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Sams Teach Yourself SQL in 24 Hours, 4th Edition

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Sams Teach Yourself SQL in 24 Hours, 4th Edition

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Description

  • Copyright 2008
  • Pages: 504
  • Edition: 4th
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-7686-8276-2
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-7686-8276-2

In just 24 lessons of one hour or less, you will learn professional techniques to design and build efficient databases and query them to extract useful information. Using a straightforward, step-by-step approach, each lesson builds on the previous one, allowing you to learn the essentials of ANSI SQL from the ground up.

Example code demonstrates the authors’ professional techniques, while exercises written for MySQL offer the reader hands-on learning with an open-source database. Included are advanced techniques for using views, managing transactions, database administration, and extending SQL.

Step-by-step instructions carefully walk you through the most common SQL tasks.

Q&As, Quizzes, and Exercises at the end of each chapter help you test your knowledge.

Notes and Tips point out shortcuts and solutions.

New terms are clearly defined and explained.

Learn how to…

  • Use SQL-2003, the latest standard for the Structured Query Language
  • Design and deploy efficient, secure databases
  • Build advanced queries for information retrieval
  • Sort, group, and summarize information for best presentation
  • Tune databases and queries for maximum performance
  • Understand database administration and security techniques

For more than ten years the authors have studied, applied, and documented the SQL standard and its application to critical database systems.

Ryan Stephens and Ron Plew are entrepreneurs, speakers, and cofounders of Perpetual Technologies, Inc. (PTI), a fast-growing IT management and consulting firm which specializes in database technologies. They taught database courses for Indiana University–Purdue University in Indianapolis for five years and have authored more than a dozen books on Oracle, SQL, database design, and the high availability of critical systems.

Arie D. Jones is Senior SQL Server database administrator and analyst for PTI. He is a regular speaker at technical events and has authored several books and articles.

Category: Database

Covers: ANSI SQL

User Level: Beginning–Intermediate

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Sample Content

Table of Contents

Introduction                                                                            1

    What This Book Intends to Accomplish......................... 1

    What We Added to This Edition..................................... 1

    What You Need............................................................ 2

    Conventions Used in This Book..................................... 2

    ANSI SQL and Vendor Implementations........................ 3

    Understanding the Examples and Exercises................... 3

Part I: A SQL Concepts Overview

Hour 1: Welcome to the World of SQL                                   7

    SQL Definition and History............................................ 7

    SQL Sessions............................................................. 14

    Types of SQL Commands........................................... 15

    The Database Used in This Book................................. 17

    Summary.................................................................. 22

    Q&A.......................................................................... 23

    Workshop................................................................. 24

Part II: Building Your Database

Hour 2: Defining Data Structures                                          27

    What Is Data?............................................................ 27

    Basic Data Types....................................................... 28

    Summary.................................................................. 36

    Q&A.......................................................................... 37

    Workshop................................................................. 37

Hour 3: Managing Database Objects                                    41

    What Are Database Objects?...................................... 41

    What Is a Schema?.................................................... 42

    A Table: The Primary Storage for Data........................ 44

    Integrity Constraints.................................................. 52

    Summary.................................................................. 56

    Q&A.......................................................................... 57

    Workshop................................................................. 58

Hour 4: The Normalization Process                                      61

    Normalizing a Database............................................. 61

    Denormalizing a Database.......................................... 69

    Summary.................................................................. 69

    Q&A.......................................................................... 70

    Workshop................................................................. 70

Hour 5: Manipulating Data                                                    73

    Overview of Data Manipulation................................... 73

    Populating Tables with New Data................................ 74

    Updating Existing Data............................................... 79

    Deleting Data from Tables.......................................... 81

    Summary.................................................................. 82

    Q&A.......................................................................... 82

    Workshop................................................................. 83

Hour 6: Managing Database Transactions                             87

    What Is a Transaction?............................................... 87

    Controlling Transactions............................................. 88

    Transactional Control and Database Performance........ 95

    Summary.................................................................. 95

    Q&A.......................................................................... 96

    Workshop................................................................. 96

Part III: Getting Effective Results from Queries

Hour 7: Introduction to the Database Query                       101

    What Is a Query?..................................................... 101

    Introduction to the SELECT Statement...................... 101

    Examples of Simple Queries..................................... 109

    Summary................................................................ 113

    Q&A........................................................................ 113

    Workshop............................................................... 114

Hour 8: Using Operators to Categorize Data                      117

    What Is an Operator in SQL?.................................... 117

    Comparison Operators............................................. 118

    Logical Operators..................................................... 121

    Conjunctive Operators............................................. 127

    Negative Operators.................................................. 130

    Arithmetic Operators................................................ 134

    Summary................................................................ 138

    Q&A........................................................................ 138

    Workshop............................................................... 138

Hour 9: Summarizing Data Results from a Query                141

    What Are Aggregate Functions?................................ 141

    Summary................................................................ 149

    Q&A........................................................................ 149

    Workshop............................................................... 149

Hour 10: Sorting and Grouping Data                                  151

    Why Group Data?.................................................... 151

    The GROUP BY Clause.............................................. 152

    GROUP BY Versus ORDER BY.................................... 156

    The HAVING Clause.................................................. 159

    Summary................................................................ 160

    Q&A........................................................................ 160

    Workshop............................................................... 161

Hour 11: Restructuring the Appearance of Data                  165

    ANSI Character Functions......................................... 165

    Various Common Character Functions...................... 166

    Miscellaneous Character Functions............................ 175

    Mathematical Functions............................................ 178

    Conversion Functions............................................... 179

    Combining Character Functions................................ 181

    Summary................................................................ 182

    Q&A........................................................................ 182

    Workshop............................................................... 183

Hour 12: Understanding Dates and Times                           185

    How Is a Date Stored?............................................. 186

    Date Functions........................................................ 187

    Date Conversions.................................................... 192

    Summary................................................................ 197

    Q&A........................................................................ 197

    Workshop............................................................... 198

Part IV: Building Sophisticated Database Queries

Hour 13: Joining Tables in Queries                                      203

    Selecting Data from Multiple Tables........................... 203

    Types of Joins......................................................... 204

    Join Considerations.................................................. 214

    Summary................................................................ 218

    Q&A........................................................................ 218

    Workshop............................................................... 219

Hour 14: Using Subqueries to Define Unknown Data           221

    What Is a Subquery?................................................ 221

    Embedded Subqueries.............................................. 227

    Correlated Subqueries.............................................. 229

    Summary................................................................ 230

    Q&A........................................................................ 231

    Workshop............................................................... 231

Hour 15: Combining Multiple Queries into One                    235

    Single Queries Versus Compound Queries................. 235

    Compound Query Operators.................................... 236

    Using ORDER BY with a Compound Query................. 242

    Using GROUP BY with a Compound Query................. 244

    Retrieving Accurate Data.......................................... 246

    Summary................................................................ 246

    Q&A........................................................................ 246

    Workshop............................................................... 247

Part V: SQL Performance Tuning

Hour 16: Using Indexes to Improve Performance               253

    What Is an Index?.................................................... 253

    How Do Indexes Work?........................................... 254

    The CREATE INDEX Command.................................. 255

    Types of Indexes..................................................... 255

    When Should Indexes Be Considered?....................... 258

    When Should Indexes Be Avoided?........................... 259

    Dropping an Index.................................................... 260

    Summary................................................................ 261

    Q&A........................................................................ 261

    Workshop............................................................... 262

Hour 17: Improving Database Performance                        265

    What Is SQL Statement Tuning?............................... 265

    Database Tuning Versus SQL Statement Tuning......... 266

    Formatting Your SQL Statement............................... 266

    Full Table Scans....................................................... 272

    Other Performance Considerations........................... 273

    Performance Tools................................................... 276

    Summary................................................................ 276

    Q&A........................................................................ 277

    Workshop............................................................... 278

Part VI: Using SQL to Manage Users and Security

Hour 18: Managing Database Users                                   283

    Users Are the Reason.............................................. 284

    The Management Process........................................ 286

    Tools Utilized by Database Users.............................. 293

    Summary................................................................ 294

    Q&A........................................................................ 294

    Workshop............................................................... 295

Hour 19: Managing Database Security                                297

    What Is Database Security?...................................... 297

    What Are Privileges?................................................. 298

    Controlling User Access............................................ 302

    Controlling Privileges Through Roles.......................... 305

    Summary................................................................ 307

    Q&A........................................................................ 308

    Workshop............................................................... 309

Part VII: Summarized Data Structures

Hour 20: Creating and Using Views and Synonyms             313

    What Is a View?....................................................... 313

    Creating Views......................................................... 316

    WITH CHECK OPTION............................................... 320

    Updating Data Through a View.................................. 321

    Creating a Table from a View.................................... 322

    Views and the ORDER BY Clause............................... 323

    Dropping a View....................................................... 323

    What Is a Synonym?................................................ 324

    Summary................................................................ 325

    Q&A........................................................................ 326

    Workshop............................................................... 326

Hour 21: Working with the System Catalog                        329

    What Is the System Catalog?................................... 329

    How Is the System Catalog Created?....................... 331

    What Is Contained in the System Catalog?................ 331

    System Catalog Tables by Implementation............... 333

    Querying the System Catalog................................... 335

    Updating System Catalog Objects............................ 337

    Summary................................................................ 337

    Q&A........................................................................ 338

    Workshop............................................................... 338

Part VIII: Applying SQL Fundamentals in Today’s World

Hour 22: Advanced SQL Topics                                          343

    Cursors................................................................... 343

    Stored Procedures and Functions............................. 346

    Triggers................................................................... 349

    Dynamic SQL........................................................... 351

    Call-Level Interface.................................................. 352

    Using SQL to Generate SQL...................................... 352

    Direct Versus Embedded SQL................................... 353

    Windowed Table Functions....................................... 354

    Working with XML.................................................... 354

    Summary................................................................ 355

    Q&A........................................................................ 356

    Workshop............................................................... 356

Hour 23: Extending SQL to the Enterprise, the Internet, and the Intranet      359

    SQL and the Enterprise............................................. 359

    Accessing a Remote Database.................................. 361

    SQL and the Internet................................................ 364

    SQL and the Intranet................................................ 365

    Summary................................................................ 366

    Q&A........................................................................ 367

    Workshop............................................................... 367

Hour 24: Extensions to Standard SQL                                369

    Various Implementations.......................................... 369

    Example Extensions................................................. 372

    Interactive SQL Statements..................................... 375

    Summary................................................................ 376

    Q&A........................................................................ 377

    Workshop............................................................... 377

Part IX: Appendixes

Appendix A: Common SQL Commands                               381

Appendix B: Using MySQL for Exercises                              387

Appendix C: Answers to Quizzes and Exercises                   391

Appendix D: CREATE TABLE Statements for Book Examples 435

Appendix E: INSERT Statements for Book Examples            437

Appendix F: Bonus Exercises                                              441

Glossary                                                                             447

TOC, 0672330180, MF

 

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