTTC, 408-410
    FTTH, 410-411
    history of, 84
    innovations in, 88-89
    light sources for, 87
    materials for, 85
    mechanism of, 87-88
    multiplexing of, 47-48, 373-380
    PONS, 411-413
    SDH/SONET signal hierarchy, 134-138
    standards of, 385
    switching of, 378-384
    undersea, 92-93
    FIFO (first in, first out) queuing, 320
    File transfer, 158
    Filters, in optical systems, 384
    Firewalls, 342
    types of, 343
    Fixed satellite services (FSS), 73
    Fixed wireless local loop, 460
    Flat networks, 234
    Footprint, satellite, 73
    Forward explicit congestion notifier (FECN), 199
    Four-pair, defined, 22
    Four-wire circuits, 23
    Fractional services, 33, 181
    Frame format, 133
    Frame Relay, 96, 109, 175
    advantages and disadvantages of, 205
    applications based on, 198
    bandwidth-on-demand in, 202
    described, 197
    dial-up, 188
    header format for, 199
    interface for, 199
    introduction of, 197
    networks based on, 198-203
    packet size in, 194
    performance issues, 203
    standards for, 197-198
    VoFR, 203-204
    Frame Relay Forum, 201
    Free Space Optics, 414, 419-420
    Frequency, defined, 31
    Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM), 41-42, 219
    developments in, 370
    Frequency modulation (FM), 31-32
    described, 162
    illustrated, 161
    Frequency splitting, 23
    Front-end processors, 154
    FTP (File Transfer Protocol), 330
    FTTC (Fiber to the Curb)
    advantages of, 410
    characteristics of, 410
    described, 408
    illustrated, 409
    modulation for, 408-409
    topology of, 408
    FTTH (Fiber to the Home)
    advantages of, 410
    characteristics of, 410
    cost of, 410-411
    Full-duplex transmission, 165-166
    FX (foreign exchange) lines, 119


    Gateway switches, 146-148
    for next-generation networks, 299
    international, 26, 122
    media, 357-359
    VoIP, 355-356
    for VPNs, 340-342
    X.75 protocol, 196
    GCP (Gateway Control Protocol), 315
    Geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) satellites, 77-78
    GFSK (Gaussian frequency shift key), 478
    Gigabit Ethernet, 221
    illustrated, 222
    switching in, 230
    GPRS (General Packet Radio Services), 446-447
    Gratings, in optical systems, 384
    Grooming, 134
    Ground segment, of satellite network, 76
    Ground start, 139
    GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications), 431
    band specifications for, 444
    described, 445
    GTE, as VISP, 274


    H.225 protocol, 320
    H.248 protocol, 360
    H.323 protocol, 147
    version 2, 314, 360
    HALE (high-altitude, long-endurance) satellites, 81
    Half-duplex transmission, 165
    HANs (home area networks), 116
    computer interconnection in, 475
    control networks for, 479-480
    fiber optics in, 90
    future of, 480-481
    gateways and servers for, 480
    growth of, 157
    infrastructure for, 474-475
    justification for, 468-469
    market for, 474
    over power lines, 476-477, 478
    as part of smart house, 468-472
    over telephone lines, 476
    types of, 476
    wired networks, 480
    wireless, 477-479
    Haptics, 5
    Hashing, 345, 346
    HDSL2, 395
    HDTV (high definition television), 293
    ATSC standards for, 294
    bandwidth requirements of, 289
    Hellman, M. E., 345
    Hertz, Heinrich, 28
    Hierarchical networks, 236
    High-Altitude Platform Stations (HAPS), 81
    High-bit-rate DSL (HDSL), 60, 391
    advantages of, 394
    applications of, 395
    characteristics of, 393
    described, 393
    High-bit-rate vocoders, 437
    High-speed Token Ring, 220
    HIPERLAN, 464
    Hoffer, Eric, xv
    Home location register, 441
    HomePNA, 390, 421-422, 476
    HomeRF, 466
    HSCSD (High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data), 445-446
    HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), 330
    HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), 330
    intelligent, 228
    types of, 227
    Hybrid fiber coax (HFC), 63, 401
    architectures based on, 64, 402-403
    cable modems, 403-405
    networks based on, 401, 402
    Hz (hertz), defined, 31


    IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority), 243, 244, 258
    ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), 243, 244, 258
    ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), 249
    IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm), 345
    IEEE 802.11, 464, 477
    IEEE 802.14, 405
    IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), 243
    IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol), 249-250
    IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol), 250
    IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol), 250
    IKE (Internet Key Exchange) protocol, 347
    ILEC (incumbent local exchange carrier), 115
    Images, bandwidth requirements of, 10
    IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications-2000), 450
    standards for, 451-452
    Information retrieval, 158
    Information signals, 138-139
    Infrasound, 29
    Input queue, 235
    Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), 15
    Intelligent hub, 228
    Intelligent multiplexing, 44-45
    Intelligent networks (INs)
    AINs, 145-146
    backbone for, 361
    features of, 145
    history of, 144
    next-generation, 146-150
    programmable, 315
    second-generation, 145
    Interactive computing, 158
    Interior routing protocols, 236, 251
    International gateways, 26
    functions of, 122
    International Telecommunications Union
    (ITU), 14
    sectors of, 49-50
    World Radio Conferences of, 15
    addressing, 252-256
    challenges and changes to, 263-265
    characteristics of, 111
    commercialization of, 156
    described, 244-247
    Domain Name System, 256-258
    e-mail, 157, 329
    elasticity of applications, 329-330
    exchange points on, 244
    FTP, 330
    growth rate of, 156, 241-242, 263, 284
    future of, 263-265, 279
    history of, 242-244
    information flow on, 270
    interconnection and exchange on, 276-280
    ISDN for, 188
    mobile, 455-459
    organization of, 259-265
    packet loss on, 158
    protocols for, 247-252
    purpose of, 259
    QoS issues, 330-331
    regulatory issues, 275
    service providers for, 265-276
    SS7 and, 143
    streaming media, 364-367
    Telnet, 329-330
    32-bit addressing, 253
    typical session on, 114
    uses of, 330-331
    VoIP on, 349-363
    VPNs on, 333-334, 335
    Internet Architecture Board, 243
    Internet Engineering Steering Group, 243
    Internet Research Steering Group, 243
    Internet Research Task Force, 243
    Internet Society, (ISOC), 50, 243
    Internet telephony directory, 357
    Internet-based VPN, 333-334, 335
    Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) RIP, 250
    Internetworked LANs, 155-156
    Internetworks, 244-245
    for next-generation network, 298-299
    Interoffice signaling, 139
    Interoperability NOW! (iNOW!), 361
    Interplanetary Internet (IPNSIG), 266
    Intranet, 246
    VoIP use on, 350
    VPNs for, 338
    IntServ, 319-322
    Inverse multiplexing, 46-47, 394
    IP (Internet Protocol), 248-249
    vs. ATM, 303-304
    current version of (IPv4), 252-253
    over DWDM, 377, 385
    next generation of (IPv6), 255-256
    for next-generation networks, 300
    QoS, 319-322
    routing problems related to, 300-301
    IP address, 252
    IP Ethernet phones, 353
    IP long-distance wholesale, 350-352
    IP PBXs, 362-363
    IP switches, 237-238
    for next-generation network, 301-302
    IP telephony, 352-353
    cable-based, 406-407
    IPCF (International Power Line Communications Forum), 477
    IPDC (Internet Protocol Device Control), 315
    IPS7 protocol, 361
    IPSec (IP Security), 341
    IrDA (Infrared Data Association) standard, 465
    Ireland, telecom regulation in, 16
    IS-54 cellular network, 439
    IS-95 variants, 448-449
    IS-136, 448
    ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network),
    45, 118
    applications for, 188-189
    elements of, 186, 187
    network interfaces for, 186, 187
    standards for, 186
    types of, 58-59
    ISDN DSL (IDSL), 61, 189, 391, 395
    characteristics of, 393
    IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System) routing, 98, 106, 251
    ISM radio bands, 420
    Isochronous traffic, 296
    ISPs (Internet service providers)
    evaluating, 267-274
    scope of, 265
    types of, 265-267
    value chain of, 274-276
    virtual, 274
    IXC (interexchange carrier), 115


    J-carrier system, 33, 114, 118, 124
    backbone of, 180-185
    signaling bits in, 130
    JDC (Japanese Digital Cellular), 431
    Jitter, 108, 204, 292
    Johnson, Samuel, xvii
    JTACS (Japanese Total Access Communication System), 439
    Junction exchanges, 26
    Junction network, 122


    Ka-band frequencies, 75
    Kao, Charles, 84
    Ku-band frequencies, 75


    L2F (Layer 2 Forwarding), 341
    L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol), 341
    Label stacking, 325
    Label-switching routers (LSRs), 323
    Lamarr, Hedy, 434
    LambdaRouter (Lucent), 381
    LAN switches, 228-230
    LANs (local area networks), 426
    access methods for, 221-224
    advantages of, 217
    bridges in, 231-234
    cabling requirements for, 221
    characteristics of, 217-227
    components of, 217
    fiber optics in, 90
    function of, 216
    history of, 215
    growth of, 155
    hubs for, 227-228
    internetworking of, 155-156, 227-238
    IP switches in, 237-238
    ISDN for, 188
    standards for, 220
    topologies for, 225-227
    transmission media for, 218-219
    transport techniques for, 219-220
    VLANs, 230-231
    wireless, 463-465
    LAPB format, 199
    Laser diodes, 87
    Lasers, in optical systems, 384
    switching, 108
    threshold figures for, 17-18
    Layer, defined, 174
    L-band frequencies, 75
    LCD switches, 381, 383
    LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), 326, 327, 360-361
    LDP (Label Distribution Protocol), 324
    Leased lines, 119
    configuration of, 177-178
    DDSs, 178-180
    and T-, E-, and J-carrier backbone, 180-185
    Leased-line network connections, 28
    LEC (local exchange carrier), 115
    LEDs (light-emitting diodes), 87
    LibertyBay.com, 274
    LIDO Organization, xvii
    scope of, xvii-xviii
    Line, defined, 25
    Link-state routing protocols, 250-251
    LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution Service),
    71-72, 414, 418-419
    and MANs, 461
    Load balancing, 271
    Load coils, 126
    Loaded pairs, 392
    Local exchange, 25, 121-122
    Local exchange trunk, 117
    Local loop, 16, 17, 22
    fiber optics in, 89
    wireless, 69, 71-72, 460-463
    Logical four-wire, 23
    LonWorks, 479
    Loop carriers, 392-393
    Loop start, 139
    cell, 210, 318
    packet, 108-109, 204, 291, 300, 355
    path, 426
    tolerance for, 18, 102, 158
    Low earth orbit (LEO) satellites, 80
    applications of, 81
    Low-bit-rate vocoders, 437
    LPC (Line Pulse Coding), 437


    Machine-to-machine communication, 9
    bandwidth requirements for, 12
    trend toward, 284
    Macrocells, 429
    MAE East, 279
    MAE West, 279
    Main distribution frame (MDF), 100
    networked, 154-155
    standalone, 155
    Mandl, Fritz, 434
    MANs (metropolitan area networks), 426
    range of, 459
    wireless local loop applications, 460-461
    wireless local loop options, 461-463
    Maxwell, James Clerk, 28
    MBONE (multicast backbone), 252
    MBS (maximum burst size), 318
    MCGP protocol, 360
    MCNS (Multimedia Cable Network Systems), 404
    for digital cable devices, 405
    applications for, 457-458
    future of, 11
    MCR (minimum cell rate), 319
    MD5 (Message Digest-5), 346
    Media gateways, 357-359
    MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol), 147, 315
    MEGACO (Multimedia Gateway Control), 315, 360
    MEMS (microelectromechanical system) switches, 381
    Meta-computing, bandwidth requirements for, 12
    Metric prefixes, listed, 13
    Metropolitan area exchanges (MAEs), 267
    Microwave transmission
    advantages and disadvantages of, 70-71
    applications of, 67-60
    characteristics of, 55
    future of, 71-72
    issues regarding, 66-67
    Middle earth orbit (MEO) satellites, 80
    Midspan meet, 133
    MIThril, 6-7
    MMDS (Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Services), 71, 414, 416-418
    and MANs, 461-462
    Mobile Assistant IV (Xybernaut), 6
    Mobile Internet, 455-456
    applications for, 457-458
    WAP and, 456-457
    Mobile satellite services (MSS), 73
    Mobile traffic switching office (MTSO), 439-440
    Mobile wireless local loop, 460
    Mobility networks, 475
    Mobitex, 443
    Modems, 38, 39, 160
    cable, 403-405
    speed limitations of, 35
    Modulation schemes, 160-161
    components of, 161-163
    types of, 163-165
    Monomode fiber, 85
    MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group), 289
    video standards of, 290-291
    MPS protocol, 265, 385
    benefits of, 323-325
    future of, 325-326
    history of, 323
    illustrated, 324
    label stacking in, 325
    MPPE (Microsoft Point-to-Point
    Encryption), 341
    MSP Association, 273
    MSPs (management service providers), 273
    Multicarrier modulation schemes, 163, 164
    Multicast, 252
    defined, 296
    digital video, 288
    growth of, 19, 287-288
    infrastructure for, 295-304


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