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TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 2: The Implementation

TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 2: The Implementation

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  • Copyright 1995
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-265149-1
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-265149-3

TCP/IP Illustrated, an ongoing series covering the many facets of TCP/IP, brings a highly-effective visual approach to learning about this networking protocol suite.


TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 2 contains a thorough explanation of how TCP/IP protocols are implemented. There isn't a more practical or up-to-date bookothis volume is the only one to cover the de facto standard implementation from the 4.4BSD-Lite release, the foundation for TCP/IP implementations run daily on hundreds of thousands of systems worldwide.


Combining 500 illustrations with 15,000 lines of real, working code, TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 2 uses a teach-by-example approach to help you master TCP/IP implementation. You will learn about such topics as the relationship between the sockets API and the protocol suite, and the differences between a host implementation and a router. In addition, the book covers the newest features of the 4.4BSD-Lite release, including multicasting, long fat pipe support, window scale, timestamp options, and protection against wrapped sequence numbers, and many other topics.


Comprehensive in scope, based on a working standard, and thoroughly illustrated, this book is an indispensable resource for anyone working with TCP/IP.

Sample Content

Table of Contents

(All chapters conclude with a Summary.)

1. Introduction.


Source Code Presentation.


Application Programming Interfaces.

Example Program.

System Calls and Library Functions.

Network Implementation Overview.


Mbufs (Memory Buffers) and Output Processing.

Input Processing.

Network Implementation Overview Revisited.

Interrupt Levels and Concurrency.

Source Code Organization.

Test Network.

2. Mbufs.

Memory Buffers: Introduction.

Code Introduction.

Mbuf Definitions.

mbuf Structure.

Simple Mbuf Macros and Functions.

m_devget and m_pullup Functions.

Summary of Mbuf Macros and Functions.

Summary of Net/3 Networking Data Structures.

m_copy and Cluster Reference Counts.


3. Interface Layer.


Code Introduction.

ifnet Structure.

ifaddr Structure.

sockaddr Structure.

ifnet and ifaddr Specialization.

Network Initialization Overview.

Ethernet Initialization.

SLIP Initialization.

Loopback Initialization.

if_attach Function.

ifinit Function.

4. Interfaces.

Ethernet: Introduction.

Code Introduction.

Ethernet Interface.

ioctl System Call.

5. Interfaces.

SLIP and Loopback: Introduction.

Code Introduction.

SLIP Interface.

Loopback Interface.

6. IP Addressing.


Code Introduction.

Interface and Address Summary.

sockaddr_in Structure.

in_ifaddr Structure.

Address Assignment.

Interface ioctl Processing.

Internet Utility Functions.

ifnet Utility Functions.

7. Domains and Protocols.


Code Introduction.

domain Structure.

protosw Structure.

IP domain and protosw Structures.

pffindproto and pffindtype Functions.

pfctlinput Function.

IP Initialization.

sysctl System Call.

8. IP: Internet Protocol.


Code Introduction.

IP Packets.

Input Processing: ipintr Function.

Forwarding: ip_forward Function.

Output Processing: ip_output Function.

Internet Checksum: in_cksum Function.

setsockopt and getsockopt System Calls.

ip_sysctl Function.

9. IP Option Processing.


Option Format.

ip_dooptions Function.

Record Route Option.

Source and Record Route Options.

Timestamp Option.

ip_insertoptions Function.

ip_pcbopts Function.


10. IP Fragmentation and Reassembly.


Code Introduction.


ip_optcopy Function.


ip_reass Function.

ip_slowtimo Function.

11. ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol.


Code Introduction.

icmp Structure.

ICMP protosw Structure.

Input Processing: icmp_input Function.

Error Processing.

Request Processing.

Redirect Processing.

Reply Processing.

Output Processing.

icmp_error Function.

icmp_reflect Function.

icmp_send Function.

icmp_sysctl Function.

12. IP Multicasting.


Code Introduction.

Ethernet Multicast Addresses.

ether_multi Structure.

Ethernet Multicast Reception.

in_multi Structure.

ip_moptions Structure.

Multicast Socket Options.

Multicast TTL Values.

ip_setmoptions Function.

Joining an IP Multicast Group.

Leaving an IP Multicast Group.

ip_getmoptions Function.

Multicast Input Processing: ipintr Function.

Multicast Output Processing: ip_output Function.

Performance Considerations.

13. IGMP: Internet Group Management Protocol.


Code Introduction.

igmp Structure.

IGMP protosw Structure.

Joining a Group: igmp_joingroup Function.

igmp_fasttimo Function.

Input Processing: igmp_input Function.

Leaving a Group: igmp_leavegroup Function.

14. IP Multicast Routing.


Code Introduction.

Multicast Output Processing Revisited.

ip_mrouted Daemon.

Virtual Interfaces.

IGMP Revisited.

Multicast Routing.

Multicast Forwarding: ip_mforward Function.

Cleanup: ip_mrouter_done Function.

15. Socket Layer.


Code Introduction.

socket Structure.

System Calls.

Processes, Descriptors, and Sockets.

socket System Call.

getsock and sockargs Functions.

bind System Call.

listen System Call.

tsleep and wakeup Functions.

accept System Call.

sonewconn and soisconnected Functions.

connect System call.

shutdown System Call.

close System Call.

16. Socket I/O.


Code Introduction.

Socket Buffers.

write, writev, sendto, and sendmsg System Calls.

sendmsg System Call.

sendit Function.

sosend Function.

read, readv, recvfrom, and recvmsg System Calls.

recvmsg System Call.

recvit Function.

soreceive Function.

soreceive Code.

select System Call.

17. Socket Options.


Code Introduction.

setsockopt System Call.

getsockopt System Call.

fcntl and ioctl System Calls.

getsockname System Call.

getpeername System Call.

18. Radix Tree Routing Tables.


Routing Table Structure.

Routing Sockets.

Code Introduction.

Radix Node Data Structures.

Routing Structures.

Initialization: route_init and rtable_init Functions.

Initialization: rn_init and rn_inithead Functions.

Duplicate Keys and Mask Lists.

rn_match Function.

rn_search Function.

19. Routing Requests and Routing Messages.


rtalloc and rtalloc1 Functions.

RTFREE Macro and rtfree Function.

rtrequest Function.

rt_setgate Function.

rtinit Function.

rtredirect Function.

Routing Message Structures.

rt_missmsg Function.

rt_ifmsg Function.

rt_newaddrmsg Function.

rt_msg1 Function.

rt_msg2 Function.

sysctl_rtable Function.

sysctl_dumpentry Function.

sysctl_iflist Function.

20. Routing Sockets


routedomain and protosw Structures.

Routing Control Blocks.

raw_init Function.

route_output Function.

rt_xaddrs Function.

rt_setmetrics Function.

raw_input Function.

route_usrreq Function.

raw_usrreq Function.

raw_attach, raw_detach, and raw_disconnect Functions.

21. ARP: Address Resolution Protocol.


ARP and the Routing Table.

Code Introduction.

ARP Structures.

arpwhohas Function.

arprequest Function.

arpintr Function.

in_arpinput Function.

ARP Timer Functions.

arpresolve Function.

arplookup Function.

Proxy ARP.

arp_rtrequest Function.

ARP and Multicasting.

22. Protocol Control Blocks.


Code Introduction.

inpcb Structure.

in_pcballoc and in_pcbdetach Functions.

Binding, Connecting, and Demultiplexing.

in_pcblookup Function.

in_pcbbind Function.

in_pcbconnect Function.

in_pcbdisconnect Function.

in_setsockaddr and in_setpeeraddr Functions.

in_pcbnotify, in_rtchange, and in_losing Functions.

Implementation Refinements.

23. UDP: User Datagram Protocol.


Code Introduction.

UDP protosw Structure.

UDP Header.

udp_init Function.

udp_output Function.

udp_input Function.

udp_saveopt Function.

udp_ctlinput Function.

udp_usrreq Function.

udp_sysctl Function.

Implementation Refinements.

24. TCP: Transmission Control Protocol.


Code Introduction.

TCP protosw Structure.

TCP Header.

TCP Control Block.

TCP State Transition Diagram.

TCP Sequence Numbers.

tcp_init Function.

25. TCP Timers.


Code Introduction.

tcp_canceltimers Function.

tcp_fasttimo Function.

tcp_slowtimo Function.

tcp_timers Function.

Retransmission Timer Calculations.

tcp_newtcpcb Function.

tcp_setpersist Function.

tcp_xmit_timer Function.

Retransmission Timeout: tcp_timers Function.

An RTT Example.

26. TCP Output.


tcp_output Overview.

Determine if a Segment Should be Sent.

TCP Options.

Window Scale Option.

Timestamp Option.

Send a Segment.

tcp_template Function.

tcp_respond Function.

27. TCP Functions.


tcp_drain Function.

tcp_drop Function.

tcp_close Function.

tcp_mss Function.

tcp_ctlinput Function.

tcp_notify Function.

tcp_quench Function.

TCP_REASS Macro and tcp_reass Function.

tcp_trace Function.

28. TCP Input.


Preliminary Processing.

tcp_dooptions Function.

Header Prediction.

TCP Input: Slow Path Processing.

Completion of Passive Open or Active Open.

PAWS: Protection Against Wrapped Sequence Numbers.

Trim Segment so Data is Within Window.

Self-Connects and Simultaneous Opens.

Record Timestamp.

RST Processing.

29. TCP Input (Continued).


ACK Processing Overview.

Completion of Passive Opens and Simultaneous Opens.

Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery Algorithms.

ACK Processing.

Update Window Information.

Urgent Mode Processing.

tcp_pulloutofband Function.

Processing of Received Data.

FIN Processing.

Final Processing.

Implementation Refinements.

Header Compression.

30. TCP User Requests.


tcp_usrreq Function.

tcp_attach Function.

tcp_disconnect Function.

tcp_usrclosed Function.

tcp_ctloutput Function.

31. BPF: BSD Packet Filter.


Code Introduction.

bpf_if Structure.

bpf_d Structure.

BPF Input.

BPF Output.

32. Raw IP.


Code Introduction.

Raw IP protosw Structure.

rip_init Function.

rip_input Function.

rip_output Function.

rip_usrreq Function.

rip_ctloutput Function.


Appendix A. Solutions to Selected Exercises.

Appendix B. Source Code Availability.

Appendix C. RFC 1122 Compliance.

Link-Layer Requirements.

IP Requirements.

IP Options Requirements.

IP Fragmentation and Reassembly Requirements.

ICMP Requirements.

Multicasting Requirements.

IGMP Requirements.

Routing Requirements.

ARP Requirements.

UDP Requirements.

TCP Requirements.


Index. 020163354XT04062001


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