Home > Store

Object Oriented Software Engineering: A Use Case Driven Approach

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.

Object Oriented Software Engineering: A Use Case Driven Approach


  • This product currently is not for sale.
Not for Sale


  • Copyright 1992
  • Dimensions: 234X172
  • Pages: 552
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-54435-0
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-54435-0

How can software developers, programmers and managers meet the challenges of the 90s and begin to resolve the software crisis? This book is based on Objectory which is the first commercially available comprehensive object-oriented process for developing large-scale industrial systems. Ivar Jacobson developed Objectory as a result of 20 years of experience building real software-based products. The approach takes a global view of system development and focuses on minimizing the system's life cycle cost. Objectory is an extensible industrial process that provides a method for building large industrial systems. This revised printing has been completely updated to make it as accessible and complete as possible. New material includes the revised Testing chapter, in which new product developments are discussed.

Sample Content

Table of Contents

Part 1. Introduction
1. System development as an industrial process
A useful analogy
System development characteristics
2. The system life cycle
System development as a process of change
System development and reuse
System development and methodology
3. What is object-orientation? Introduction
Class andinstance
4. Object-oriented system development Introduction
Function/data methods
Object-oriented analysis
Object-oriented construction
Object-oriented testing
5. Object-oriented programming Introduction
Classes and instances
An example
Part II. Concepts
6. Architecture Introduction
System development is model building
Model architecture
Requirements model
Analysis model
The design model
The implementation model
Test model
7. Analysis Introduction
The requirements model
The analysis model
8. Construction Introduction
The design model
Block design
Working with construction
9. Real-time specialization Introduction
Classification of real-time systems
Fundamental issues
Testing and verification
10. Database Specialization Introduction
Relational DBMS
Object DBMS
11. Components Introduction
What is a component?
Use of components
Component management
12. Testing Introduction
On testing
Unit testing
Integration testing
System testing
The testing process
Part III. Applications
13. Case study: warehouse management system Introduction to the examples
ACME Warehouse Management Inc.
The requirements model
The analysis model
14. Case study: telecom Introduction
Telecommunication switching systems
The requirements model
The analysis model
The design model
The implementation model
15. Managing object-oriented software engineering Introduction
Project selection and preparation
Project development organization
Project organization and management
Project staffing
Software quality assurance
Software metrics
16. Other object-oriented methods Introduction
A summary of object-oriented methods
Object-Oriented Analysis (OOAD/Coad-Yourdon)
Object-Oriented Design (OOD/Booch)
Hierarchical Object-Oriented Design (HOOD)
Object Modeling Technique (OMT)
Responsibility-Driven Design
Appendix A On the development of Objectory Introduction
Objectory as an activity
From idea to reality


This is a book on industrial system development using object-oriented techniques. It is not a book on object-oriented programming. We are convinced that the big benefits of object orientation can be gained only by the consistent use of object orientation throughout all steps in the development process. Therefore the emphasis is placed on the other parts of development such as analysis, design and testing.

You will benefit from this book if you are a system developer seeking ways to improve in your profession. If you are a student with no pervious experience in development methods, you will learn a robust framework which you can fill with details as you take part in future development projects. Since the focus on the text is on development, the book will be convenient to use in combination with other texts on object-oriented programming. Many examples illustrate the practical application of analysis and design techniques.

From this book you will get a thorough understanding of how to use object orientation as well as the basic technique throughout the development process. You will learn the benefits of seamless integration between the different development steps and how the basic object-oriented characteristics of class, inheritance and encapsulation are used in analysis, construction and testing. With this knowledge you are in a much better position to evaluate and select the way to develop your next data processing system.

Even though object orientation is the main theme of this book, it is not a panacea for successful system development. The change from craftsmanship to individualization does not come with the change to a new technique. The change must come on a more fundamental level which also includes the organization of the complete development process. Objectory is one example of how this can be done.

This book does not present Objectory. What we present is the fundamental ideas of Objectory and a simplified version of it. In this book we call this simplified method OOSE to distinguish it from Objectory. To use the process in production you will need the complete and detailed process description which, excluding large examples, amounts to more than 1200 pages. Introducing the process into an organization needs careful planning and dedication. It also requires that the process be adapted to the unique needs of the organization. Such process adaptations must of course be carefully specified, which can be done in a development case description, as will later be explained.

It is our hope that we have reached our goal with this book, namely to present a coherent picture of how to use object-orientation system development in a way which will make it accessible both to practitioners in the field and to students with no previous knowledge of system development. This has been done within a framework where system development is treated as an industrial activity and consequently must obey the same requirements as industry in general. The intention is to encourage more widespread use of object-oriented techniques and to inspire more work on improving the ideas expounded here. We are convinced that using these techniques will lead to better systems and a more industrial approach to system development.

Part I: Introduction. The book is divided into three parts. The first part covers the background, and contains the following chapters:

  • System development as an industrial process
  • The system life cycle
  • What is object-orientation?
  • Object-oriented system development
  • Object-oriented programming

This part gives an introduction to system development and summarizes the requirements of an industrial process. It also discusses the system life cycle. The idea of object orientation is introduced, and how it can be used in system development and during programming is surveyed.

Part II: Concepts. The second part is the core of the book. It contains the following chapters:

  • Architecture
  • Analysis
  • Construction
  • Real-time specialization
  • Database specialization
  • Components
  • Testing

The first chapter in this part introduces the fundamental concepts of OOSE and explains the reason why these concepts are chosen. The following chapter discuss the method of analysis and construction. The next two chapters discusses how the method may be adapted to real-time systems and database management systems. The components chapter discusses what components are and how they they can be used in the development process. Testing activities are discussed in a chapter of their own.

Part III: Applications. The third and last part covers applications of OOSE and how the introduction of the new development process may be organized and managed. This part ends with an overview of other object-oriented methods. This part comprises:

  • Case study: warehouse management system
  • Case study: Telecom
  • Managing object-oriented software engineering
  • Other object-oriented methods

Appendix. Finally we have an appendix which comments on our development of Objectory.

So, how should you read this book? Of course, to get a complete overview, the whole book should be read, including the appendix. But if you want to read only selected chapters the reading cases below could be used.

If you are an experienced object-oriented software engineer, you should be familiar with the basics. You could read the book as suggested in Figure P.1.

If you are a newcomer to object-orientation and software engineering you could read the book as in Figure P.2

If you are an experienced software engineer you could read the book as in Figure P.3

If you are a manager you could read the book as proposed in Figure P.4. Although the book is not object-oriented, it is written in a modularized way and can be configured in several different ways. Building systems in this way is the theme of the book, and the technique and notation used above is very similar to the technique used in this book.

A short history and acknowledgments

The work presented in this book was initiated in 1967 when I proposed a set of new modeling concepts (notation with associated semantics) for the development of large telecommunication switching systems. The main concepts were signals and blocks. A real-time system is an open system communicating with its environment by signals alone. A signal models the physical stimulus/response communication which a concrete system has when interacting with the outside world. Given a signal as input, a system performs internal actions such as executing algorithms, accessing internal information, storing results and sending output signals to the environment. This view presents the system in a very abstract way - as a black box. A less abstract view on a lower level models the system as a set of interconnected blocks. Blocks are modules which can be implemented in hardware or software or any combination of both. A block communicates with its environment only through signals. Signals between two blocks are internal, whereas signals modeling physical communication, that is, signals between a block and the environment of the system, are external. Internal signals are messengers conveying data from one block to another within the same system. All entries of a block were labelled and constituted the signal interface of that block, to be specified in a separate interface document. Hence the system can now be viewed as a set of interconnected blocks jointly offering the functions of the system. Each block has a program which it obeys on a receipt of an input signal, performing internal actions, that is, executing algorithms, storing and accessing block internal information, and sending internal and external signals to the environment.

The proposal can be summarized as an attempt to unify long experience of systems design with the possibilities offered by dramatically new computer technology. Since the two technologies were so different, this was not a self-evident method, neither within Ericsson nor within computer science. There was a rather strong belief that the two represented unrelated technological universes: the new one was so different that it would be meaningless and only a burden to make any attempt to learn from the old one. However, the two techniques were joined and a set of modeling concepts evolved.

The modeling constructs were soon followed by the skeleton of a new design method, the use of which was first demonstrated in the development of the AKE system put into service in Rotterdam in 1971, and more completely demonstrated in the AKE system put into service in Fredhall, Sweden, in 1974. Naturally this experience has guided subsequent work on the development of the successor to AKE, the AXE system, which is now in use in more than 80 countries worldwide. The modeling constructs were very important and, for the AXE system, a new programming language and a new computer system were developed in accordance to these early ideas.

Although it is a neighbouring country, the early development of object-oriented programming and Simula in the 1960s in Norway was done independently and in parallel with our work. It was not until 1979 that we "discovered" object-oriented programming and then it was in terms of Smalltalk. Although object-oriented ideas have influenced our recent work, basically two separate problems are being solved: "large-scale" and "small-scale".

The modeling constructs introduced during the 1960s were further formalized in research taking place between 1978 and 1985. The research resulted in a formally described language which offered support for object-orientation with two types of object and two types of communication mechanism, send/wait and send/no-wait semantics. The language supported concurrency with atomic transactions and a special semantic construction for the handling of events similar to the use case construct presented later. This work, reported in a PhD thesis in 1985, resulted in a number of new language constructs, initially developed from experience, being refined and formalized. This was a sound basis from which to continue and, taking a new approach, develop the method. The principles of Objectory were developed in 1985-7. I then further refined and simplified the ideas, generalized the technique used in the telecom applications, extended it with the inheritance concept and other important constructs like extensions, and coupled to it an analysis technique and object-oriented programming.

Today these concepts have been further redefined. The Objectory process, of which this book describes some fundamental ideas, is the result of work by many individuals, most of whom today work at Objective Systems SF AB, Sweden. Gunnar Overgaard and Patrik Jonsson did much of the writing of the first process description of Objectory analysis and design, respectively. Magnus Christerson did much to condense and rewrite the material into the form of this book. They have all contributed to Objectory; especially the formalization of the concepts. Magnus has also related the ideas of Objectory to other areas as presented in this book. Fredrik Lindstrom has also been involved in the condensation of the material of this book. Agneta Jacobson, Bud Lawson amd Lars Wiktorin have prepared material for some of the chapters.

Marten Gustafsson has substantially contributed to the analysis part of Objectory. Valuable contributions to Objectory have also been made by the following people: Sten-Erik Bergner, Per Bjork, Ann Carlbrand, Hakan Dyrhage, Christian Ehrenborg, Agneta Jacobson, Sten Jacobson, Mikael Larsson, Fredrik Lindstrom, Lars Lindroos, Benny Odenteg, Karin Palmkvist, Janne Pettersson, Birgitta Spiridon, Per Sundquist, Lars Wetterborg and Lars Wiktorin. The following users of Objectory have also contributed by feeding back experiences and ideas to enable improvements: Staffan Ehnebom, Per Hedfors, Jorgen Hellberg, Per Kilgren, Haken Lidstrom, Christian Meck, Christer Nilsson, Rune Nilsson, Goran Schefte, Fredrik Stromberg, Karin Villers, Stefan Wallin and Charoltte Wranne. The following persons have done a lot to support the tehnology described in this book: Kjell S. Andersson, Hans Brandtberg, Ingemar Carlsson, Hakan Dahl, Gunnar M. Eriksson, Bjorn Gullbrand, Lars Hallmarken, Bo Hedfors, Barbara Hedlund, Hakan Jansson, Christer Johansson, Ingemar Johnsson, Kurt Katzeff, Rolf Leidhammar, Jorma Mobrin, Jan-Erik Nordin, Anders Rockstrom, Kjell Sorme, Goran Sundelof, Per-Olof Thysselius, Ctirad Vrana and Erik Ornulf. The following people have given me strong personal inspiration and support: Dines Bjorner, Tore Bingefors, Dave Bulman, Larry Constantine, Goran Hemdal, Tom Love, Nils Lennmarker, Lars-Olof Noren, Dave Thomas and Lars-Erik Thorelli. In Sweden we do not normally thank family and friends in these circumstances, but no one beleives that results like these can be achieved without exceptional support from them. We are also grateful to the support we have been given from STU (Swedish National Board iof Industrial Development, now recognized to NUTEK) through the IT-4 program which has been part of the financial support and sponsorship for the writing of this book.

Changes to this revised printing, apart from minor general corrections and improvements, are:

  • The testing chapter has been restructured and in parts rewritten, also an emphasis on early testing has been added.
  • The discussion of robust object structures have been increased and also an example has been added. We hope this will better clarify why such an object structure gives more robust systems.
  • The notion of a development case have been introduced as a way to adapt a general process to the specific needs of an organization or a project.
  • Some people we would like to thank were unfortunately left out in the first printing and have now been added to the acknowledgment section, particularly Dave Bulman and Nils Lennmarker who have inspired the technology presented in this book.



Submit Errata

More Information

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020