The professional's guide to SONETcompletely updated for the latest innovations!
SONET is the transport technology at the heart of virtually every high-speed optical network. SONET and T1: Architecture for Digital Transport Networks, Second Edition gives communications engineers and other professionals an in-depth understanding of every facet of SONET technology-including breakthrough IP-over-SONET optical Internets, new techniques for integrating SONET with WDM fiber, and other key innovations.
The authors begin with an overview of SONET's goals and architecture, then present the most detailed coverage of SONET operations, administration, and management available in any book. SONET and T1: Architecture for Digital Transport Networks, Second Edition offers detailed information on the "hows" and "whys" of deploying and managing any SONET system, from architecture through maintenance, using real-life applications drawn from diverse carrier and business environments. This second edition's new coverage includes:
From day-to-day administration to long-term planning, SONET and T1: Architecture for Digital Transport Networks, Second Edition is your richest, most up-to-date SONET resource.
Notes for the Reader.
What Are SONET and T1? The Development of SONET. Precursors to SONET. Participation by ITU-T. Key ITU-T Documents. Role of ANSI and Key Standards. Documents. The Network and Services Integration Forum (NSIF)). SONET and T1. Comparison of SONET and T1. Features of SONET and T1. Synchronous Networks. The Perils of Bit Stuffing. SONET Timing. The Benefits of Byte Alignment. Floating Payloads. Payloads and Envelopes. Optical Fiber-the Bedrock for SONET. Typical SONET Topology. Present Transport Systems and SONET. Clarification of Terms. Summary.
Organization of Telephone Services. Types of Signaling. Control Signaling. E&M Signaling. Other Signaling. Connecting the User to the Telephone System. Two-Wire Interface at Both Ends. Four-Wire Interface at Both Ends. Four-Wire Interface at One Site and Two-Wire at the Other Site. Intraexchange or Intracity Private Lines. Typical Applications. Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM Carrier Systems. Analog-to-Digital Conversion. Classification of Speech Coders. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). Pulse Modulation. PAM. PCM. Sampling, Quantizing, and Encoding. Segment Approximation. PCM Algorithms: µ-Law and A-Law. Other Analog-to-Digital Techniques. Differential PCM (DPCM) and Adaptive DPCM (ADPCM). Sub-Band ADPCM (SB-ADPCM). Delta Modulation (DM) and Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation (CVSD). Voice Compression Techniques: Code Excited Linear Prediction. Newer Digital Voice Schemes. Convolutional Coding. The Repetition Function. Voice Quality Categories: A General View. The New Voice Coders. Conserving Bandwidth with Voice Activity Detection (VAD). Summary. Appendix 2A: Coding and Coding Violations.
Timing and Synchronization in Digital Networks. Effect of Timing Errors. The Clocking Signal. Timing (or Synchronization) Distribution. Clocking Rules. Types of Timing in Networks. Plesiochronous and Asynchronous Networks. Synchronous Networks. The Synchronous Clock Hierarchy. Summary and Clarification of Terms. Timing Variations. Frequency Accuracy. Dealing with the Timing Problems. Slip Operations in More Detail. Slips-Controlled and Uncontrolled. Bit or Clock Slips. Frequency Departures and Accuracies. Methods of Clock Exchange. Free-Running. Line-Timed. Loop-Timed. External. Through-Timed. Distribution of Timing Information with SONET and DS1 Signals. Decoupling the Clocks. Other Uses and Examples of Pointer Operations. Floating Payloads and the SONET Pointer. Locked Mode. Bit Stuffing for Uniformity. Timing Downstream Devices. Source Clock Frequency Recovery for Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Systems. Synchronization Status Messages and Timing Loops. Examples of Timing Supply Systems. Use of Timing Supply Systems. The Global Positioning System (GPS). The Building Integrated Timing Supply. The Network Time Protocol (NTP). Summary.
T1 Line Configurations. The Digital Network. DS1 Frame Format. Advantages of the Bipolar Code. Introduction to The D Family Channel Banks. North American Asynchronous Digital Hierarchy. Digital Loop Carrier Systems. T1 Line and Trunks. D1 Channel Banks. Basic Operations. Demise of the D1 Channel Bank. D1D Channel Banks. D2 Channel Banks. Robbed Bit Signaling. The Superframe. Alarm Methods. D3 Channel Banks. D4 Channel Banks. Operating Modes. Vendors' D4 Channel Banks. AT&T's D4. Nortel Networks' DE4 and DE4E. Other D4 Features. B8ZS. Clear Channel Capability. Zero-Byte Time Slot Interchange (ZBTSI). Extended Superframe Format. D5 Channel
This book is part of a series titled Advanced Communications Technologies. This particular book also has a close "companion" in this series, titled ISDN and SS7: Architectures for Digital Signaling Networks.
When we were planning this book, our initial intent was for it to be a SONET book, with little discussion of the T1 technology. However, we decided that the book should also include T1 because many of the SONET operations are centered around T1. In addition, as we surveyed the literature on T1, we were surprised to discover that the existing books on T1 did not cover several important aspects of the subject--omissions that we have corrected in this book.
Also, we have included material on some of the original T1 channel banks. To our knowledge, this material has not appeared in any text, and the information is essential to understanding how T1 is the way it is.
In setting out to write this book, we established two goals. First, we wish to complement the overall series, and avoid undue overlapping of the subject matter of the other books. Second, we wish to explain aspects of the subject matter that have not been provided in other reference books. We found that not much tutorial literature exists on synchronization and timing, on the Building Integrated Timing Supply (BITS), on SONET configuration (crafting) operations, and some other important subjects. This information is provided in this book.