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5G Wireless: A Comprehensive Introduction

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5G Wireless: A Comprehensive Introduction

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  • Understand the overall 5G ecosystem and individual building blocks
  • Explore 5G R&D and standardization roadmaps, so you can plan to leverage 5G technology more effectively
  • Brings together crucial knowledge previously scattered across scores of publications, standards documents, blog posts, and white papers
  • Complemented by a frequently updated website with links to relevant sources and supporting documents
  • By William Stallings, 13-time winner of the prestigious TAA Computer Science Textbook of the Year Award
  • Ancillary PowerPoint slides provided to instructors make preparing for lectures easier (file downloadable from Pearson.com)


  • Copyright 2021
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 672
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-676714-1
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-676714-5

Gain a Deep, Practical Understanding of 5G Technology, Applications, Architecture, Standards, and Ecosystem

The 5G ultra-high-speed wireless communication standard is a major technological leap forward--substantially increasing speed and capacity, enhancing current use cases, and making many new applications practical. For technical professionals, managers, and students, 5G requires significant new knowledge and expertise. In 5G Wireless: A Comprehensive Introduction, renowned information technology author William Stallings presents a comprehensive and unified explanation of 5G's key applications, technologies, and standards.

Like Stallings' other award-winning texts, this guide will help you quickly find the information and gain the mastery to succeed with critical new technology. Stallings first explains how cellular networks have evolved through 4G and now 5G, and surveys 5G's application areas and use cases. Next, he thoroughly introduces the 5G core network, covering SDN, NFV, network slicing, QoS, and edge computing--and provides a detailed coverage of the 5G air interface and radio access network. Throughout, key concepts are illuminated through realistic examples, review questions help you test your understanding, and references support further exploration.

  • Understand the 5G ecosystem, its building blocks, standards, and R&D roadmaps
  • Explore the Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) use case, where 5G enhances 4G in applications such as smart offices and dense urban communications
  • Learn how Massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC) and Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communications (URLCC) support new applications such as fog, IoT, and cloud
  • Discover how 5G NextGen core (backbone) networks serve and interconnect wireless access networks that connect user devices
  • Master key 5G NR Air Interface and Radio Access Network (RAN) concepts, including millimeter-wave transmission, MIMO antennas, and OFDM multiplexing

Sample Content

Online Sample Chapter

Overview of 5G Use Cases and Architecture

Sample Pages

Download the sample pages (includes Chapter 3)

Table of Contents

Preface     xxiv
Chapter 1:  Cellular Networks: Concepts and Evolution     2

1.1 Evolution of Cellular Networks     2
1.2 Cellular Network Concepts     4
    Cellular Organization     4
    Network System Elements     10
    Operation of Cellular Systems     11
1.3 First Generation (1G)     14
1.4 Second Generation (2G)     15
    Time-Division Multiple Access     16
    GSM Architecture     17
    Radio Link Aspects     20
1.5 Third Generation (3G)     20
    Code-Division Multiple Access     21
    3G Architecture     21
1.6 Fourth Generation (4G)     24
    E-UTRAN     26
    LTE-Advanced Transmission Characteristics     29
    Evolved Packet Core     33
1.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     34
    Key Terms     34
    Review Questions     35
Chapter 2:  5G Standards and Specifications     36
2.1 ITU-R and IMT-2020     37
    International Mobile Telecommunications     38
    Capabilities     38
    Usage Scenarios     41
    Use Cases     43
    Evaluation     46
2.2 ITU-T and IMT-2020     57
    Requirements     57
    Network Slicing     59
    Fixed Mobile Convergence     61
    IMT-2020 Core Network Framework     62
2.3 3GPP     65
    3GPP Releases     69
    Detailed Requirements     70
2.4 Key Terms and Review Questions     72
    Key Terms     72
    Review Questions     73
2.5 References and Documents     74
    References     74
    Documents     74
Chapter 3:  Overview of 5G Use Cases and Architecture     76
3.1 5G Use Cases     77
    ITU-R     77
    5G Americas     77
    NGMA Alliance     79
3.2 NGMN 5G Architecture Framework     81
    Layered Functionality     82
    Network Slicing     85
3.3 3GPP 5G Architecture     87
    5G Core Network Architecture     87
    Radio Access Network Architecture     94
    Session Establishment     97
3.4 Key Terms and Review Questions     98
    Key Terms     98
    Review Questions     99
3.5 References and Documents     99
    References     99
    Documents     100
Chapter 4:  Enhanced Mobile Broadband     102

4.1 eMBB Deployment Scenarios     103
    Indoor Hotspot     104
    Dense Urban     105
    Rural     105
4.2 eMBB Performance Characteristics     105
    Data Rate Requirements     106
    Spectral Efficiency Requirements     107
    Latency Requirements     108
    Mobility Requirements     108
    System Requirements     109
4.3 Smart Office: An Indoor Hotspot Use Case     110
4.4 Dense Urban Information Society: A Dense Urban Use Case     111
4.5 Radiocommunication Systems Between Train and Trackside: A Rural eMBB Use Case     113
    Elements of RSTT     114
    Applications of RSTT     114
    Broadband Connectivity for Passengers     116
    Linear Cell Architecture     117
4.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     118
    Key Terms     118
    Review Questions     118
4.7 References and Documents     119
    References     119
    Documents     119
Chapter 5:  Massive Machine Type Communications     122
5.1 mMTC Performance Requirements     123
5.2 The Internet of Things     124
    The Scope of the Internet of Things     125
    Things on the Internet of Things     128
    Components of IoT-Enabled Things     128
    Constrained Devices     129
    IoT and Cloud Context     130
5.3 Relationship Between mMTC and the IoT     133
5.4 Relationship Between mMTC and NB-IoT and eMTC     135
    Comparison of NB-IoT and eMTC     135
    Low-Power Wide Area (LPWA)     136
5.5 Smart Agriculture     138
    Model of IoT Deployment     138
    Use Cases     140
    Precision Crop Management     145
    Network Performance Requirements     150
5.6 Smart Cities     150
    Smart City Use Cases     151
    ICT Architecture for Smart Cities     158
    Network Performance Requirements     160
5.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     162
    Key Terms     162
    Review Questions     163
5.8 References and Documents     163
    References     163
    Documents     164
Chapter 6:  Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communications     166
6.1 URLLC Performance Requirements     167
    Latency     168
    Mobility     169
    Reliability     170
    NGMN Definitions     170
6.2 URLLC Use Cases in Emerging Mission-Critical Applications     171
    Industrial Automation     171
    Ground Vehicles, Drones, and Robots     171
    Tactile Interaction     171
    Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality     172
    Emergencies, Disasters, and Public Safety     176
    Urgent Healthcare     176
    Intelligent Transportation     177
6.3 URLLC Applications Based on Performance Requirements     178
    Higher Reliability and Lower Latency     179
    Higher Reliability, Higher Availability, and Lower Latency     180
    Very Low Latency     181
    Higher Accuracy Positioning     181
    Higher Availability     181
    Mission-Critical Services     182
6.4 Industry 4.0     182
    Factory Automation Architecture     183
    Application Areas     185
    Use Cases     187
    Performance Requirements     189
6.5 Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management     191
    UTM Architecture     192
    5G Performance Requirements for UTM     194
6.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     197
    Key Terms     197
    Review Questions     198
6.7 References and Documents     199
    References     199
    Documents     199
Chapter 7:  Software-Defined Networking     202

7.1 Evolving Network Requirements     203
7.2 The SDN Approach     204
    Modern Network Requirements     204
    SDN Architecture     204
    Characteristics of Software-Defined Networking     207
7.3 SDN Data Plane     207
    Data Plane Functions     207
    Data Plane Protocols     209
7.4 OpenFlow     209
    Flow Table Structure     211
    Flow Table Pipeline     214
    The Use of Multiple Tables     216
    Group Table     217
    OpenFlow Protocol     217
7.5 SDN Control Plane     218
    Control Plane Functions     218
    Southbound Interface     220
    Northbound Interface     220
    Eastbound Interface     223
    Westbound Interface     224
7.6 SDN Application Plane     225
    Application Plane Architecture     225
    Northbound Interface     226
    Network Services Abstraction Layer     226
    Network Applications     226
    User Interface     230
7.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     230
    Key Terms     230
    Review Questions     231
7.8 References and Documents     231
    References     231
    Documents     232
Chapter 8:  Network Functions Virtualization     234
8.1 Background and Motivation for NFV     235
8.2 Virtual Machines and Containers     236
    Hypervisor     236
    Architectural Approaches     238
    Container Virtualization     241
8.3 NFV Concepts     242
    Simple Example of the Use of NFV     245
    NFV Principles     246
    High-Level NFV Framework     246
8.4 NFV Benefits and Requirements     248
    NFV Benefits     248
    NFV Requirements     249
8.5 NFV Reference Architecture     250
    NFV Management and Orchestration     251
    Reference Points     251
8.6 NFV Infrastructure     252
    Container Interface     253
    Deployment of NFVI Containers     256
    Logical Structure of NFVI Domains     257
    Compute Domain     258
    Hypervisor Domain     260
    Infrastructure Network Domain     261
8.7 Virtualized Network Functions     263
    VNF Interfaces     263
    VNFC-to-VNFC Communication     264
    VNF Scaling     266
8.8 SDN and NFV     267
8.9 Key Terms and Review Questions     269
    Key Terms     269
    Review Questions     270
8.10 References and Documents     271
    References     271
    Documents     271
Chapter 9:  Core Network Functionality, QoS, and Network Slicing     272
9.1 Core Network Requirements     273
    Network Operational Requirements     273
    Basic Network Requirements     275
9.2 Core Network Functional Architecture     279
    Tunneling     281
    PDU Session Establishment     283
    Policy Control Function     287
9.3 Quality of Service     291
    QoS Capabilities     291
    QoS Architectural Framework     294
    QoS Classification, Marking, and Differentiation     297
    3GPP QoS Architecture     298
    QoS Parameters     299
    QoS Characteristics     301
    Standardized 5QI-to-QoS Characteristic Mapping     303
9.4 Network Slicing     307
    Network Slicing Concepts     308
    Requirements for Network Slicing     310
    Identifying and Selecting a Network Slice     312
    Functional Aspects of Network Slicing     313
    Generic Slice Template     314
9.5 SDN and NFV Support for 5G     315
9.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     319
    Key Terms     319
    Review Questions     319
9.7 References and Documents     320
    References     320
    Documents     320
Chapter 10:  Multi-Access Edge Computing     322
10.1 MEC and 5G     323
10.2 MEC Architectural Concepts     324
10.3 ETSI MEC Architecture     327
    Design Principles     328
    MEC System Reference Architecture     329
    Related Elements     332
10.4 MEC in NFV     333
    MEC Components Implemented as VNFs     333
    MEC Components Replaced by NFV Components     335
    MEC System-Level Components     335
10.5 MEC Support for Network Slicing     335
10.6 MEC Use Cases     336
    Consumer-Oriented Services     337
    Operator and Third-Party Services     342
    Network Performance and QoS Improvements     344
10.7 3GPP Architecture for Enabling Edge Applications     349
    EDGEAPP Functional Architecture     350
    Synergized Mobile Edge Cloud Architecture     352
10.8 Key Terms and Review Questions     353
    Key Terms     353
    Review Questions     353
10.9 References and Documents     354
    References     354
    Documents     355
Chapter 11:  Wireless Transmission     356

11.1 Channel Capacity     357
    Nyquist Bandwidth     357
    Shannon Capacity Formula     358
11.2 Line-of-Sight Transmission     361
    Refraction     362
    Optical and Radio Line of Sight     363
11.3 Line-of-Sight Transmission Impairments     364
    Attenuation     364
    Free Space Loss     365
    Path Loss Exponent in Practical Cellular Systems     368
    Noise     369
    The Expression Eb/N0     372
    Atmospheric Absorption     374
    Multipath     375
    Refraction     376
11.4 Fading in the Mobile Environment     376
    Multipath Propagation     376
    The Effects of Multipath Propagation     377
    Types of Fading     378
    The Fading Channel     379
11.5 Millimeter Wave Transmission for 5G     381
    Propagation Impairments     381
    Implications for 5G     385
11.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     387
    Key Terms     387
    Review Questions     388
11.7 References     389
ANNEX 11A: Decibels and Signal Strength     389
Chapter 12:  Antennas     394
12.1 Channel Correction Mechanisms     394
    Adaptive Equalization     395
    Diversity Techniques     396
    Adaptive Modulation and Coding     398
    Forward Error Correction     398
12.2 Introduction to Antennas     399
    Radiation Patterns     399
    Antenna Types     401
    Antenna Gain     406
12.3 Multiple-Input/Multiple-Output (MIMO) Antennas     407
    MIMO Principles     408
    Multiple-User MIMO     410
12.4 Advanced Cellular Antennas     411
    Evolution of Cellular Antennas     411
    Beamforming     412
    Active Antenna Systems     416
    Massive MIMO     417
12.5 Key Terms and Review Questions     420
    Key Terms     420
    Review Questions     421
12.6 References     422
Chapter 13:  Air Interface Physical Layer     424
13.1 Modulation Schemes     424
    Modulation     425
    Amplitude-Shift Keying     425
    Frequency-Shift Keying     426
    Phase-Shift Keying     426
    Quadrature Amplitude Modulation     433
    pi/2-BPSK     437
13.2 OFDM, OFDMA, and SC-FDMA     438
    Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing     438
    OFDM Implementation     441
    Difficulties of OFDM     444
    Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access     445
    Single-Carrier FDMA     446
13.3 Waveforms and Numerologies     448
    Numerology     448
    CP-OFDM     449
    DFT-S-OFDM     450
13.4 Key Terms and Review Questions     451
    Key Terms     451
    Review Questions     452
13.5 References and Documents     453
    References     453
    Documents     453
ANNEX 13A: Multiplexing and Multiple Access     453
    Multiplexing     453
    Multiple Access     455
Chapter 14:  Air Interface Channel Coding     456
14.1 Transmission Errors     457
    Error Burst     457
    Data Transmission Channels     458
14.2 Forward Error Correction     460
    Block Error Correction     460
    Hamming Distance     462
14.3 Parity-Check Matrix Codes     466
    Encoding     469
    Error Detection     470
    Error Correction     470
14.4 Low-Density Parity-Check Codes     471
    Code Construction     472
    Error Correction     473
    Encoding     476
14.5 Polar Coding     476
    Polar Encoder     477
    Synthetic Channels     479
    Decoding     483
14.6 3GPP Channel Coding Specification     484
    Quasi-Cyclic Low-Density Parity-Check Codes     485
    Polar Coding with CRC     486
14.7 Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request     488
14.8 Key Terms and Review Questions     490
    Key Terms     490
    Review Questions     490
14.9 References and Documents     491
    References     491
    Documents     492
Chapter 15:  5G Radio Access Network     494
15.1 Overall RAN Architecture     494
15.2 RANCore Functional Split     499
    RAN Functional Areas     500
    Core Functional Areas     501
15.3 RAN Channel Structure     502
    Logical Channel     503
    Transport Channels     503
    Physical Channels     504
15.4 RAN Protocol Architecture     505
    Air Interface Protocol Architecture     505
    Channel Structure     508
    RANCore Network Interface Protocol Architecture     509
    Xn Interface Protocol Architecture     511
15.5 NG RAN Transport Network     512
15.6 Integrated Access and Backhaul     517
    IAB Architecture     519
    Parent/Child Relationship     520
    IAB Protocol Architecture     520
15.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     523
    Key Terms     523
    Review Questions     524
15.8 References and Documents     525
    References     525
    Documents     525
Appendix A:  Review Questions and Solutions     528
Appendix B:  Glossary     594
Appendix C:  Acronyms     604
Index     608


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