The Solaris Network Administration exam is the last exam netadmins must take to gain the Sun Certified Network Administrator credential -- and with the Solaris 8 upgrade, many netadmins must take the exam to renew their certifications. This authoritative guide is the first book to cover the Sun Certified Network Administrator for Solaris 8 exam. Written by the technical lead for the Sun Microsystems team that wrote the Solaris 8 Network Certification exam, it focuses on the most challenging aspects of network and TCP/IP administration -- and offers all the review questions, tips, and resources netadmins need to successfully prepare for the exam. The book presents modular coverage of sixteen networking-related topics in depth, building from basic to more complex topics. Long-time Sun trainer and support professional Ricky Bushnell simplifies difficult topics like DNS, sub-netting, routing, and IPv6 though clear, easy-to-follow examples -- highlighting the key points you need to review to pass the exam. The book contains extensive review questions and self-test exam questions, and is supported with additional questions and updates on the Web.
1. Network Models and Protocols.
Layered Network Models. The OSI/ISO 7-Layer Reference Model. The TCP/IP 5-Layer Model. Benefits of Using Network Models: A Summary. The Layers of the TCP/IP 5-Layer Model. Application Layer (5). Transport Layer (4). Internet Layer (3). Network Interface Layer (2). Physical Layer (1). Network Protocols. Transport Layer Protocols: TCP and UDP. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Internet Protocol (IPv4). Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). Peer-to-Peer Communication. TCP/IP Protocols by Name and Function.
LAN Basics, Advantages, and Disadvantages. LAN Topologies. Bus LANs. Star LANs. Ring LANs. LAN Components. Backbone. Segment. Repeater. Hub (Multiport Repeater). Bridge. Switch (Multiport Bridge). Router. Gateway. Concentrator. Non-TCP/IP LAN-Based Technologies and Protocols.
The Ethernet Specification. IEEE Ethernet Identifiers. The Ethernet Address. The Scope of Ethernet Addresses. Sending Data to a Single Ethernet Host (Unicast). Sending Data to a Group of Ethernet Hosts (Multicast). Sending Data to All Ethernet Hosts on Subnet (Broadcast). Global versus Local Port Ethernet Addresses. The Ethernet Frame V2. Frame Overhead Fields. Minimum Frame Length. Maximum Frame Length. Ethernet V2 Frame Fields. Destination Ethernet Address. Source Ethernet Address. Type Field. Data Field. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC). The Ethernet Access Method. Using ndd to Set and Get Protocol and Interface Driver Parameters. Protocol Variables. Getting Parameter Settings. Setting Parameter Settings. Sun Ethernet Controllers. Fast Ethernet Cards. Slow Ethernet Cards.
Address Mapping with ARP and RARP. The ARP/RARP Protocol Format. ARP and RARP Operations. ARP. ARP Request, Operation 1 (Opcode 1). ARP Reply, Operation 2 (Opcode 2). RARP. RARP Request, Operation 3 (Opcode 3). RARP Reply, Operation 4 (Opcode 4). Configuring the RARP Server. The ARP Cache and arp Command. The ARP Cache. The Arp Command. Checking a Single Cache Entry. Viewing the Entire ARP cache with arp “a”. Deleting an ARP Cache Entry with arp “d”. Adding a Static ARP Cache Entry with arp “s” and -f.
IPv4 Address Classes, Netmasks, and the Broadcast Address. IPv4 Address Classes A, B, C, and D. Class A Networks and Addresses. Class B Networks and Addresses. Class C Networks and Addresses. Class D Multicast Identifiers and Multicast Groups. Netmask (Subnet Mask). Truth Tables, Binary Logic, and the Netmask Value. Computing the Network Number Using the Netmask Rule. The Broadcast Address. Special-Case IP Addresses. Special Broadcast Address Types. Subnetting. Why Subnet? Creating Multiple Logical Networks from a Single Network Address. Traffic and Protocol Isolation. Increased Security. Delegated Subnet Administration. How Subnetting Works. Subnetting on a Non-Byte Boundary. The IPv4 Datagram Header and Datagram Fragmentation. The IPv4 Header. IPv4 Header Fields. Datagram Fragmentation. Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR). The Netmasks File. Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM). Configuring a Network Interface. Types of Solaris 8 Interfaces. Configuring the Three Types of Solaris Interfaces. Example 1. Example 2. Example 3. Example 4. Example 5. Example 6. Plumbing in a Temporary Virtual Interface. Creating a Permanent Virtual Interface.
IP Routing An Introduction. Non-router Host Behavior. Router Host Behavior. A Routing Example. Solaris 8 Routing Protocols and Daemons. The Routing Information Protocol (RIP). RIP Features. The RIP Routing Process. Stability Properties of RIP. The Router Discovery Protocol (RDP). Building the MAC Address for a Multicast Group. Solaris 8 Router Configuration Files and Their Functions. Adding Default Routes through the /etc/defaultrouter File. Direct and Indirect Routing. Working with the /etc/gateways File. Example 1: Adding a Network Route to the Routing Table on Host voyager. Example 2: Adding a Default Route to the Routing Table Using the /etc/gateways File. Example 3: Preventing RIP from Entering or Leaving an Interface. Configuring a Solaris 8 System as a Router. Administering the Solaris 8 Routing Table Using the route and netstat Commands. Adding and Deleting Routes Using the route Command. Example 1: Adding a Network-Specific Route on mars. Example 2: Adding a Network-Specific Route on pluto. Example 3: Adding a Default Route on voyager. Example 4: Deleting the Network-Specific Route Added in Example 1. Example 5: Deleting the Network-Specific Route Added in Example 2. Example 6: Deleting the Default Route on voyager Added in Example 3. Continuously Monitoring Routing Information Using the route Command. Getting Routing Information and Displaying on Standard Output. Viewing the Routing Table with netstat. Line 1. Line 2. Line 3. Line 4. Line 5. Using netstat Ðrn. Additional in.routed Options. Capturing Routing Information in a Log File. Capturing Routing Information and Displaying on Standard Output.
TCP Encapsulation, Header, and Features. TCP Encapsulation. The TCP Header. Source and Destination Port Numbers. 32-Bit Sequence Number. 32-Bit Acknowledgment Number. 4-Bit Header Length. Control Bits. Window Size. Checksum. Urgent Pointer. Options. Padding. TCP Data. TCP Features. Connection Establishment and Release. Positive Acknowledgment with Retransmission. Sliding Window Protocol. UDP Encapsulation, Header, and Features. UDP Encapsulation. The UDP Header. Source and Destination Port Fields. The UDP Length Field. The UDP Checksum Field. UDP Features. Line 1. Line 2. Comparison of TCP and UDP. The IP Interface to the Transport Layer.
Servers, Clients, and Services. Client/Server Applications: An Overview. ONC+ Applications. eXternal Data Representation (XDR). Transport Layer Interface (TLI). Sockets. Network File System (NFS). Network Information Service (NIS/NIS+). Configuring Solaris 8 Servers. Starting Servers. Starting Standalone Servers. Starting Services through inetd. Allocating Port Numbers to Traditional and TI-RPC Servers. Port Allocation to Traditional Servers via /etc/inet/services. Port Allocation to TI-RPC Servers via rpcbind. TI-RPC Server Program Numbers. Monitoring Services and Servers. Server Monitoring with the netstat Command. Server Monitoring with the rpcinfo Command. rpcbind Fields. mountd Fields. The /etc/rpc File. Official Server Name. Program Number. Aliases. omparing inetd and rpcbind.
Overview of DHCP. DHCP Terminology. DHCP Client. DHCP Server. BOOTP Relay. DHCP Binding. Lease. Advantages of Using DHCP. Disadvantages of Using DHCP. DHCP IP Address Allocation Modes. Automatic Allocation of Permanent IP Addresses. Dynamic Allocation of IP Addresses. Manual Allocation of IP Addresses. Allocating a Specific Address to a DHCP Client. DHCP Configuration Files. The /etc/dhcp/inittab File. Option Type STANDARD. Option Type SITE. Option Type VENDOR. Option Type FIELD. Option Type INTERNAL. The /var/dhcp/dhcp_network File. The /var/dhcp/dhcptab File. Name. Type. Value. Lease Negotiation. The /etc/dhcp.interface File. The /etc/default/dhcp File. The /etc/default/dhcpagent File. Example 1. Example 2. Administering DHCP Clients and Servers. DHCP Server Installation Using dhcpconfig. Managing the/var/dhcp/dhcp_network File with the pntadm Command. The “c” Option. The “a” Option. The “m” Option. The “d” Option. The “p” Option. The “r” Option. The “l” Option. Managing the /var/dhcp/dhcptab File with the dhtadm Command. The “C” Option. The “A” Option. The “M” Option. The “D” Option. The “R” Option. The DHCP Server Daemon in.dhcpd.
Network Management: An Overview. Network Management as Defined by ISO. Network Management Tools. Introduction to the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). SNMP Functions: get, set, and trap. Structure of Management Information and the OID Tree. Management Information Bases (MIB) and ASN. Sun's SNMP-Based Management Tools.
DNS: The Glue of the Internet. DNS and Berkeley Internet Domain Name (BIND) Software. Solaris 8 Version of DNS and BIND. Solaris Name Services: A Comparison. The DNS Namespace. Domain Name Basics. Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN) versus Relative Domain Names (RDN). Top Level Domains (TLDs). Zones of Authority and Delegation. Types of DNS Servers. Root-Level DNS Servers. Nonroot Master DNS Servers and the named.root File. DNS Master Servers. DNS Slave Servers. DNS Caching-Only Servers. DNS Forwarding Servers. Querying Servers: Recursion versus Iteration. The Main Configuration File /etc/named.conf. Named.conf Entries. The /etc/named.conf Main Configuration File. The Directives in /etc/named.conf. Options. Server. Zone. The acl Directive. The include Directive. The Zone Database Files and the Resource Record (RR) Format. Syntax of the Resource Record (RR). [NAME] Field. [TTL] Field. [CLASS] Field. [RECORD-TYPE] and [RECORD-DATA] Fields. The Zone Database Files. A Forward Zone File Example. The Reverse Zone File. The Root Zone File. Creating a DNS Server and Client Step by Step. Creating a DNS Server. Creating The Main /etc/named.conf File on Server rigel. Creating a /var/named Directory and Desired Subdirectories. Creating Zone Files for Each Zone Supported. Modifying the /etc/nsswitch.conf File. Starting in.named. Creating a DNS Client. DNS Debugging and Dumping the DNS Cache. Sending Signals to in.named. The INT Signal-Dumping the DNS Server's Cache. The HUP Signal-Reloading the Server's Configuration Files. The USR1 Signal-Activating Real-Time Debugging. The TERM and KILL SignalsÑKilling in.named. Additional Tools.
Solaris 8 NTP Features and Terminology. NTP Basic Terminology. A Brief Description of Solaris 8 NTP. Solaris 8 NTP Configuration Files. The Primary NTP Configuration Files. /etc/inet/ntp.conf. /var/ntp/ntp.drift. /etc/init.d/xntpd. /var/adm/messages. Verifying That Solaris 8 NTP Packages Are Installed. Configuring a Solaris 8 NTP Client and Server. Configuring a Solaris 8 NTP Server. Creating the NTP Server Main Configuration File. Configuring the NTP Server. Configuring a Solaris 8 NTP Client. Configuring the Client's ntp.conf File. Running the xntpd Daemon. Client Synchronization and the Log File Entries. Some Useful NTP Commands: ntpq and ntptrace.
IPv6, the New Internet Protocol. The IPv6 Datagram Header. Fields of the IPv6 Header. Version. Traffic Class. Flow Label. Payload Length. Next Header. Hop Limit. Source IP Address. Destination IP Address. Comparing the IPv6 and IPv4 Headers. IPv4 Options Field. Checksum Field. Router Fragmentation Field. The IPv6 Address Format. Text Representation of IPv6 Addresses. Colon Notation Example Using an IPv4 Address. Colon Notation Example Using IPv6 Addresses. IPv6 Subnet Prefixes. The Three Types of IPv6 Addresses. The Three Types of IPv6 Unicast Addresses. Aggregatable Global Unicast Addresses. Site-Local Unicast Addresses. Link-Local Unicast Addresses. IPv6 Special Unicast Addresses. IPv6 Multicast Addresses. The IPv6 Multicast Address Format. Multicast Addresses Used by the Network Time Protocol (NTP). Node-Local, Link-Local, and Site-Local Multicast Addresses. IPv6 Anycast Addresses. Configuring an IPv6 Network Interface. Autoconfiguring IPv6 Link-Local Addresses. Obtaining the Host's Ethernet Address. Converting to Binary. Inverting Bit 7 (High-Order Byte). Inserting 0xFF and 0xFE between the CID and VID. Adding the Prefix. Configuring an IPv6 Permanent Address Manually. Plumbing in Interface hme0:10. Bringing Up and Assigning an IPv6 Address. Testing with the ping Command.
Be sure to understand the policy for changing your exam date and time in case you need to reschedule your exam. Also be sure you understand any time limitations regarding the starting time for your exam. If you are late, you might not be able to take your exam. Restrictions and penalties for cancellations and/or late arrivals may apply. Carefully read all of the terms and conditions printed on your exam confirmation.
Notes and warnings are enclosed in boxes so that they will stand out.
What is all the commotion about technical certifications? Is it just hype-or is there really something to it? What is the true value of a certification? In the quest for competitive advantage among IT professionals, certification is rapidly becoming a key distinguishing characteristic for those able to attain it. Here is what industry analysts are saying:
You need a certification if you want to stay ahead of the competition. This book will guide you to Solaris certification.
Solaris 8 Certification is intended for experienced UNIX network administrators who wish to prepare for the Sun Certified Network Administrator for the Solaris 8 Operating Environment exam.
If you wish to take the exam but feel that you need to learn more, contact Sun Education at
http://suned.sun.com/. There you can find out about training materials and classes in your area. You can also contact Sun Education at:
500 Eldorado Blvd.
Broomfield, CO 80021
Phone: (800) 422-8020, or (303) 464-4097
Fax: (303) 464-4490
Follow these steps to register for the exam:
Allow plenty of time to travel to the exam site, including time for finding a parking space and the location of the exam building and room. It is advisable to call in advance if you are not familiar with the exam site.
No food or beverages are allowed in the exam room. You must check in any computer, laptop, PDA, calculator, recorder, or cell phone you bring in with you. The exam center will supply pencils and one sheet of paper for you to make calculations, draw diagrams, etc., and you will have to surrender that piece of paper at the end of the exam. You are not allowed to take any written notes with you out of the exam.
You will have 120 minutes to take the exam. That's about 2 minutes per question, as there are 58 questions in the exam. The amount of time remaining is always visible on the screen. You may take a restroom break if you wish (according to rules at the testing center), but the time clock will continue counting.
The exam contains 58 questions, which are a combination of multiple choice and free response. There is more than one version of this exam. Each version has questions that were carefully selected from a much larger pool of questions, so that each version of the exam covers the same subject area and has an equivalent degree of difficulty.
The process for developing the exam questions is not trivial. Exam questions are carefully written according to a strict set of guidelines and then tested. There is a whole field of study called psychometrics that is used to measure and evaluate each question. Only after passing careful scrutiny will an exam question ultimately find its way onto the exam.
Questions will appear one at a time on the screen. You will be able to see each question and, in the case of multiple-choice questions, you will be able to see all of the possible answers. In some longer questions, you can scroll down to see these.
If you are not sure of the answer, you may skip the question and return to it later. You can also "mark" any exam question that you wish to review later.
The exam contains two types of multiple-choice questions: some with one correct answer, and some with two or more correct answers. Multiple-choice questions with one correct answer will present radio buttons for selecting your answer, allowing you to select only one answer. If two answers appear to be similar, be very careful because only one answer is correct.
Multiple-choice questions with more than one correct answer will specify the number of correct answers. You must select all of the correct answers in order to get credit for the question. These questions will present checkboxes, allowing you to select more than one answer.
Here are two sample multiple-choice questionsone with one correct answer and one with multiple answers.
Free-response questions require that you type the correct answer into a blank text field. You must be very careful that you get the answer exactly right. But what about the order of options in a command? The exam is smart enough to figure this outthe exam knows about all possible variations. For instance,
netstat -r -n, and
netstat -n -r are all correct answers and will be accepted.
Here is an example of a free-response question:
If a DNS slave server fails to synchronize with the DNS master, what is the most likely reason?
After you have answered all of the questions, you will be able to see a list of all the exam questions and the answers you selected (or filled in). Each question will have a special marking if you marked it for later review.
You may start at the beginning and review each question, you may review questions you marked earlier, or you may just skip around and check questions in any order you wish. You may unmark questions you marked, and you may mark other questions. You are free to review questions, change answers, and mark and unmark questions until time runs out or you finish the exam early.
Once you have finished the exam, it will be scored immediately. You must answer at least 67 percent of the questions correctly to pass the exam
You will receive a temporary certificate that will show whether you passed or failed the exam. The certificate will include your name and the number of questions you answered correctly. A chart on the lower half of the certificate will indicate how you scored on each subject area. You will not know how you did on any individual question.
If you failed the exam, you may take it again as soon as two weeks later, but you cannot take the exam more than three times in a calendar year. You will have to register and pay for another examination. You can be assured that the version of the exam will not be the same one you took previously.
You may not discuss the details of the exam with any other individual. You may not offer or accept help of any kind.
Each chapter begins with a list of exam objectives. These objectives were developed by Sun Microsystems; they define the subject matter covered by the certification exam and this book. Here is an example exam objective:
All of the certification objectives appear in Appendix C, along with the chapter number associated with each objective. This will allow you to quickly find the technical information behind each objective.
Examples from real sessions appear in
courier font, as in the examples below.
# pkill -TERM named
To restart the DNS server, just type
Throughout the book, at the end of every section are Key Learning Points, which I strongly recommend you read and learn. They list the most important points made in the section and should be understood.
Each chapter ends with a Summary and a Test Yourself section where there are ten multiple-choice and two free-answer questions. Because the exam contains few drag-and-drop questions, no sample drag-and-drop questions appear in this book.
The answers for test questions from all of the book's chapters are found in Appendixes A and B.
Despite the presence of reviews and controls at every level, from executive direction to copy editing, some mistakes are bound to slip through. That or an unannounced change in behavior or functionality in Solaris itself, is bound to create a discrepancy between this book, the exam, and reality.
If a mistake is found in this book, all is not lost. Changes in the way books are published these days lead to the fact that this book will undergo several printing runs, each of which represents an opportunity to fix a mistake here and there.
Please send us feedback about any mistakes you find in this book, or about any ideas or comments you may have for future editions of this book.
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